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B ¥ J. g' K H L. 




/HvsU''.-) u- 


0. *■ 6 = i' 



*T •?■ TUBt 


From DntdcD u Tcpliu I 

I Ti^pliu to Pntfov 1 1 

!.— ThoVlMtlimd U 

MetropoJtUn Church on the 

Hradshio sa 

'Tublic iDstilutioDii and CoureaU 34 

The Jenn' Qattet 44 

Bipular Somes Ln Frmuo it 

The Vsttonal HoramcBt unong the 

T Mtfm iitif 61 

ThaBookofLUbantheHoIdKtt C8 

Fram Vngve to Budvsla. 73 

The GaatlH and B««m uf Schwmr- 

jWiiWnt > TA 

Frgu Builwtd* to Liiu 81 


liDi^-The Cnrpct ataiiuikcmtr sg 

iTIn- WsdluHUie. 91 

rcmdl Sdicol 95 

orinokl HiMvum 9G 

•tenrofSt-iToruHi. 87 

lit tathe Ui»uc of ui AnMriui Pea- 


Till)!!!- Librwj- IM 

Tb<- l^cliuv tiallny betwcsn lini and 

Vicwu lUO 


Vlaiiift.n Bettcb 12S 

Viiit to St. Ktvphea'a Tawor 127 

Llbe Menagerir at Soliiinhnmn 13a 

FnfaKhclwttihfT — FiihiDan^cn 

andDwIen in Guni: 139 

'-nighfai' DroMu* and Flower 

P#*ti»»I« Hi 

TV l*rnjiii«l Npw QtiiirtPf 149 

Till' (jnnrirr (if llii' Nnhltily uh) ihiit of 

ihr MiiniirMctiiirn. ..,. fSI 

The Sl»ip» of Vimtw ti.t 

Hoitntul* » Hi 

Smdkjr Wklk* leo 

KtoMurnMilraTit 164 


■^ m'NQAKT. 

OediailnirK. Ziaunilun'. Eslcrtift^, ud 

thw Nci^edkr Lake 171 

The UorutofHaiiMgUid theOnl}'** 17V 

The lUabau lud lUati IBS 

Till! Ahlipvof Murtinihurg 191 

Thi- Diuiubo fniu Uaab to ruth...... 196 

BtuU.— DcMh «0« 

Tlw Fair nt PmUi SM 

TheC«nKTi.-);itiimofNolilw 119 

lite lliiili;:!- nt IVath SSO 

Thu Itu^Tuui T(nrn — TurUsh Baths 

aiul Onnnttit 1'il);rim«. 234 

HolvU Btid CuUin at Pctlli S19 

Tlic HtmKnrian lAtenay Soday. and 

the lIuntforiaD bnguaeiA lU 

Orcii,or»udA Stt 

Pablic CoUectiofu tta 

ThoJowi of Pwili Mi 

Hoipitalof St. Rnchf S4T 

The Dasobc In the Central Plains of 


ThoBabcakaaud it* German Cciloiii>t> 3M 

Svnnta aod Brttrvatditn. — SftT 

TheHoutbcftbeSavo— — s«0 

Steamboat life 3«1 

Cataiactt of the DaAtibe. 343 

ANiKhliu tlic Mllitarr FniDticr. MS 

Political ImpoTtaucc of the KUlitarT- 

PirviitkY Mf 

The Lower Clwmra. »71 

VisittoaTtirkiihPuha S7S 

AtutTian Onom 177 

The HvcuIm Bath* at Kehndia tT9 

Upper VtSkj of ilic Ttlicnu, and Uk 

of the Bwdciwi. M4 

The KuTv of Tertfova and Slatina SS3 

KaruiNbet 198 

LusiM. TMnc'irar. and tho Baaat Vevcr 301 

H rat Shower. MB 

Finl liilirrnl uf SuiuhiDO MM 

ikcood Sliuwur tW 

Seccnd SunaUne 910 

Third Sbowcr..... „ 319 



The Cfdoniei and Lowlands of the 

BuMt 313 

ThoQghta'on the Feacefdl MigntioDi 

or Etir(^)eui Nation* 317 

Tbe StaToniaiu 319 

The Greeks 320 

IV It>lianB;aDd French. 331 

The Gennanic Nations 381 

Hw Snbordinate and Dependant 

Bhm 323 

"nicKBanati 327 

Siegedinand the Italian Prisoners 333 

Hw Fsiten and th^ Inhabitant* 341 

TheKmnanen.YazjKen, and Hsidacken 346 

Heaths of KeUkemet 349 

StnUweissenboT);. — Vesprira. 354 

Convent ofTibaoj.and the Flattenlske 365 
Baconf Foresti its Poets, Castles, and 
Bobbers 373 


Fiintenfeld to Oiatz 386 

Gi«t« 387 

Vrom Glitz to Leoben 394 

Eisenarzt and the Eisenherg 397 

TheStTiian Rocks 401 

The Abbey of Admont 404 

The Upper Valley of the Enns 407 

The Salt District of Stjria 408 

The Austrian Salt District. 413 

'nie Gaisberg 415 


Salsbarg 419 

FaieweO to Atutiia a* 



From Tshemovitze to Lcmberg. 432 

Soiatyn and StanisIaTor 436 

From StanislaTOT to Stry 440 

Stry _... 445 

From Stiy to Lemberg 446 

Lemberfc 44B 

The Polish Jews 458 

The Germanisation (^ Oalicia 463 

The Galician Nobles 467 

Orudek, Moabidu, and Taro^r 46t 

Loniat 477 

HiesTDT, Rlsno, and Tamor 480 

The Salt-works of VieUczka 489 

Cracow 498 

ToAftoTze 507 

Landskorona and Biala 5tO 

Austrian Silesia 512 


ThcKnhlindl 515 

Olmiitz 517 

The Hanna 520 

Anstcrlitz S3S 

Briinn SS3 

The Castles of the Great Austrian No- 
bility 52T 


The following pages consist chiefly of a condensed trans- 
lation of a work in five volumes, published by Mr. Kohl 
in 1842, under the title of " A Hxmdred Days in Austria," 
comprising an account of a tour through Bohemia, Axistria, 
Hungary, and the Military Frontier. To this has been 
added the concluding volume of that gentleman's work on 
Russia, containing his remarks on the Bukovina, Galicia, 
and Moravia; which, as not referring in any way to Russia, 
were omitted in the two first parts of the Foreign Library ; 
but which, on account of their intrinsic value, have been 
deemed a fitting sequel to the Austrian tour. 




To trftvet or not to tniTcI 

once more 
or (a rem&iii an 

the quesdoR. To wander, to 
d K^ioot out ronta lilu! a tree. 
Wliether 'twaa uabW in a. ninn to ttnd tin own )ittl«> gftrdcn, or to aim 
lunMlf Agaiiut s lea of troubles, uiil plough his way round our tcrrcatriil 
plaoet? A ItouHc, or a tent '' A warm nx»in. or a wiiidy seal in a jtost- 
comI) ? A Bhady tree, or a budless stalT ? One friend, or a tnoiuiuid fncndly 

I mutt own I had Iii'ard in a quirt little farm on the I>B.nks of tlic Elbe, 
th« L-acktiiig- uf hens and the crowing of cocks ; I had vitiied the peaceful 
eh«inb«n, and the coiv garclnt with its circlinf^ wall ; had seen the uoti- 
tented cattle fultrniiif; in ihfir sUlU, nnd the (rniptvr liiid >&id to me, 
"Might not all lhi« Vw thine? and niightst thou not <iit<l here all tliat 
thou welteM in the wido world, and bcRrest thou not in thy avra birasL a 
world that catniot ome to a birth for wajit of repoie i" — " Yes, if a wiah 
could cotnmaud rojioie, who wnuld fardc)!) bear, and groan and sweat he- 
aeath ■ losd of Inivclltng tn<iibh>ai''' I n-pUcd to my lulvUin^ friend, 
whispered many other things into his ear that were not intend*-!! for tha 
crowd, and conduded with these words: " Lmih, my dear friend, thu.« it 
is that neei«tnty makes hra>e men of tia, attd riitt-qiniva that seem full of 
great pith and moment, with thii tcapt-ct loeo much ^f the merit aMribcd 
to iJicm." Ro savin;[7, I once mosv took lenve of him, and stepped into 
tlie Saxon I'osiwwjfH that had been Handing for some time ready har- 
lussed in the court^-ard of the IKlif^^ncc oSktrn at Dreaden. I wsa nboiit 
to atort for Teplitx, there to connpi niyiclf to the )(vV[iinp of a Uoheniian 
«diicle, by the aid of which 1 hojwd to reach the drnp-roUiog Uiumlie, 
where I fully intended to enihurk on a steamer tliat should convoy aw. to 
Vienoa. After that 1 coutMupIated iutrustiug my pcnoa to a Ilnngarijii 
Baucrtetiffm, and altonintcly hy Iniid auid Iiy water, iioiiie times witli the 
aid of a living steed, and souietitiies by that of tlie niitny-honed power of 
the unquiet steam-engine, to pre«s forward to the confine* of Turkey, and 
"when 1 luul done all this, my puipne wm to return quietly to my uaUiu 

Such was my plan^ but in the execution of it I wiu delayed for full five 
voioutes, by a countryiDan of the gallant Folcoubridge. '^ A proper maa't 
ptctai*," u Portia uya; i. e. an £jigli«hmaii, mne rushing intotho court- 
yard, just as tlie horu!* were starting. His apjiearance was strJiing 
agugu. His aMai, I believe, bad been bou^t iu Itolv, liia trauwrs iu 



France, his cap in G«rnumy, snd his maDiien had been pidced «p emr* 
where. It did not rain, neYerthelesa he carried a bu^ umbrella to shield, 
him agiuatt the buu. He was out of breath, pUced himself right befora 
the horsefl, and having slightly adjusted his cravat and dusted his coat, he 
began a series of pantomimic demonstratioDB, addressed by tuna to the 
horses, the postiUon, and the conductor. The horses whom he had grasped 
by the bridle were the only part of his audience who seemed to underatuid 
him ; for he spoke neither I^tin, French, nor Italian, and not one mortal 
word of German. We made him out to be a passenger who bad oveisttud 
his time, and the diligence was stopped. He ran immediately into tho 
office, where be ptud me remainder of his fare, and then again, in mute 
despair, he rushed through the crowd of spectators, to gaze out into the 
street The conductors took him by the anu to lead him back to the car- 
riage, hut he broke &om them and ran into the street agun, where he 
stood gazing to the right and to the left, in erident anxiety. No one could 
guess the meaning of all this, and in a little time we should have left him 
alone with hit despair, if at the critical moment a valet-de-place, who 
came panting into the yard, with a hathoz in his hand, bad not afforded 
s solution to the enigma. My Englishman now took his place by my 
aide, and related to me that be was setting out with a determination to 
lint and inspect all the prortnoes of the Austrian empire. He appeared to 
me like one who had gone forth to tjll a field, but had forgotten nia plough 
at home. Even in English he was not very talkative. " Who can con- 
Terse with a dumb show?" as Portia says; so I found I had abundant time 
to meditate fiirther on the theme with which I started — to travel or not to 

All the charming vineyards, and all the comfortable connby-hoxes that 
cmiled over to us from the other ude of the Elbe ; all the cheerful Saxon 
vilifies of the Dresden pluo; all the 60,000 peaceful townsfolk of Dresden, 
whom we were leaving behind us — all seemed to be reproaching me for 
leaving them; and every time that a labourer by the roadside looked up 
at our wandering vehicle, he looked as though he would say to me, 
" Friend, stay at home, and earn thy bread like an honest man." Perhaps 
when Napoleon retreated over the same ground, after the battle of Culm, 
the Saxon villages may have spoken to him in the same strain. He might 
■till be reigniog in France, had he known better how to stay at home. 

After passing Pima, indeed all the way from Dresden to Teplitx, you 
pass over a succession of fields of battle. The War of liberation, the 
Seven Years' War, the Thirty Years' War, and the Husute War, have all 
contributed to make memorable the mountain passes of Bohemia; at 
Culm, at Pima, at Maxen, again and again at Culm, up to that battie of 
Culm which the German king Lotbair lost to the Bohemian Sobieslav, in 
1126, when Albert the Bear was taken prisoner by the Bohemians, much 
in the same way in wtuch Vandaomie was taken 700 years later by the 

At Peterswalde, we come to the Aostrian frontier. This frontier runs 
for the most part, along the highest summit of the Erzgebirge; but, 
stmuge as it may seem on a firootier of such ancient standing as that 
between Saxony and Bohemia, there exists to this day a boundary dispute, 
the existence of which, by the by, was only recently discovered, in con- 
sequence of the surveys rendered necessary for the magnificent map of 
Saxony lately executed The Saxon surveyors caoie to a frontier village, 


irfucb ihej took to belong to ihrnt own countiy, but tlw inliabitaoU «!•• 

t^arod tb^ were AutrUos, and iron Ute tuaug«ia awav. lu Uw tuam 

tbew riUagera are nid eotuUntty to hav« mftllad the visit of 

Auftriaa tax-collectori by declaring thcoiMlvM Swusu. Upoa the 

ail uiaji the riltagv lia«, in conwquance. beeii iiiaiLftd l>v a wtut« upot, 

land will coiitiuu« so til] the laboufe of diplooiatiats have det«nniiiod tmd« 

['^hat ro^ VI0S9 tbcae tuountaiuecrs an to hare a shcltvr BMigncd tiwm. 

'Hw biKebirg^- muNt iiot be sup))(t*t^ to be a acne* f^ muuntaia p^ra- 

lids [daoed aide by m\o. It is rwter a \atge pxtended mound, sloping 

IwsY to tli« nofth into Saxonv, but rising ttbmpUv on tlie Bo})emian nic. 

i£een from Raxoojr the chain prewiita nothing v<:r}- nlrikinj;, but from the 

~ eiman aid* it lookn like a huj^i- wnll girtin;; tlw laud. In tlw same 

IT, the Ti«wi fimm the mmniit arc tame, l<y>king towards Saxony, but 

cnt when th« ejre wondcra over the Eger and BiU ^allcjs (if Bo- 


** Hfravi^u! whiit Wautiful n)uiitr>' iai thai?" oxiOaiiiivd oae of our lady 

pasMnj^n, u no reached tbo lunimit ; ** only look, dt«p prodpioea aiM 

mitiintain ratin«ji; a widv plain, with towns aiid villa^ acacteied over it, 

while ill tho dbtance again, raouncaiitsneetocloicin thehoriaoB!"— "Tliia 

portion of our rM[dMld«lt |4anct," wc rt-plkd, " prMcnta iUttf to the 

•stranomcrs of the noon aa n brifflit squBic encloocd by ■ dark rim, and 

may be known to those le&nied persouif^ as the territory of Alpfat, 

or th« land of P«i. Perhaps they may infonn their students that tho said 

tcrritonr is an island, and that tlic dark (tnnie by which it is bounded is • 

niafs of liffht absorbing water. Here o^toa njth we call tlie tract Bo- 

lia, and if we know how to impart it to ihoo) wo mi^bt inform tho 

«f the moon that the dork circlioe mass is caused by light absorhii^ 

I £>r«Rta, and by yawning ravines. No doubt, in the same way in wbJch we 

Itprrwtrials oAeu talk of the man in the moon, do the learned then speak 

the vtrgia of the «arth. TI)o square i>i<«« of suifacv which we calL 

lieoiia, aa it oorresponds rery nearly with the riipo's p'^Ue^ may pasa 

her buckle ; and mien the oouutry, eowred with doiida and mist, aecms 

[idarkcr than on those days whMi the sunbeanu are immediately reflected 

■troia the siuface, the moonen perhaps say, ' The vircin's buckle loalu doll 

to-day :' or, in the coutrarr case, ' The rir^i has brightened up her 

buckln this nvorain^.' " Be this aa it may, ujion ooc point tlio Uohcnuani 

tnar fully rdy — noinely, tJiat the boundaries of thur country must bo ap- 

narent to the reiy st^olboys in the moon, to whom tlic linuts of Saxoav, 

[nuMBa. and other merely potitioaUy-bcnmded eouutries, must be utterly 


Tlw piece of Bohpoiia whicli first beeomea visible to the cnraptored ero 

' Uie traveller, fnini tlip Iwiglits of Nollendnrf, w tlie valley of Ute lui^ 

id so lovely ii tb« vi«w that ther» preaenta itMlf, that ctery one wbA see* 

for tlic firtt time, however he may have been pri!]i«rv(l livfoivliauil, will 

) likely to exclaim with our &ux votnpauiuu, " Heait^ti! wli:it Wautiful 

country is thatK" 

Along- winding roads the dili^eoee doaoenda giaduaOy into the valler, 
aooompaiiied the whole way by a troop of chiMrts, who, in auliangs for 
ninbonies and strawberries. Ivvy a little £rai)tHr*tribBl« on the tsareUar, 
anil greet him on hb vntrauco lAto a new couatiy with tha piMU aalutft- 
tion " Blemed be Jesus Christ." The three e^iee, whoM maga opm 
tboM bmrhts fluttered so firtaUy around the French leRioui^ have ecactod 



three monumenti opon the fidd of battle, and vekther-beatm Tetenni ira 
itaidoned then as aectiDels. En^iiah travellen, on piMbg the [dace, at« 
wont to note down very oon>dentioiuly how many htmdred wogfat of metal 
have gone to the compontion of each monument. Oar Ensliuinian wnta 
among hifl memoranda that the Atutrian wai large end solia, the PnianaD 
Tery amaJl, and the Ruanan remarkable for its elegaooe. 

la TepliU, not only the inos and pablic-hoiuee, but eren private biuld- 
ingB have each s distmguishing ngn. Tlius one bouse is called the Lyra^ 
anoth^ the Auget, and a third the Golden Ring. It is, if not more con- 
venient, at all events a much [nvttier and more ptctureeqoe way of marldor 
the houses, than omr 6uhion of numbering them, and premla throngn 
the greater part of Bohemia, and even in some of the adi<naing oountriea. 
To become well acquainted with Teplitz, oue should endeavour to wander 
about the place with one of the regular annual visiters. There are oertain 
sufferers from the gout who arrive there at fixed seasons, and may be looked 
for 03 confidently as a stork at her last year's nest, or as certain human 
fixtures way be reckoned on in th«r accustomed coffee-rooma. Such peo- 
ple gradually conceive for Teplitc almost as much interest as for their own 
nomes, and when they airire, can have no rest till they have satisfied them- 
selves that Clary Caatle standa where it did, and that all the public walki 
are in due order. They hasten to the bath-rooms to receive the obsequious 
salute of each well-remembered attendaat, and enter the glasa magaane* 
to admire the new colours and ^shions; for every year is as certun to 
bring its new colours into the Bohemian glar^ mauu&ctories, as to usher 
in its old ones to the Bohemian meadows. 

The invalid who viuts the hatha of Teplits passes the first few days at 
an inn ; and during this time, he abandons himself to the delights of re- 
viewing the old scenes, till be is able to find a private lodging at the Three 
Cossacks, or at the Paradise, or at the Palm-tree, or at the Prince of Ligne. 
Then be calls in his physician, and delivers himself over to the prescriptions 
of the place, rises early, and drinks most acnipulously his allotted portion 
of sulphur water, which glides through his lips to the enchanting accom- 
paniment of a band of music ; he is careful not to miss the promenade at 
noon in the garden of the Castle of Clary, even though he should not be 
able to participate in its pleasures otherwise than in a rolling chair ; and 
eats, dimks, sleeps, and reposes, accordingly as his doctor directs him, in 
whose hands he b even as a watch — wound up, regulated, and made to go. 
From the castle hill the view is most beautiful and comprehensive, ex- 
tending over nearly the whole valley to the scources of the tributary streams. 
I made a pilg^mage to the summit, in company with some Poles. In a 
small village, on our way, we met with some PoUsh Jews, who are &e- 
quendy to be seen in Bohemia. They carried in their boxes a variety of 
httle ornaments for sale among the peasants ; needles, pins, beads, &c. 
They call such an assortment of merchandise SpindlAi, a word half 
Polish and half German ; and they told us they had been to Riga, Brody, 
Warsaw, and Cracow. They spoke Bohemian, Polish, German, and Rus- 
sian, and were a fair sample of the Jew pedlars that generally wander 
about the Slavonian countries of Eastern Europe. In Russian Poland, 
they told us, they used formerly to gain most money, but the government 
did not allow them to go there any longer. 

Ijke the whole country round Teplitz, the castle hill is evidently of 
Tolcanie origin. It is a tolerably regular cone, rising 1600 feet in height 



fiom the ntTToandin^ plain. A ^nUe of twAiittful nnkii «no!rclM tlw 
iiiiiJ<Jli.>, and tlio Eummit. an extinct crater, a crownc<l b^ Utc niius of tliv 
caxtlc iv)uch was deitiovfil bv firr. From Rniong the oalts may be dii- 
eoTwed the most beautiful laniiicniic^, (■homiiiiL;!)' framod by tJie tpreoding 
ImiK-lKs of tlic atotclv trcet ; but all that (lie pvn oui do to ct'iirvy lui 
tdm of pictum such as these !s idle and ImpcrtinoDt, niid cvni the ]M>uci] 
mav timidly shrink from the task. On line da_vi the hill in swanniii^ tilth 
riflitcrt, wlio form for tHvimelvi-« a ttmpnrnry »«tllcinent, in (ho corners, 
umlcT thr poi^ics, mid on the ternii^cs nf tlu; ruins, luid wntcli tlw (uii aa 
b» descriliM hii morvelloua oourso, till bv vanishes bebiiiJ tho Cu'IdImmI 

The wondroiu efTerb of the lip;ht at enntet, with die endless fjradatioBS 
of its cnloiin, and all ihv f^lonet of tlie eviriiiiig *r« had spent toffettier, 
had flxciKNl our PoUs to stich a d^fp-ee, that, M wp [lussed ihrnuf^li tlie 
girdle of o«k«, tbe jilsce «aa axadv to Hug agaia with the national cniif;^ 
of Jtacze I'^ha nesginaia (ri-t iit Poland not forsaken), and <irltf va 
wybrsfxtrh. The latter in ouu of th« mart ix'aiilirul «f all the patriotic 
nclodiea of Polnnd. The words nni nearly a* follows ; — 

" ^\1ieii thou ficest a ship hr tlie aea-«hu[«, tost about by the stonn, 
and east upon a trejuliemuH tlio<t). Iks by the fury of the naves than by the 
lault of the pilftt ; oh, then, deijjii to «h«l a te«r for tliat poor sliip, for it 
will nrntind thcc of tlio fate of unha|ipy Polnnd. 

"\Vhcn thou beholdest a volcano, a ^ant ammt)' mauntaiti», pouring 
forth lav-a, and eniittinf^ imoke, while in ild bosom u bnniiiig an eternal 
fire I oh, then, Temtinbcr, that nich is the Io« of lua country that burnt 
in the Ihwuhi of tlic Polf." 

TIk' >Iill««ehaiipr. thrve tliousaiid feet high, is the loftitrat auniri^ tlie 
control mtiiintains, the whole of which may he wen at nw from ibi Himmit. 
These central mountains an- nil r\tinrt voleanoe^ ajtd all of A tolerably 
ngtilar conical fnnn. Tli>* HDn.* I>n>nks hero in <|uiek luceeitiioii ibrouga 
t'ltoochnin* of mfltintAtna ; the Central mouiit«ia« anA the Knt^lurpfe, and 
it ii remarkable that just at tliis iioitit. where the water forced its way 
ibrou^t) the bHli. the violetu-e of tlie firn should likewise have been so 
CTcai. Wiien llnhitinia vMt »li11 n lake, th^te eeiitral iiiounlains must 
have boruG «omc memhlancG to the Upaii islandF, a frroup of voleaiiocs 
■crowded U^etber, and surroiuKkd hy ttaier. Tlic Milte<ehauc;r ta ulso 
ECaDed tke Donnersberp. or Hill of Thunder. May not this name refer to 
I kmnote period, when loud detonations were yet licard within the moun- 
tain's wumh? Arc not many bills that bear the name of OoDiienberp 
extinct r»lrano«s? 

It K diAieult to imaj^nc a more delij^btful prospect (ban that from tbe 
tumintt of the Millmchnuer. Tlie distant blue line* that L'luiid tJie horizoa, 
belong; on one nde to tliv RiesengetHrge, or Giant Mnuntain* ; on tlie other, 
to the naarwt hills of the Bohenuan forest, while lowanla the ifoitli th« 
rplains of ccntnd Bobeinia lay a|rTead out before you, m> that you may yield 
tbe flattering l»-lii-f of having more tliaii hiilf the kingdom at your feet, 
and of eofiliiiiplaiing at oim glauee, the £fL'ni> of the joys and sorrows of 
wmol million* of human being*. You behold the vr-mels thot dot tho 
miliKD of the Kibe, but i>f whose presence the dwclkrrs by tbe Eger. wIimri 
ytn comprehend in the *anie ginncc, hare no Kucpieioii. Von see tbe cnr- 
riagm diiit roll ft>rtli frniii tlie little town of E^lxMitz, unknown to those 
tbat dwell in the valley of tbe BUa. Tho weather vu mmatkably farour- 


ible when we reached the (ommit of tbe MHleacJuuer, ^ tir wm el — ■ 
and tramparent, and the eye roamed nncomtained oror the moat distant 
objects. A few clouds indeed were flying; about, and a thunder-ttorm wa* 
expending its bay on a distant portion of the landacmpe. Tbe whole Duke- 
dom of SchUn uid Muniifiiy, for instance, was overcast for a while with 
grey clouds that menaced with thunder and haiL The fowls there wer* 
scuddinff with ruffled feathers before tbe storm, the dogs were cree[nng into 
their holes, and the men as they barred their doors, and made thor houssM 
£ut, seemed to say: — "Heaven be merciful to us? Is the last day come?" 
— " Ye fools of Munzifay," thought we on our Olympian thrones, " b* 
warned by this of the shortness of earthly sufferings! and then we looked 
into the country of TepHtz, and into the circles of Leitmerits and Bunslau, 
•miltng in the tranquil light of sunshine, and enjoying themselves in 
the cheerfulness of the atmosphere. Seven thousand human beings dwell 
there upon every square mile,* and from eveiy square mile seven thousand 
voices rue in praise of the beautifiil weather. Without umbrellas they walk 
forth, and in uncovered carriages do they take their diversion I Short-sighted 
mortals that they are ! Oh that they could but see the cknids that are 
gathering behind the Krkonorski hills, as the Bohemians call the Giant 
mountains. The mischievous wight Rubecahlf is preparing to blow over 
towards them a mass of vapour that will spoil their diverson, by pouring- 
down some millions of drops of run. 

On the summit of the most elevated peak of the Donnersberg ataodf a 
wooden chair under a roof, sud to have been erected for hit own conve- 
nience by the late King of Prussia. Here he was wont to abandon him- 
self for nouTS together to the enjoyment of the glorious landscape. It is 
a throne fit for a kin^, nay, for a. god, and I am surprised that tbe ancient 
Kings of Bohemia should not have chosen this spot for their coronation 
instead of the Vissehrad, on tlic banks of the Mold&u. Here on the Don- 
nersberg, within sight of the whole kingdom, while invested with crown 
and sceptre, they might have received ttie homage of all their subjectB at 
once. The eye ranges to the eastern mountain frontier, from behind which 
rises the Bohemian sun, and follows the glorious orb in his course till hs 
unks again behind the western rampart of the kingdom. Here the noble^ 
while uttering the oath of allegiance, might have l)een impressed with the 
vastness of their fatherland, and the littleness of its minute parts. As So- 
crates once said to Alcibiades, though he, like the Prince of Schwarxenberg, 
had his ninety-nine lordships— even so the King of Bohemia, before re- 
ceiving the homage of his magnates, might have taken them each by the 
arm, and said to them : — " Look, magnate, what you see before you is our 
common fatherland Bohemia, but that little misty point which you see 
yonder, marks the extent of dirt with the possession of which Heavea 
has blessed you, and of which you are bo immoderately proud. You, Duke 
of Friedland, you will find the dukedom hiddenin the valley behind yon hill; 
and you, Imperial Prince, by tlie grace of God, of Schlan and Munzifay, 

' Wliencver a mile is spoken of in the coarse of the present work, a German mile ia 
nnderstood. The German mile is equal to alx>ut 4 3-7th Knglish miles, and cunse- 
qucntly n German aquorc mile is equal to rather morethan 21 English square miles, 
or U) about 13,680 acres. 

f Rubezalil ia the name of a golilin supposed to inhabit the Bicscngebirgc The 
legendary Icoe of Qermany ia full ot tales, in which Ktibezahl plays a part. 

m matt wait % little bdW we can find nut ^nr principality', (ara punng 
idoui vooBvtiis h Tor a moment. Aa Co you, combative gi>nU«m«ti of tfaa 
Benoawtfaali there is rotr \kxo», a buiuI dear strnik bcyood llic clnnd ; 
cut the streak up into little pioces, and each pictr will be the territory of 
one of you, ut* onljF tvo of the pi«cM thatbMong to tlie hi^h wise couo- 
(dim«n of B<>min ntid Rnkonitz. Be adviaed, g«ntlcm«ii> Mid live msoc- 
ahly together, like e^od oeig'hbonn, instead of mtunp racli otlicr't tnraatc 
ior B fragnuDt of tho straak. And tioir, honourable gvntlrmen ami coun^ 
eilkn^ Iomc roimd upon the n-link. l-oolc at th« spires of Raubnits, of 
Lobositx, of Trebnite, of Umian, nnd of Anscha i ami (here on thoce e£ 
Bilio, Brux, nnd Dtix ; c«« how coiiW tlie gmolte ruHji up from anonr 
yoodar ootlage^ or from antong tbooe, or thM«, or tho«e. Siw liuw Ids 
nwtlca in tytrj comer, and bow tb« mountains ^rdle the whole pictan^ 
nod liow the nvere run sparklinfT through the bndncape. All tliis is our 
great aiMl beantifu] fnthorland. The whole in great, the fragments trivial 
Lm us ihftn stAud raitlifully aiid Gnidy for tin wholv, and riovr, gctitlenien^ 
oomo and set me aty crown upon upon my bend." 

Should ika KiDg'of Bohptnin then have bad thff wit to select for the 
nomant of fata ocroostioii, the period of a rainbow such as we hod tha 
pkanre of grwtiv, tbe spleDdour of the sol<-iiinilr would be complete. A 
gmn of cloud*, Ihni smiTWtl to havr dclJiched it»<?lf fmni the main army 
whin had bven mnviiig orer the countrr th^ whole day. and thxt now 
poured down its abundanee doee before the summit of the niouutain, 
•Abidad oathe glorioat speclade. The golden pearls were dr<:i{>])iiig down 
llmKt within reach of ua, and oa the sun had lunioat set, the rainbow waa 
•toetdied ovt above our heada. Gnidimlly, however, we became mora 
nearly acquainted with the damp materiajs whvnwf the bow waa oon- 
ttmeted, and OKwatoDed by the liquid seven -col oure<l genu, w« were glad 
to find a shelter among the mouy Inita of the I>onneriberg. that finin about 
as nmous an hotel nil a trari-llcr nii<^tit wish to sec A uumbcrt^f small, low 
hots, built of stone and dniperied with moss, form a close circle aiDitnd a 
amall open rpore. In the centre is a kind of orchestra for BuhemitiQ 
noaeaUM, who plav ercrr day duiini; Uic Tvpliti kwou. Some of thc»e 
HMW huts are rc^»hrncnt rooms, others are fitted up at skt-piitg apart- 
aeittB, and in one there is even a musenm to ilhitlmic the iiatiinil curi- 
ositinof the tnounbun. Encb door is decorated with gome uvrtrical inscrip- 
tion, from the pen of the pnutiral Iwwl, whot»e daughter prespnU to eocfa 
giiest on his departure, a neat litflc iioitg%y composed of llouers of the 

It bad rained heavily while we wen? ^heJtt^rGd in the mossy caUneta oa 
tfw mountain, and when we issued forth on our downward jnuruey, our 
, girid« told ua the peasants near Tm>hlilz would l*o cerluin to 6tid great 
qasntitiea of garnets j not that the garnets came down from heaven in the 
lain, hot baeanaa, aftern rain, they were more easily detw-ted when nimed 
Dp by the plough. Trreblitit ia a village at the foot of the ('entrat Moun- 
tains, where ganieCs are not merely found thus by itccident, but are lik»- 
wiee earefully dug for, *■ TTie com, however, wUl have suflVnil from the 
njn," addnd ray guide. — *■ Why an?" — ** Because h. fell thn>ui*h a rain- 
Imw. The run ^t falls through a ninhow nlwaya brMds a mildew, anil 
if it falls on a newly sown fii-ld, it burm the com away." — *' Why this ia 
tdownri^ wtthcheraA," said I. — " Ay, ay," resumed our guale, " we have 
LirildbM and davib enough here, On yonder hUlt wlwrtyoo iMtfaa naatf 


tliere'i a care called the Devil'i Cave, that is full of dwm.* I bid to 
banslate this to my French companion, who philoKrohicallj exclaimed, 

ti Ti t . ..t r_ ..I j__ _>' . J c^ n. -t^.j f^ " 

" Partout on parte pltudes demons que desanget. En France t^eitlat 

those" And to say truth, it is atnuige, that throngfaoat Chriftian Eoropei 
■o many beautiful and picturesque objects should be pointed out to oi ai 
DerU's Caves and Devil a Bridges. Deril'i Rocks and Devil's Leaps. Why 
does not fancy sometimes attribute the worlEmansbip to angms? Tm 
Greeks would at least have talked to us of Bacchus' Cavea and Diana'* 
Judges ; and bow much more pleasing and cheerful are the imara called 
forth by such names, than by constant allusions to a dirty, ugly, black, 
lanky-tailed devil! And then, how abominable a snperstitton must that 
be, which amiDunces woe to the land over which the lovely Iris has swept 
with her many-coloured train ! From what perverse imagination can such 
a notion have sprung ? It ts that there is something peculiarly gloomy in 
our northern blood ? Does not the Bible itself teadi us to had the rain- 
bow as a heavenly messenger of peace ? 

Amid such discourse, my Frenchman and I had lost nght of our party, 
and suddenly found ourselves alone. He became all at once a&ud he 
should have to pass the night on the mountun, and commenced a series of 
lamentations on the shortness of German beds, and the scanty dimensiona 
of German quilts ; on the bod teeth of the German ladies, and on the inca- 
pacity of the Germans to prepare so simple an article of food as a lait am 
povlet, which insipid decoction, it seems, is to be had nowhere save in the 
" Capital of Civilisation." In proportion as the uight grew darker, he 
became more and more eloquent on German superstitions, and on the absurd 
tales of ghosts and goblins, in which the people believed so firmly. I 
consoled my companion, however, by assuring him I would lead him the 
right way ; nor did we miss it, but arrived safely at the little village where 
we had left our carriage prior to our ascent, and where we now found the 
rest of our party awaiting our arrival. 

The following morning was again bright and cheerful, and we omitted 
not to aviul ourselves of it for another excursion to the environs of Tepliti. 
In addition to that of an esteemed friend, I had the company of two Bo- 
hemians from Pr^ue, who told us much of the national efforts now making 
in Bohemia, of the learned socie^es at Prague, and of the patriotic balls 
that had been given there during the preceding winter, when the ball 
rooms were each time decorated with wnite and red, the national colours 
of Bohemia. No German, nothing but Bohemian was allowed to be 
spoken at these balls, and the guests were saluted, on their entrance, fay the 
stewards in tlie Bohemioa dialect, which, not many years ago, was uni- 
versnlly looked upon as a mere peasant's patois. The public announce- 
ment of the bolls was to have been also made in Bohemian ; but to this the 
police refused their consent, permitting, however, by a way of compromise, 
that the balls should be announced at once in both languages ; a plan 
very generally adopted for other aQuouncements, besides those of patriotic 

Our first visit was to the convent of Osseg, one of the most ancient in 
Bohomia, several portions of the buildiug dating back as far as the year 
1 1 96. In the passages and corridors of convents, you may generally meet 
vrith a number of pictures, illustrative of the history of the religious order 
to which the convent belongs. Sometimes a pedigree of all the convents of 
the order, sometimes pictures of miracles performed by former mcmks and 


kliboU, And ■MnctimcA portr&its of Uip popi-s tliat luro been menibcra oF t)» 
order. Here at Om^g. aoeorUingly, I miidQ the ao^ustnunce of tha six 
popes who bad belong^cd to tbe Cutertian order. 

AaWBg lh« liuge pnintu)^ iti tb» muiiuter}', Uicrc wen tlirec thnt 
particularly iot«n«l«l us. On« reprR«.-nt«d a Iramed Frendininn, uf the 
iwmo of AlanuB, sitting lu a iliep))«rd ittnmig hn slwep, in a siilitary part 
of tho wood. Tlitt wuithv Piiriaiou, tl>e quintcMcace of all leiuiiine and 
■cionce, had dticovered tJ»t it wu onlv in i)ie simjilent occupations that » 
man eiijo^Ml ml happinesi, nud iiii]>rf«i«tl with Ltiin Ix-livf, ht lind laid 
aside hi* doctor's cap and gowa, to take up th« cronL- of n pUilosopKical 
kcc|>cr of aheop. The second represented too Abbnt Him of ^Vnututana, 
wniiiienitK away into thn fnn-«t, to reflect ujmn vrKat ap|)e»recl lo him an 
uiiintcUigible r««M in tlio Bil>i9, that " iN>fiire tbe Lard ycar^ paiu away 
tike iiiuuivuts, and oetiturie^ like thoug'hta." Cominp iato tbi: Vfooi, a bira 
rites, otid so charnu the alibut with it* song-, that ne follows deeper and 
dc-Piwr into the reecMU of the fixrejtt. When the bird ceases, the abbatj 
reg7<eltiu^ the ihortoeta of tin luclody, tunis ogaiu lioiiieward, but is Mir- 
pnsed In fiiiil his convent in ruins, and a iicir one erected by ita side. Tlie 
mniiku, however, who tlwoll there, are atl stfaiij^ers; and, on inquiry, he 
leanu chat be i» now in the year I3GT, wlivt^as it was in IIGT that he 
statted on his walk, so thnt he has hn-ti lUtc-iiiug ti> u bird for 200 years. 
Satisfied now of the truth of ho!v writ, li"* pravs God to take liim up into 
UearoH. On a tlunl picture wiva another tistertinn of the name of 
Uniiiel, who studied and rend m iudufuli^bly in his solitude, that the 
lUflies of hiii Imly zeal istrunl forth at lug lingws* ends, so that he could 
Itold then), at niplit, hke so many tittle tallow candlea before his book. 
This alh-jcory is a beautiful mie ; for do doubt there is witliiD the human 
\trvaat a scit'- illuminating |iawer, that enables tliv powcaor to rau) tho 
inyiU'ries of God witliout the iiiil of a teacher ; but in tlie way tl» 
juiiiKer has nlne<-d hit futrjcct before uj, it loaea all dij^itv, and looks 
rather aa U' tne artist had designed to turn tlie matter into ridicule. 

In the picture -^fuU try, in the upper rooms of the convent, we were 
muclt intervited by two |tai-trnitii of Luther and Melancthoii. They uo 
painted on wood, nud marked ivith tho initial of Aibrecht Oliier. Luther 
gave them to his sister, a nun in a Luiatiau ainvent, wlio remained ti'ue 
to Rome to her end. 'Die hujo-tian nunnery wiu, and still in, a d«|wii> 
dency of Ot»eg, and thus it was tlint the picliurs canic hither. 

In the Witutiful park of the CiswttJaii.') «« enjoyed mapnillcent views of 
the Bila valley, and, on (join;; to the caqi [Kinds in tlie ^-den, a few 
crumbs of bread brought huixlredt i^f lusty carp to tlie surface in a minute. 
The miiok who sliowed us over the ulacr, tohJ us these were only the small 
resenroint, to furnish the daily supply; tlie Urge tishpoiids, he said, were 
farther awav. Hv told u* also, tnat the convent possessed twenty-four 
rillageat betides a separoco estate of six villap^ for the abbot's private um. 
As MOO as we pass tlip Enjfebirgv we find things ofwliieli tlie name ouly 
is known farther north. With us th«*e wealtliy almscirinj eouvaota an 
mere tltiags of romance, but licre in Bobomia you see them and fml theta. 
The pteteut abbot of Ossog, Mr. Saleoui KrDger, is spoken of as a highly 
diatin^ished and amiable man. Wo wcra sorry not to be able to iubIm 
any nearer aoqnaintauce with him, tbaa was afforded us by his portnil, 
painted by Professor VogeL 

The nmreat of Oas^ lies Inunediately at the foot of the Engvbirgst 

10 racat dbesden to txplttz. 

wlumee jm drive down into the dain to Uis Cwtle of Wddstan, wai Am 
■nuU dependant town of Dnz. The artutical treasom of tfaia eartle m 
of the highest interest, and may be enjoyed with the graator aatialulMa, 
aa they are not arranged with any view to ryrtera or completences lOw the 
odlectioQa of a German onivenity. The pwntinga decorate the cottomaiy 
Btting-roonu of the owner of the cs«tle, and sonu and ottomana aeem to 
Tw1i<iit<' the Insure and comfort with which the jnctonal representatioDS 
are daily enjoyed. The museum of natural history is chiefly iUustratxTS 
cf the natural pecoliaritiei of Bohemia. The mile d'armea u connected 
with the castle, and the libraiy adjoins the ownn-'s cabinet A beantifbl 
petore in most of our public collections has to me an abandoned and o^ 
phanlike look, while the statues and antiques are crowded together withont 
Bannony or connexion. In a prirate mansion, on the contrary, every thin^ 
seems to hare found its own place, and to harmonise with the boiUing, 
with the men that dwell there, and with the scenes by which they are sor- 

It is to the portraits of the celebrated Duke of Friedland, by Van Dyk, 
that our attention is naturally fint directed, and should even the host of 
Metschen, and Dows, and Rubenses, by which they are surrounded, be 
confounded in the traveller's mind with the Netschers, Dows, and Rubenses, 
which he has had elsewhere to pass in review, yet never, I am satisfied, wiD 
the features of Wallenstein be effaced from his recollcetion->-featurefl 
which he will nowhere be able to look upon as here. There are two 
portraita here of the duke. In the one he is painted as a young man; 
and in the other, as a gray-beaded warrior. The comparison between the 
two pictures is highly interesting. There the youth stands before yon, 
with nis light curly hair, of which a lock falls coquettisbly upon the wre- 
he o d ) while a small neat moustache u carefully turned up at the end, with 
an evident view to effect. The face is a lengthened oval ; the nose is 
handsomely formed, and the eyes, beautifidly expressive, are, if I remem- 
ber righdv, blue. An azure cloudless sky forms the hack ground. The 
same nob'e features, but hardened and stem, mark the second portrmt. 
The smooth skin is furrowed by innumerable lines that seem to bear testi- 
mony to violent passions and chequered fortunes. The hair of the head 
has growu thin, while the moustache, having lost its graceful curl, is 
changed into a wilderness of bristles, many of them standing stiffly out 
like those with which Retzsch has often known how to give such expres- 
Bve effect to his outlines. The old weather-beaten countenance looks 
angrily and imperiously down upon us, like the wrinkled bark of a sturdy 
old oaik. The sword is half drawn, as about to give the signal for battle. 
Gloomy scattered clouds are sweeping over the Imck ground remnants of a 
recent storm, or tokens of fresh levies that are to expend their electricity 
in new batUes. The azure sky of peace that smiled upon the youth never 
returned for the duke, aa it has often done for the ag^ and retiring war- 
rior when his battles are over ; it was among the gloomy agitations of his 
career that Wallenstein fell. A portion of his skull is preserved at the 
Castle of Dux, and has been duly examined by phrenologuts. The pro- 
tuberances discovered there have been carefiilly numbeivd and ticketed. 
Among them maybe seen No. 6, Firmness; No. 7, Cunning; No. 18, 
Boldness; No. 19, Reflection; No. 20, Vanity; No. 21, Pride and Love 
of Glory. ^ The partizan with which he was stabbed is hkewise shown, and 
his embnudered collar, stained with the blood that flowed from the deadly 



voani Alio a letter vritteo hy hit own hand, eonniftndinj^ tho exccutioa 
of xome dtixens who hkd eema against the empcxor. 

Tti* MctuTQ of hia fint wife h*ag% hy the iide of that of tlie yoDtliTul 
duk«- Th« cspt«Mion of her face is beautiful. So much an, lUu the 
beholder finds it difficult to tcnr hinudf froai tli« psiiitiitj^. It U ijutto a 
type of Bohemian beauty, and as stioh ougtit to be studied and got by 
bMft bj fivcrj ethnold)2^t. /Vj be ndnmees futlier int« the oountrv. he 
will emiitaiitly meet with suniUr brgv daHc eyM, a amilu onU IteaJ* 
bUck hair, and melancboljr cut of countenance 

AmoBg the &nitly portraits, our i;^<]o cnllM) upon va to noticv some 
MVDM in tlte Spauiuli War of Sfdumt, m h« very innocently characteti»«d 
the War of SuoccAaon. A reniarkalflv pretty pti-ture ntLi pointed out by 
liim as that of tho Prince*! of Si'tiieiltiiig, wlin, he Kiid, had "lotl her- 
self very mueh" «nce it watpoirited, in savinc wirich, he simply mennt to 
iafnmi us, in hb Bohemian -uermati, that Time had not hilcd to leave hia 
tracw upon thn lady'n niiintctuuice. An we were taking Icare, wa w«(* 
advited m jir«l; another opnortunity of payin;^ our reopecU to the pntftent 
owner of tlio castle, our guide snurin^ os that the Count was Tory " for- 
ward" to strangent. 


On leaving Teiilitz yoa have to pan the Miltelj^bir)^ or Ccatnl 
Monataiai, The boHcmian Innl take* three minute« to dn this, a Bohenuaa 
eMehman tJinw hmirs. From th(«o hills yon deswnd iitto the monhy 
country, in which ihu Elbe and Ejcrer unite tlwir vratcn. Even ll tM 
waters mingle here, so also do the elements of population ; for there are 
here three famoui Bohemian tiiwui lying cJoae toother : Lobositx, I^it- 
menu, and Thereneni tadt. T1)e fint, Uirough which the traveller pasact, 
ii a eomfortlcM dty of Jewa : the second, seen only at a diatance. has 
the appearance nf a thriving mtuiufacturiog place ; the third, eiamtnej 
at givaler leisure, is the mott important fortress of Bohemia, and the 
utoat breakfaatiiig' station for tbiwe who Ktart from Teplitx iit an enrlv hour. 

The buililing' of Theresietistadt was completed, not by Afaria Ttierota, 
but hy Joseph, in honour of her mentorv- It is a strong fortr«ffl, Bur- 
rounded bj; uiunheii, uud still u virgin, though more tluiu »isly v^nrti old. 
She wad c»iirt<^ hy Naitolron in IHIO, and his bridal envoy Vniulsniiite 
waa, it muM. bo sdniitted, received within the coy lady's walls. It wnq not, 
liowwar aa a oonqueror, but simply as a priioner of wsr. The ancimt 
nuiden's wardrobe mutt have cost a pretty penny in Iter time, aiwl her 
maiuteoance must Mill be expeiuive, ior every thing about htr is nf tho 
SBiartcft and tho l>«st ; and »e indeed it onght to be. for at her girdle ah» 
onriaa tho key of the wliule of nonhum BoTmnia, and the suitor that coa- 
quera her scniplea, may liave all her land along with her. Her cnllectioa 
of pearls ifl of ineaUtnable value. We saw them in hnge piles in the pnbKe 
•quatv^ wborv tbcy looked for all tho worU like so many bomb* and cu- 

Amoug the prisoners or cfwivicli* »t TherMien«ta«It, 1 reinarked the eoo« 
ndei^blc care that hud been token to lighten the weight of their fetters. 
The thick iron ringa vfaicli liang looie on the leg, were supported by ft 
inui bond of leauer ikrappad rsood the tlii^ ao that ibe iron did not 


raeaa with ita full weigfat npon the flesh. The amagcment U one Uut 
deserves to be imitate^ wbeneTer it is felt that a criminal ia laden with 
ehuns for security's sake, and not merely for the infliction of in co wa n t 
torture. There are cases enou^ still in Europe, where no one inqmrea 
whether the fetters, resting on the ancles, eat their way into the fleeh 
or not. 

The valley of the Eger is the most beautiful part of Bohemia, and abo 
the best part known to the rest of Europe. Tlie population is chiefly 
German, and our proverb respecting Bohemian villages tias no application 
here, where there are manv villages which no one must be ignorant of if 
be would pass for a travelled man. These are villages of the circles of 
Leitmeritz, Saati, and Elnbogen, bordering on Saxony, and only project- 
ing at their southern extremities into the country* of the genuine Etohe- 
mians of Stockbohmen. The whole of Bohemia is divided into sixteen 
drcles, of which three border on Saxony, three on Silesia, three on Bavaria, 
and three on Moravia. Three are central, and border on nobody, and 
one, the drcle of Budweis, borders on Austria. It u only the threis cen- 
tral circles, the core of the kingdom, that are StochbokmUck, or thoroughly 
Bohemian, in all the other circles a large portion of the population u 
German. The most populous are the three that border on Silesia- In that 
of Koenigingrfitx, there are as many as 6900 inhabitants to the (German) 
square mile. The least populous is that of Budweis, where there are only 
2800 inhabitants to the square mile. The circles in the valley of the 
Eger have from 4000 to 5000. 

The different parts of Bohemia differ quite as much in the quality as in 
the quantity of their population. In the north and nortfa-eas^ the Saxon 
and Sileuan circles, uie people are industrious, and the country is full of 
manufactories and commercial establishments of every kind. In the south 
and Boutb-weet there is more of grazing and tillage. How great the 
difference must he, is shown by the difference in the rate of wages. In 
the north, in the orcle of Leitmeritz, a common labourer earns from 
five to seven grotehen a day ; in the south, in the circle of Tabor, only 
from two to four groscken.* These were the current wages when I was 
there, and people assured me they might be looked on as a fiur aven^ of 
ordinaiy times. 

My coachman was a genuine Bohemian. As we were passing though 
the gate of Theresienstadt, he told me that we should find no more 
Germans between that and Prague. " At Koenigingi-atz, however, you 
come to the Germans ag^, and so you do at Budweis and Fiben. AU 
round our country the Germans are everywhere peeping over the border." 
Hereupon I began to turn it over in my on-n mind, that tins land belong- 
ed to the Germanic Confederation, and then I began to speculate upon 
what the people themselves might think of the same confederation. I found 
it impossible, however, in any language, to make the people understand 
what I meant, and I believe that there are few of them that have any no- 
tion of what sort of tiling the Germanic Confederation may be, of wliich 
they, nevertheless, form a part. Probably not one Bohemian in a hun- 
dred has ever heard the confederation spoken of I once saw a Bohemian 
most unmoderately angry on reading in a German hook this sentence : 
" Prague is one of^the handsomest cities in Germany." 

' A grotch is rather more than an English pcun v. 



EttMdaot ftUeupt ft (IcsciipUon oftbe Bobemiui Yillaga tlirouf^ which 
we^iJMd lAsrlMTiDg' TttcTustBafUdt, for tlioaeh we Germans pmf<?&s lo 
know BO litclci abutit tltem,* yet wb &ra nil &iniTiiir with the Umentstioni 
of thow vba hare uiadv a iteanr 8cquuiiit«nce with lh«n. I will tK>t( 
however, repput ili«« melundiol^ ditties about dirt and di»onl«T, for I 
kiiow of pluses in Gpniiiiiiy, ay of larjj* diMrirts, wlwnj the ]>upula- 
tiot) lire in qait« aa icnich dirt as the llohcmianf do. Hliat attt«ct«d my 
atti'Jilion most iii these villa^^ were the chai'Octeristic littl« bootlu thai 
we saw erected la every mnrk«t [i1ao«. n'iih lh«ir German Slavwiic watvs 
and itiKiiptiont. A boath of this lort ii called a Krantk, itnra tlie Ger- 
man word Kram, and in it are usually diiplayod for salo a pile or two of 
tuules pears, a plate of bout cherries, and some wheatcii rollj of Tariuiu 
Ibmu, amang which the 6andaor ani the rokANuAek seem tn bs mMt 
Dopttlar. A few pots of flower*, by way of decoration, arc >cldom want- 
ing-, and in the dark background niny uxually ht? teeti the giusrdian spirit 
of the pliice, in the sb^ie of « Httle old man Hitting (ileatly, like a coDtem- 
plativc philofupher, waiting for customers. 

Ponin^ througli a drea^ and badly cidciTated country, in comparison 
with the neighbonrhood of L«itmeritx, wc arrived at ^Veltnu, situated on 
the Moldau, tlie cluef river of Bahetnis. Melnik, at the mouth of the 
IMoldou, we saw only at a diataace. Jlclnik is celebrated for tU wiiit; and its 
hops, but thw hitler pint of tU celebrity i$ nroliahly of ihtt carlirr dute, 
for md is the Itohdniim word for ho^ and tJiu name of Melnik may bs 
tranalated into tbc City ttj Iloft. The Emperor Charlt^s IV. (the Bohe- 
Tnian* call him Charles I.,) is wd to hare first planted the vine here, bat 
thi« is icarecly credilde, far in that ca<e the Wne must have been nBtiiraliseil 
on the Rliiiie and Danube a thouannd yc&n before it was known on the 
Elbe. The red wine of Melnik is the brjt of nil the Elbe u-inci, but nil 
the winea of tite Elhi>, in quality ns well as iti 4iuanlity. stand to those of 
the Khinoand Danube in about the relation of one to ten. 

Charles IV, ushered uoC vuly ilaccbiu hut the Muoct also into Bohemia, 
for he it wa« who plniiMHl the ancient niiiverwty in Pramie, whore the 
renerahlo trve mill llinirislies. "I'ruler him," wy tlie Bohemian his- 
toriand, " the Tshekhs UiJ aside their rude manners. They had among 
tlirm the most learned scholars and the greatest stateenien, and werCi in s 
word, the predniuiiiant nation of £un>pv, to much so, tliat ^) tutve Iwen 
boni a Bohcminn wtu evcirwhoro b«la to b* an honour." If this was eo, 
timcH hate altered strongly since then. For, be it pieju^co or not, few 
peiiple uowadnys will moke it matter of boost, unless jierhnps in Austria, 
that they are genuine Bohemians : not only in Fraitee and in Ktif^Und, but 
ercn in many ports of Germany, the name is held $}-nonvinous with tliat of 
gipsr, and c<rcn now, our peasants wlien they hear the gip>v dialect spoken, 
are *-«y apt tn turn away with disgust, and tell you, " tiio crefilures are 
talking ilolicmian," 

The lordship of WeUrus belonn lo the Comit of Chotek, a member of 
whose family occupies at present iFie highest post in Bohemia. There was 
4 Uidg* here formerly, tnit many yea» ago it waa destroyed by a flood, 
abce when the ^whI [jcople appear to hare contcuted tbemaelrw with » 
fitfiy or " fiying bridge," mad» ntt by a cable fixed to oae of the nnnad 


■TheGennanshaTaaasylniti " Diu* Ul m!f to wnMa»itt mil itlt Whwfsrf— Hsr- 

Jif (1 know 00 aan iJaoat it tliao 1 do of ilie Ikilieuaan viUages). 


inles cS dw fbrmer tUtumair one. Thia tnuiation from itaiiding to Aymg 
u any thing bat " progre m m," ftod it is reslly a marrel tl>«t tm ao &«- 

Snented a road no meafine ihould yet hftve oeaa takaa to npur dw 
It ia DO ■faortening of the nwd to erosf the Moldaa at Weltnu ; bnl^ 
m the contrary, a great round. It so happens, bowem*, that more thaa 
one-fourth of all (the roads to Prague, including that &oin Dreaden, unite 
■t the north>eaetem gate, at which there enter more travellers and mer- 
dundin than at all the other seven gates taken together. The reaaon i% 
that Prague is of easier aooesa at tJiis than at any other pmnt, and tin 
consequence has been that the quarter of the town which nas been most 
modernised and improved <^ late years, is that whidi lies in the ncinily 
of Pormer Thor, or nortb-eastem gate. 

Attended, accordingly by all the persons and things that happened to 
■tream together at that point, exactly at 7 p.m., on the 23d of July, 1841, 
from nortoeni and eastern Bohemia, from Saxony, Prussia, and Scandi- 
navia, from Siberia, Poland, Russia, and Ana, did we, precisely at the tima 
stated, hold our entry into Prague New Town, which having done, and 
having duly placed ourselves under the protection of the Buigomaster of 
the Old Town, we ocKiugQed ourselves for that night to wa welconie 
repose of bed. 


Eveiy part of Prague is s^l verdant and bloombg with the ruins and 
monuments of remote countries. The streete, the churches, and the burying 
grounds are &11 of eloquent ^peals to the history of the land and the 
people. PaUcea and countless steeples are trying to overtop each other in 
tb^ zeal to talk to you of times gone by. Even on the walls of thdr 
taverns, the townsmen may read the names of the first dukes of Bohemia, 
and thus familiarise themselves with their antnent annals. On the outside 
of one large house of public eutertuament, near the Vissehrad, on the 
place where formerly the dukes were interred, there may yet be seen six 
grotesque fresco pointings of the first six Bohemian dukes, with their names 
very legibly inscribed : — Przemblus, — Neiamislus, — Mnata, — Vogen, — 
Vratislav, — Venzislaus. The features of these redoubtable potentates hare 
even been repturcd and beautified within these last few years. Where, I 
would ask, is there now, a place in all Germany, in which the ancient bistoiy 
of the land is made palpable to hand and eye as here ? Whore is there a 
town where so much has been done for German, as here for Tsbekhian 
history ? Where the Germans do so much for their mighty emperors, as 
is here done for petty dukea ? 

Bohemia is a piece of land wonderfully separated by nature from the 
rest of the world. The magic circle which surrounds it, consists of stu- 
pendous hieroglyphics, traced by the bands of the primeval Titans, and 
from this mighty wreatli depart a multitude of concentrating rays that join 
together in a vast central knot. These are the streams that fiow from the 
«ast, the west, and the south, the life -sustaining arteries of the land. In the 
middle of ti^ magic circle rise the hills of Prague, where every great 
event by which the country has been agitated has set its mark, cither in 
the shape of new edifices and enduring monuments, or of gloomy ruins 
and wide spread desolation. The centm point of a country sharply cut 

•niE VISHKIIIU.D. ■™~' "^''™ 15 

«ff Iroin the rest of tlw warld, and wtines constanUy to new mmlUicalMns 
of tts poIidcsJ life, Tragiie h&s bocome full of niiiu u>d paliicu, that nill 
secure Co lh» city ao euduriog interact for oentnrie* to oamo ; tad vhil» 
tliv IiiU» an ■iiinng' nrcetly to ui tlic bwUtioiu of put ■RUt lei it not be 
■uppowd tliat tuc wluspen of fatuity are not UJccwise mnrmiiring royft« 
tanowly around them. 

The ItiU Snt Apokcn of ia Bohcinian dinundw, and u|jon which rc- 
oided the fint i^iikta of Bohemia, is the VmAni, wlieiicv th« Prnjihrtcis 
Libiun uuuMiBeed to Paifpu ber fiitnra fcloiy, dflolating tliat the city wuuld 
«Q« iaj beooroe a tun auoitt' cities. 'I1i« oid cfaronimn beac« cull their 
city iilten the daughter of LJt>UK>a, cichiiniiiiE' in thrir nv{>tarr : ttr 
maffMa Irmr/ts, Irhtrb* IfriMffmi, o orhis caput, tl decut Bohtmiaf.t 
I'utchrtu'. Jilin jniMrior LibtoMae! Sueh vera the wordd with which the 
vsmtrablfl Uaiiinwnchtaidt apoHtrapUiivd tlic glonmit city ou Iwr tl»u- 
Mindlfa annivenaiy, in I T2 3, in Iiin Pmdromua Giorian P rage n at^ the oty 
of wliich CharlM i V. wiu no ruiimoinvd, that be dedared b«r kormm 
detieiarum, in gtia reget deticutrentur. 

TIk ViMehrad is a hill, abrupt ou tnry nid*. biit flat on tba aiiwii, 
prefieotinj; a plateau of soma extwit, cunv-t.'&ipnt to buitd on, and aaajr <■ 
oefe ncc . I'lit I iradahiu ui indeed mOiT« elevated, an<l hM a more pietnr- 
oaqiu) BituBtiDD, but ia couunooded by other lulla near ic, and o{&rod, en 
voKDj aeoounts, fewer iaducemenU to the early mien than the Vissehnd, 
40 ebooM it aa tb^ place of rc«denec. The ttcepert tide of th«VisBehtad 
is towaidi the river Moldnii, wluch Eccms to be comprv-Mcd between the 
hill and Uie opposite meadows, niahing over its bed with gT««tfr rapiditv 
here tiiau in any oUier purt of iu oour». Here, proboblv. were tbo Ta|Ba 
oa- fjuratfi, to which tlie city ia Mip{H>»cd to have bv«n iud«))ted for ita ttaoM. 
If we iiuiy bi-liete what tlie hutorians and chroniclerv of Bobemia relate to 
iM of tliu fimner eonditiuu of the Vissehrad, ibe pomp anil mn^oificenee 
that onoo dwelt there offer a 9tt*ag0 contnat to the ditrt and ntt>bwk tliaC 
hare uairped their place This, once the centre of a bustUng city, is dow 
the most remote point of the town ; and the nioct wietehed quarter! ate 
^miipcd aboot the hiunbled Viiwchrad, wboM duaf gloriea now ut« only m 
tlio iaiaginatioii of the Boheiniaii luitiqooryi 

On tliB iinrtbem nde iif \3m Arnipoua— for nicb the Viaehnd maymll 
be cnllod — flnws the little liriMk Botitr, now a dirty piMe of water, but ne- 
moRible ill the ettof^i of ancient bards, and witnese to nttmbcHew bold 
deeclii and hard-fuug)it liattliM. On the extreme pmnt of the little penin- 
sula fnrnK^l by the Botitz uiul Molibu, ivlkficu the linert new way Iw ob- 
tained of Pragne, of the T&Ilcy of tb« Moldau, nad of its encloBng- the hill^ 
there we may mpposc ibc bard to have stood, u he ooaipoacd tlic Girourtte 
old naUoiutl ditty, /Cde domof muff, of which the foUowiog is ueeriy a literal 

When ii m; hoonf wherre U mr bonw? 
fl iroa me aamiK Ok mcidnwi ctTeping, 
Bnoka Aon reck to nxli nrr 1mi>uic, 
KvoTwlMn UoMD tptinit uvi fiuntrs, 
VUtin Ihia parafN of oaini 
IbcfC, 'ti< tbere, tho Imniteoui landl 
Bohemia, my flith«rUnd I 

Wliere ti my bauer iriu're '« mv hoatt 
Know'M UwQ the ooantry lorad of Uo^ 


Wliere noble muIi in wcn-»h«pM fiirma ruiJe P 
Wlic-n; tln?l'r«K!ftiicrcniJ'lu-!'ilii'fat(uiui'B jfriJeF 
Tlitri! wilt ititiu find ot'Tilifkhs Ihf honour d rjuSi 
Anivug th« Tthckha be, ay, my direlUng ptace. , 

For my own part I wo* twice oo ihe Acropolig of Prapw. Once with 
aa honoured friotw), n pmfoMor at thn univenity, whose aQtiquarian Ure 
enabled him to [raint out to mc cvcr^- fragment of tlic ruiiio, to which »ay 

hutorical aiisoeiatioiu attorheil. The se(^ond time I vtas tlicrc iu the com- . 

iMuiv of a couplo of hiiinl]|i> ori);^nala, who, oquallj learned tii their "'^X^^^H 
£)und menus, oy Ok min^lvd ^mpltcity aii<i u-al ol' tlieir nurative, tA^^H 
breathe lifo into ercry btisli and utonu about itm jiW^e. Tbwe mn <Ai- ' 
JoM|)h Tshak, who has been for 62 }'eara attached to tl>D serricc of tlw 
churiji on ^e Visaehrad, aod his daughter, herself part tho inoHdidn of 
liJiD. I had iii»(Ie a liiud of oi^iiiftintiuice with thia pair of living curioa- 
tin, on tlie occaMUii of my first mit, when T [iroiiii»ed them if they would 
•top at horn* tho following Sunday I would th^m sgtin. Now, 
though I niuet own that I oerived myself quit« M much [JcMvuv from th« 
eociety of my esteemcil and learned fnenu, yet I am inclined to bvlicv* 
that my nuuler may prefer Kix-iii^ mv in tlic compatiy of old Joseph an^ 
his daughter, and, to iin.y tlio truth, th«y w-er« certainly tlic most original' 
gudos pj whom it baa rvrr been my fate to ho Attended. 

Joaeph Tihak was originally puUrsant, i. e. Wil -singer, to the cliuroh 
on the Viwohrnd. In courM- of timn hp obtain&d [n-ctVrment to jtonie more 
cudtcd oibcc on tJae ecclcaiMtical eatablishmcnC. nnd Eincc tbcn, toraewhot 
about tlie cloH of tho lut century', he hat been invested, as a mark of hia 
proenl dignity, nitb a red coat, now fadn) and aJmoal as gt*y u hia onee 
auburii Iix-k.<. His daut!:htcr, tlacc her mother's death, hai soceeeded to 
the a|i|>niutinent of livundreis to the eight venerable canons of the diu 
in addition to which elic wathes, clarehMt, and irons the lace and lineo of 
altar, and of aj) the " blMncil Kunu" that dwell mthin the holy edifice. 
fittbcT and dnuglitcr live Ingvthcr in a little house perched upon the summit 
of the hill, wherv tliey have &mp1e elbow room, dwelline in complet* 
Bolitudo on a sgiot which, i500 years ago, was aiiioiated by the bustle of a 
popubus city. Ucre, aiiiid tL-lica uf tbi; uldi-u time. Ihe daughter was 
DOTn and has grovm old; while ilu- father has for more than half a cenbiry 
been ih* attendant eicorone of all the great and httle people, from 
omfieTors and kings downward, who in tbo meantime lui«e nonouted the 
Visacbrud with their n-titf. The rtiiiia of the iilacv are the only obwcti 
with which the wonliy pur have ever occupied llienitwlvc^ and with UMW 
they have so completely idontilied tliemselTes, that they have l>eoom« in 
their own persons almost as i»t«rc6(iog to a stranger, oa the acenea auioiig 
wliich they dwell. Tlie ** Bohemian Chronicle" of Hi^ck, Hammar- 
■rhiuidt's " Glory of Pmguo," and a few otlicr bookt of tlw aame ehat«et«r, 
they may almott be said to hare learned by heart. In addition to the 
leamtng thus acquired, they have caught up and treasured in th«r nttnds 
every little tntdition or anecdote al>uni the \'U<nhnut that they ha|^>cn to 
hare heard from the priettji of the church, or fn>m tljc strangerc that viiil 
ttf and all tlua they have embellished and connocted here and there by the 
liel)nag band of tlwir own imagination. In abort, they have ptmned the 
courae usually foUovad bw our own profcuor* of lustory, nnd bavi> retailed 
their medley talaa to all toe niuneraus listeners they have hail luvuud U»«iu 

TH« TtSSEHKAD. ^^^^^~ 17 

dunng' tlie lasfc hslf-oentiiry. Thetr lecture* hare not indeed 1>e«ii bikcii 
diwii iu shorthand, f»l liara tli«it> InstTMctioiu ftsuadAd kr aud wid^', mid 
nvtoDljr t)i« cttiMru frf Prw>«i tint *iinple« utd geolJes from lliv lartlicst 
huids liavo airried away witii them the tales and legends of old Tstuk, and 
would b« ready on ocouion to ilake th^r own hoiiDur on the old sextoo'i 

" Gracaoiu m*, jvm houotir. and then you are indeed I" rrcUimed 
jM«pli'a daughter, aa I presented myself at their little dwellbifr' on the pro- 
Sunday. The day Iu.(>peiii*(l to be thefeitiiiil of Sr. Anne, and nil 

„ w wai making merry in the tai-vm*, at the public dancing-bniir'ts 

and on the ivlarids of the Moldaii. The Vissehrad, as voji iti ivniit, lav 
solitary and forgotten. lJ|Hin its naked and desolate btoic, Kiiortixl a moist 
brtczo, and 9Cfttt«rcd clouds were strcc-pinff over it, altMidc^ by sundry- 
flights of rovenis who were wriiiTinf^ iIm^t flti;ht towai^ th« city; for 
eren ihcy hflfe abaDdoned the old hill, and fixed their quarters iu i<^i 
elevated r«giotis. 

" And there you are irulei^t air! Father Uid I were just sitCb^ to- 
lisr, and this b^ng St. Anne'« ibiy, we werv thinking nf my mother, 
how name was also Anne. I n-u wecpinr 8 tear or two, and looking 
tout of tlie window. There &ther' » eye caunit the stveplc vf St. Jaoob't^ 
ImkI Mid, ' Thou slialt go down lo St. Jacobs to*morrow, and hare a mws 
[read for MittliiT, Atine." ' Ay,' said I, and tliwi I thought to myself 
> * MoUier b de&d; father and she lived 45 yean up here together ; Father, 
I is old now. FriiMiili we have none in the world. If he diea tJtun'lt 
■lone.' 8(1, thimght T. Ill hara a prayer read for ratlu-r loo, ami III 
i Bray God to spare hjtn to roe ftw many yf aw. Kot tme, yoiir honour, 
rWdl he weD m? And look, just as 1 was thinking eo, you come and elimb 
ligp all this weary way to us. Gtadous ! you moat be tired ; pray sit 

I did so witJi pleasure, for I wo; itructc 1^ the lit^ domestic vtwifo- 

sieiitit of the Tenrrablc seiclori. Tlie furniture was all of great antiquity, 

and the walls were hung with ma|}s nnd pictures, one of whieh represented 

. the Vimehrttd, as it mny U- mpjK'tcd to haTe looked in the days of it» 

f ajoiy, iriien it must haie had eomewhat of the same anpmmnci; as tho 

, Kremlin at Moeeow. A bible wa; lying on the table, and I expressed my 

pleadure at aecing the book then-. *' Ay, ay," said the daughter, " we 

art t^ttt Ktorc by the boc4c A •levr oncti offered ui two flnriiis fur it, btit 

' ftth«r said he would not give it him. llonr^-. my brother's son, has ehiU 

dren, they may use it one d«j, whan we can read it no more. Is it not 

^•0, fatliCT?" — " Ay. *v," onawerctl the oUi mail," I wouldn't port with iho 

t book." I commended them for their good rwolution, and wv pnicreilrti, 

•11 three, to go over the curiositiee of tlie Vissehrul, which I Irai^d to mi^, 

not only in its own form, but as luodiiied through the medium oi th« fant-y 

of my guides. 

" Tnars is but little left of whnt wm one* hare," bt^an the okl man. 
** and of that little tln-re in much of wliich we know the meaning no longer. 
[Even old HammvrsL-hmidt, iu hit time, could only tell us, that tlus was 
wuppotnl to be, and that was miil to be, and wi> arc uctt Ukely to ki>onr 
, M aiucli now as was known tlien ; but we will show your honour nothing 
I but what is certain. First of all tlu-n we come to the church itaclf^ for- 
' aierly ooneeerated to St. Vitus, and afUrwank to St. Peter. The war- 




non that broke d«wn the ivU of die brickworlc had some rrspect for God's 
Itouse 1 supfMMi, uid n it hat Temaiu«<l sVuvHof^ iu>ni«Kliat longer." 

the trCmUing hands nf tiic old man. u tl)« lu}-« daMcnd n tuM pmq^ 
-worked annj' fur a few mnnicnta at the craiy pitai^ beCm wo nhliinwl 
aonw to tbo intetior of the church. The place )aa been sacrvd to leEgioo 
from a varv remote aiitt<|iiity. Boforc tlH> iutnxJuction nf Chrigteodoni, 
there ttooa t» tlw mom qrat » tcnmle dodicated tv Si uitoTHl, the God 
of Wu- of iIm Stavcnuun. The anuem of lliu heathea divinity wu a 
«ock, and thia bird w-a^ liltewiM tlie oboMii ba<d of St. Vituc 'lliu tinii- 
larit^ o( taste, u»d pcrlmpi tlw imnlKrity of tlieir naiiiea (Sraottnid and 
Sanot VU) inaj have bciKtatcd thv tnuMTcr of the property from tlw 
beatlMn to ibe ninb The chunrh vas bailt hy \rvaaia.v, the firat kio^ 
of Bobomio, aiid km linitbed in 1068, It was afterward* reboalt, having 
been destroyed hj the IluuitM, who Bcem to hare desk even more hanlly 
hy the BacTM edifice than the devil himself, for hiv Satanic mijestv, in ia» 
nf^f, contented himself vith luiocking a hole in the roof, wldcii it waa 
lotig foimd im)ioa«ihlc to rrpsir. TIic im^inonible t&le waa tuld ttie in the 
following wonb. \jy my comiodrein : 

" Unce upf^n a tine a poor man went into tbe fortet. There be met a 
•mart, jorial-looIuUK huntMnau ; aj least ao he ffappo»ed, but in b-utli it 
VU no fauoUmkii, but tlie devil in dixgniic. Now tbe hunUiiniui spoko 
to tbs Knronful iniui, nnd ttaJd, 'Art rioor, old bny'r' — * Ay, mtMraUjr 
poor, m, and full of c&rc,' replied tlie otber. — ' IJow many cnildren bart 
tl)ri(i?* — 'Six, itnUe sir,' answeisd Aepoeorman. — ' Oire me Car ever that 
ehild of thine that thou baat nevor awn. and I'll giva thee thy Gil of 
money.' — ' Willingly. «ir,' wa* thn silly fathtT's reply,— * Then come, and 
well sign aud seal on the bancain !' — TIk old man did ao^ and received 
counllaaa boaf)* of money. When he )^ehoir.e, however, to bit ovnhouMi, 
to his aurpriw hn fnun<l thnt he Hiul teveii chililren, for litii wife had in tbo 
mcantiBH: brau^lit tbe Bcrenth into the world. Ilcrcupont the Gitbcr 
bej>;an. to feel very uncomfortable, and to suapect tliat the devil had 
talked him out of hit child- In his anxiety, be ealled hia iievbom turn, 
Pi-'er, and dedicated hixa to tlie apo*tle; mayinK^ Peter to take the bcj 
under lua protection, and riiietd him agnmst the devil'a arta. Peter, w)k> 
afipured to tJie old inaii in n drcjun. promised to do what he was asked, 
provided the boy -were brought np to the church ; to, of eoune, the lad 
voa ^vcu to God'a Mrviee, that be ntighl lie u pric»t wlurn he f^rrw up. 
Peter turned out a guod, pioun, and lenmetl young man. When lie waa 
twen^^fbur nan old, sad hnd bepn installed ih a pricA at the church on 
the VuMbiao, tbe devil came one day Co [mt in bin clAiin to his iwerencc ; 
but the holy apoatle St. Peter ttitiTlvn?it, and dcL-larcd tlie dwd nhioli 
the devil produced wnx a forgery. Tltp ilevil and the mint came to faiph 
wordi at tbia i wbd« the poor priest, fj-i^httued out of his wita, rau into toe 
church, and betook himself to reaititig Uie iiiaM. Now, ax tbey could no 
way come to sn understanding, St. Peter, by way of a compromiM, jiro- 
poiod ft new barfjain. ' Do yau Hy to Rotne!' tvd be to tliv devil, 'and 
briii^ mc one uf tlic twolrc columns el St, Peter's tJiurdi, and if you're 
back with it bet'ore my priest him rwid to the end of tite iiawg, he ttliall f ~ 
youra ; bnt eian mine !' The devil, w'hi> tliovght he should bare plenty i 
titnc, accepted tlic pmposnl with pleasure; and in a lew seoouda, Pt'ter 
aaw iiim fiyiiig up full ajteed witb one of Uw columna. Tba dnil would 



Ittve wn, th«n'« nn doubt, if St. Pe'let had not (jtueldj g<m« to ro(«tli!m, 
sad began to belabour him vttli a bonewliip. Tb« devil, in Kia fright, 
d ropped &t bme piiUr. which fell plomp to Um> bottom of the Mediterra- 
Bcao Ma. BbTcwI b« Bttl* time in diviug forit, and brincing it up ng«m ; 
but be lost <|uite cnoaKlL for when h« arrirnl nt the churoi, tlir pnnt )Lail 
just Mil! h» /(a miiMi rst, and so bid iniu« was at an end. St. Peter 
laugbp'l bi-nrtily ; and the devil wom bo vrxcd, (hat in his ragr, b« flwnjj 
do«« the hie coloinn, wtiich wMit through lh« roof of lh« church, and 
Jl npon the floor, whcrr it was broken intn ilim piwvt. Many attemnta 
era madv to repMr the hoU in the roof, bnt tliojr covid never make the 
Evork boM, lor it alwayi fell (n, and »» at lart tliej' g^are it up ; and thcra 
' Ae hole renuDed for man; faimdrEd years, It-avin^ a free wa; for rain and 
Wiod. The Emperor Joseph, howexer, inuiifei) n^u^n having tlie roof re- 
paired, (o they i!ar\**d the two itty of St. PctM in the centre stone of the 
vatilt, and dncc then the trork baa held." 

The cmaa-keys still remain, btit I am inclined to think it wm tlie pnp«td 

I and not the emperor, who nrdered them (n be [Uaoed tb^rc^ and tlint tliey 

dill BO to save apptraraDoca. If Uiey arc now aakcd bow tbe masoni^r 

< comes tf> Hold, they have their answer ready, attiibittn^ enty thing tottie 

virtue of Pfiter'f koyi. 

As loo^ ae the nolo coRtiii(i(-d in the roof, the fragmcnb of the brokea 

. colnnu) remained on tbe floor of the church ; hut, atpording tii the old 

•ntoK** aecoiint. " the Empemr J(KC]'h said, people s^hould pmy to God 

ia ihc church, aod not ^«tp nbont the d«vil and bii wirkcd woilu. Those 

were his very wordF," continocd Ihc old man, "for 1 heard them from hia 

' nuj(>iity'ti own ntouth. aa I was sbovrin^ liim about the plaoo, nhea be 

I Waa her« and loeked elnsely at evny thtii^. And for my own part, I don't 

' blow that it wo>tiLil be a •erious aio, if a man «tiotild not hiippcn tu bi'licro 

Ae rtoty." 

Since Joseph's time, a laro^o pointing representing St. Peter liorae- 
vliippin^ the Prince of Darkness, and tlic Meditvrruneaii r"))in(r >t« uaTif 
beneath them, has, 1 am tony to aj, found iu way Iiork into th? ehurrh. 
Tbe broken eolomn, in threv fraroienta, lies mi the ^rss* in front of ibe 
thtucfa. " The stone," said my old ^d«'s d«ugbt«r, " is pot together out 
of sevrn sorts of stones. One is very prv<ioia, ooe very hoidi and one 
stinks detestably. When bis msjestj-, Uw Umsed Emperor Fnuici*, waa 
ben:, and my ^ther told him the story, his majesty Fmncis svd, 'The 
Btnnc ttinkf, I ■upimse th« deril boa left iinmethmg Hlieking to h.' Down 
below, wu may eee the stone ia aomvwhat worn away, for that's where 
fctber k'norki ojf l^ts for strangers to carry away a« a remembnuwe. Tb« 
■oUtrn all!) grind bits of the stone into powder, and bave CiMmd it f^ood 
lor all sorts of eomnkiintt.'* 

In addition to tno paintod and bekihourMl devil, I found a little minia- 
tn« flf his SataniR mAjesty, neatly cut in wnod, and led by a chain, whidi 
Has h»ld by a St Ppoiopins, tikewW carred in wood. Two celebrated 
n«n of this name R^ire in tbe history of Bohemia; nn* a discinguished 
leader of the Iluwites. the other the first herald of Christianity in iho 
conntiy. The biUiTof thme was the snint. and wherever he is represented 
in n Bohemian ebureh, ho never fiiils to have a ftw devils in eliainii, like so 
nanv greyhounds in a leaslt. He was agreatexorciserofdevife, and there 
is itdl a bole in the innuntainn ra'ttr Prague, into which he fo^tencH a vast 
' of them, where th«y flv about by hundreds to the presvnt day. 




There i» in thig church another relic of great celebrity in Bohemian 
ctiristeiidoin, namely the stone coffin of St Lonpnia. Thi» man, accord- 
ing to the legend, was a Roman centurion, and was present at the Crad- 

«oned him, and put him into a stone coffin, which they threw into the sea. 
Ino coffin, however, would not sink, but floated on the nirfiMW till it ar- 
nved at some Christian city, and in due time found its way to Bohemia. 
The Hussites threw him again into the water, namely, mto the river 
Moidau, and for a long time nobody knew where to look for the Biunt. 
One day, however, when the Hussit« disturbances were at an end, some 
nshermen saw a flame burning on the surface of the water. They tried to 
estmguish the flame, but they could not, and it always con^ued precisely 
at the same spot. A miracle was immediately presumed to be on the eve 
of birtli. An ecclesiastical commission wm appointed, and lo, before their 
eyes, the stone coffin of St. Longinus rose up &om among the waves, and 
was carried back with due honours to the Vissehnid. 

" Who knows whether it's all quito true or not ?" observed my talkative 
conductress ; " but one thing's certain. An arm of St Longinus lies still 
in the coffin. When their majesties the blessed Emperor Francis, the 
Russian emperor Alexander, and the Prussian king Frederick Williani, 
were up here, they were all alone with father and me. Only one soldier- 
like servant had they with them. Well, they made us show them this coffin 
most particularly, and we had to take two candlesticks from the altar, that 
they might see the better. The Russian emperoi^s Majesty was most 
anxious of all to know about it, and he crept in as ^ as he could, to feel 
afler the stunt's arm, and when the emperor's majesty came out again, he 
was all covered with cobwebs and dust ' Oh, your majesty,' said I, 
' you've mode yourself quite dirty,' and vrith that I knocked the dust oWlm 
bock with my hand.' ' That'll do, child, that'll do,' says he to me, and 
I was quite surprised to hear him speak such good German." 

In the year 1187 there lived in Bohemia a duke of the name of Fre- 
derick, who involved himself in a quarrel with the cletey, in consequence 
of having applied to hb own use the revenues of the village of Czemoviti, 
then the property of some convent or chapter. The priests imposed heavy 
pgiiance upon him for this offence, and one of them seems to have had the 
audacity to subject the duke to a scourging. Gregory VIL, who kept a 
Germuii emperor waiting like a beggar in a courtyan^ had not yet been 
dead a hundred yean. The memory of this scourging, the priests sought 
to preserve by a picture, in which the duke is represented TCcei^■ing punish- 
ment from the hand of St, I'eter. This picture, which still hangs in the 
cliurcli, bears the inscrijition, FUigellaltu Frederieus, Dux Bohemiae, a 
iS'. I'eiro ob Pagum nomini: CzenutvUz abalienatum, 1187. Frederick, 
wIjo died in 1 li>0, was mt-rmA)*^ to the clergy before his death, for, it 
bfitnia, Ijc authorized the caixmi of the chureh on the Vissehrad, to adopt 
tlic said ll&gellation as their (;'>at of arms, and the reverend gentlemen still 
preserve it, representing th<; xaint l^labrfuring the duke with a cat-o'-niae- 
taih of most awful dimeruionii, 

" When we sliowed this tiictun; to hi* tiiaj'wty Joseph the Second," my 
old sextdn continued, — " 1 U-lii-ve it wbji in 'SI, and the emperor was up 
here with Laudon, Lawy, and otlwtr (frimt g«itl««ucn, — I was a young 

Tire VlSSr-HEAD. 


puBfsant then, and hml to stand tnndeatlv sade, but I saw atid licnrd 
tvary tiling for all that. The fin« Ilunf^vian fjuanl was drawn u|i nti tbo 
ViM^hnul, and the i^arriagM and lervautj waited twlow. Now wlifiu wa 
^^wed hb majeitT the [ncture, hv looked vcxcJ, and (hook hU head, say- 
Df, ' It «•• not civil for Peter to scourge a priiic« in that war. no, it mns 
t'Ter>' uncivil," Th*n he looked dowii fi>r a inomDnt, as if he waa consi'lcr- 
'iBg Id hinuclf, aud after tliat he muJ, ' but ihv tiling ia old, to it nl:>^ stop 
thLTt-.' Landon was standing b^*, and sinilcd." 

^Vnother object that int«f«atpd me in th« <.-hurch, was the tornh of a 

' Ctraqui*t or Calixtioe. Th« ruling idea »iLli iUm« peopI« waa tlw witi«- 

\Va\>- Ttii'v 1>orv it a» an (niUem an tlu-ir iMitiiu-rt, aud aft^r drntli hiid it 

I'Sarvcd rni dieir tombs. Itpftinj tlwi-i- wild Jn'-ilnlJ* dron Sipumiitnl** troops 

[fioni the Viwehntd. tio X^a than thirteen chiuvhea Mood tner«. Only "oo 

low remains, and th<- fra^^eiit of what wan amx the wall of anotlivr, and 

[nhiirh termed La me lilur a f^w odi] linfH of a loot pot^ni. " Oh \ it iiiii«c 

[llftvo be«D sad work hero," «ud my «dd seston ; " tho HiiMitcE had no morcy 

kt all, but hroug'ht dogs and eaglea widi them, to fight a^ust CUriitian 


Behind tb« chiin!]i tie* a DMrlj-eneted nnmal, and mrual bamtrlu for 
•ohlicn. for tbo Viasdind atill prcaerroa its character u a kind ol' citadel. 
Oti the edg« nf the rock that overliangs the ^foldaii, may be tmccd .some 
mined wxM* of great antiquity. Theae, aceonlin^ to traditioit, bt'!oiigi.-d 
to ll>^ fi>rtre(^ of Li1)tUM, and ooc part nf llio niiu m still poiDlod out aa 
bavin? been Libiissa's bath-room. " But alt that is mere vtiif^r tttlk." re- 
ramea niy conductras, "for nothing ii known for certain. Tlint Qti'.'ni 
LiboH* aid once liv« up here in a fine palace, amnn^ these rocks and 
■hiubs, — oh, that's certain eiiougli. Sbo was a heaUi«n to b« varv, hut 
thf was Qa««n of Bohemn, ana a vmy good woman for all that. 8h« 
had two sirtMS, KasFia and Theka. Kasha helped her to goreni tlio land, 
but Theka was an apothecary, aud knew all about jilants, and the nobles 
came from lar and wtdo li> be cured by licr. She also uwvil to give medi- 
cuivs to till! fiiok peasants, and she could prophesy, and gave giHxl ailvice 
to her sisters. Of course things changed when Lilmnu married Pixewys), 
who as king had a right to have hia own \iay. Now, Lilniaaa Itail a vtail- 
in^wnniAJi. enlled Viaxta, a i-ery Wutiful maiden ; and when the (piivn 
w«9 de!id, \'lft<ta thought Pnemjsl would niarry Aw, and make her Queen 
of Bohoaiia. He did not do so, hoK«ver, which so enraged NHasta, 
•ba vowe<l vengeaiK«, aud reaolved to make henelf Qtiwa of Bohemia 
wilboiil his aid. She went over the Moldnu, — iherft was a bridge lir-rc 
tbto,— and she set up her kingdom right opposite the VisschnuL She 
got together four bundi-ed Bohemian nuuds and wives, who were at fuud 
with UiMr hiubands and Uivers. There, lieyoiid tlie meadow, in the comer 
botwecn tlic hills, your honour may still ton tbo spot wbcru \nasta's cat>tle 
stood. It wu called Diiin, and thence ilia naed to sally with her maidens, 
and wage a emel war against all the Bohemian men. She cut the rijj^ht 
thwnb oiS' of all the boys that fell into her handi, that the}* might not lie 
■Ue bo draw a bow, and &om all ^iils she cut oflT the ri^it brriut, tint it 
migbt not hinder their archery. Site might not hcraelf have been able to 
do ubit *hc did, but ali« had a sorceress in her senice, who used to say to 
lirr, ' My gi-iitle la«ly, nlicn you go into hatlle, I will fly on before yuu. 
Observe my dight and my signals. Ill sliow yuu the ambush of your 
euenties, and advise you what you must do.' So, when she nUiod forth^ 


tbe old iritch alwayi Bew before her, and &U tlw Ainazoiu nuibed on, 
oj-iug, ' Yaya, yayft ! baba, bafa* !' Not tnie, &thar, that was tbeir ay?" 
" Ay, ay, child, that was their cry." — '* And then they lured the kni^ta 
into tlieir power, and cut off their noaea and ean, or threw them &om the 
Tocks, ana c^tured all their castlea hereabout. Up there, on that high 
hiU, lay tbe castle of tbe Knight Mod<d, a true frieod of PrzemyBl'a. That 
they captured too. Vlastai with her own hand, cat Modol'a head o^ aod 
then (mad weuch that she was) she got upoo the wall, and blew her 
trumpet, that Przemysl might hear her tnnmph here on the Vissdirad. 
She nad her nlver anoour on, and her beautiful hair &1I down to her 
elbowa, and in her left hand she carried her banner. When Pnemysl saw 
her and beard her trumpet, I warrant you he was vexed floough to think 
he had not made her tus wife at once, and spared all tbii turmoil. H« 
made one more taial, however, and sent out his general Prostiradi who 
went over vrith a countless number of knighta, aod took back Modol'a 
castle, aod killed Vlaata, and brought back her beautiful round head. Tha 
rest of her women fled to Divin Castle, and defended themselves for ft 
while, but they were all taken at last, and all their heads were cut o£ 
Not true, father ?"— « Ay, girl, all their heads were cut off." 

Amid these aad many other legends of the same kind, evening crept on, 
and I could no longer distii^uish the distant objecia to which my talkatirv 
eooductrcas directed my attention. Her eloquence and animation invested 
her in the sober twilignt, almost with the air of an anient sybil, or Druid 
prophetess, nor did her flow of words cease when I prepared to take ray 
o^iarture. On ^le c<»itrary, still conversing of the antiquitjei of to* 
places she accompanied me down the hill to the French Gate, where tbe 
countrywomen and the Devi Slovanski (Slavonian maidens) were enterinB" 
heavily laden with vegetables and other provisions for the market, at wfaicn 
they meditated to dis[Jay their wares at an eariy how on the followiiw 
morning. For more than a thousand years has such been the accustomra 
eveninr-acene at that gate, and for a thousand years periiaps have Um 
•aoM old Tshekhian ditties been nightly snug by the &ir rustics that hava 
tneanarbile provided for the pantiies of^the townspeople. 


Even in the time of the last dukes, much of the glory oS the Vissriirad 
was transferred to the rival hill, the Hradsbin, which became the resideooe 
of the sovereign in time (4 peace, while ^e Viseehrad was only an ooc*- 
nonal retreat, m summer, or when the aty wns pressed by an enemy. At 
present, much of the Vissehrad, that was once covered with houses, has been 
converted into arable land, or pasturage for cattle, while at the foot of the 
hill dwelt the most wretched portion of the population of Prague. " They 
are poorer even than those behind the Hradshiu," stud a Prague ^iend to 
me one day. Thus to each of the castle crags has poverty clung, to shame 
the luxury of wealth by tbe contrast of misery. 

High upon the Hradshin stands tbe glorious cathedral, (he metropolitan 
church of Prague, dedicated to 8t. Vitus, and which, during the wars by 
which Bohemia has socoessivelv been desolated, has alternately suffered from 
the saciilegious violations of Hussites, Catholics, and Proteatanto, Swedea^ 
Gennana, aod Hungahaaa. Tbm UoautM, on one oocaaion, stripped the 



churcii of neaHy ev«y thing- iii l1i9 alape of oniAmoflt Tho .Swmlef, who, 
tow'anlsthe <!lo9eof the Tbuty Yeara* War. mwUt thnTntelrMmAjiUn Af ih* 
UnKlshtii by stmtm^vin. pliintlvrv<l Uid cbiircli to such a decree, th&t they 
wm: kUc til wnd wholr shiploads of viImUm dcnra the Elbe to Stock- 
holm, whera thejr amy still he seni unonp tfae paldis tflUeedoiu. Frede- 
rick tbt Crmt, too, wbeit be bevu^ed Pr«^e, m 17£7t t*vm» bo havv m( 
bis hoMt on the drttmctiott of the cstbcdn), agaiiMt wludi the tire of hia 
STtillsiy wu mculiarlT directed. What liis motive was, it would 1m> iliffi- 
eolt Co ay. He could seu<e«ly think that the garriaou of 5l>,(XM> im-n 
woukl aam-uilur tii hiai, for Uu aako of saving Hiv catliednl, Itooold not 
bo tea] Car PnitentaiitiKa that ini(MUed Frederick to vow tlw dmtirtctioH of 
au imrioiit Catbobe church, withoMt n>^arrl ui iu beauty, its antiquity, and 
the uumberies* object* of art which it cootaiDed. I ebould like to knovr 
wbedwr Prederick, in any of his warks, hat atteni[>ted toju*tiryfaiinie)f for 
tbta barfaaraus tr«atnu!itt of the Hradthin cliurvh, or wht^thi^r nnv one hai 
ever cited bim before the tribuDid of public opioioa on account of it. Tho 
impartial Bohemian historian. Peliel. ^ves a neiy detailed enumeration of 
all tlio boiU, hoRibs, and shi^Us, that were burkd aniast this admirahlo 

riincti n( ancient oichiteetuie, by the m«reil(«* oratr of Fredmclt. On 
£th of June the builiiinjg^ served as a t«iyr(fbr537bonibfl,9^cuinoD- 
balba and 17 eareaufs. o( which, hotvever, it must not be luppotted, that 
mil, or iadMd any thiii^ liko half <if tltcm, hit the mark tlity vert fii«d at. 
On the 6th. 7(fi. 8th, and 9tb. the (own was couiplirarutcd with 7U4 
bomb«, 14 lj21 bolls, and 1 1 1 mir/turx, of which the miij»nty wrrr iiimftl 
M the eatbednd. l>aring timae lour days the buililiii^ wiu thirty time: on 
fire, and each time it was saved from vnlirv JeaU^K-tioii by the vigilance 
and eiertionf of the caunn, John Kai«er. The roof was perforated by no 
leas than 21 -^ bnlb^ and wiicn. after the eaimnnsde, thecbiirch wiu cleared 
, W tbe tnbbtsh that had meanwhile accumulated tiwre, no lees than 770 
balls were collected fmtn different parts of the eilifice. Napoleon, when h« 
entered Moseow, Mitt 4 f^nnl to pmlecC llie cliililrvii in tbe great Found- 
iin^ Uo«piial. Why did nnt Freaeriek, when he fired hi* fint fpia aMinst 
iVagii% grant a simibu* protection to the uatbe^lral on the llradahin, bj 
orderinv nil artiller^uiKri railier to fire on any object llian that ? Perhapf 
it was toetunate for Krcderick that he did not niMeed in enterin;; tlie city. 
Uti, th* Aiend and patron of tbe arts, would have {jjicrixl in very bittcnicM 
of aniil, had be witneased tbe destruction htH own artillery had cd'ecrcd. 
Tbe Gothie iiiimiiwili east down, the ji^Tacefal columns shattered, and tb« 
bcautiU statuea mutilated in everr ima^ahle way. 

Scareely one of the many splenaid tombs remaiucd iininjiircd. Neither 

tlie beautiful marhle monument, executed by Kcriin of Nurembtrrjf, and 

«rect«d in 1JS9, by Uodolpb II., to tbo memory of Mazinitian IU Fenli- 

aaud 1,, and Anne, his wife ; nor tbe veDcrable statues, strrlcbed on their 

iaBRtipha^ nf the old Bohemian dukes Spitignev and Brzetislav ; nor tba 

E-43iapel cf the tonbs of tba arebfaishops ; nor the other ohapel that (.-ontaiM 

i4ba BUMmnieitta of twenty-fiMir oFtbe noUeit families of Itnliemia; uidMd 

ibe mootmiaiit of Vratisfaus von Barenitein, die Chaucelkir of Masimiliaa 

IL, if aknost tbe only one that M<-ap4!d unacatbed. 

Few cbnrdicR in Germany surpnss Uics cathedral is bc«t)ty, richness, and 
io tbe interact of its historwal ai»oeiations. Tliere is none to which it 
I to bow more &t{iuil:>- than to tho metropolitatt cliurvh of Cracow, iti 
I npoHi Ibc dust of 'oU lb* Polisb kings. In both way bo trac«d » 

;;rn>i«r''-" '.f tf*-hTf*^ifrv. whI a liiiiilaiiMi iif fiBlliiiM fa is iMoaiBUB^ 
.',:^f r-iich-h*T-» ^4ah>wlt oiwh rn mninit -me <if dwndia^ E^n AviB^id 
f :in*^.rntir mM iM TnfnfMninn at Cramw. wi doMly WMniMin; k m ail 
rj '(rfiita ~fr«t .in^ '•annot Md wnndarin^ «C dM iMifiiM** « H"""* " 
-ntnftf W.fft n^h >rh*r. •it' rwn wrMt of «««nti in pwfcf.dy afiha. 

.%>;,<. .>f * rh^fv 'tiirt « -tfra imw in Bohnauk ii 4oonid » bsvw moB* 
/ror-^fn.rl- .-*i»*m1 -n iiim than thn hiaCrtiy of 9c 5cpnn^ aa^ ncxs dk 
.T-'^rt-fnt^ tfKl rVpon^n^ of ivpratann irrKne dw ailacBtnca of dw iw» 
,n««„.>:*| •/tnnwfloD. SUvftM :in<i Xartinin, to wbnm it llippcnfrf, 'm. 161^ 
-n "• .n^ 'f*y ■f>ni«l ont if si vnaAn-m. These two aamci««a wacw iaxaStf 
> -tA -'• |v>ronMt' a «nrnni^ from che (l«y of bn arrival tiD nat of Imi 
rff^r'iirv. H'>vT'>r wf>U jon mxj hav<> prep are d ▼oonctf br baUneal 
ifo/tiA' vith » ItnowMffr of &11 the deuiu of the Tliiitj- Ions' War. 
^^rA'A •Hvmm^nramMniT^ aH votir pro£»!*nn at Boon or GoOti^^cn will ban toU 
-rtn .4 r,t -i^ 'W'h) frnm *.h« rlar OH whidi the two Bbore-naiiied |wrinnayw 
-.*>■'■ f urnblHt upon the dnng^U tinder the HradihiD -, yet mt aMond tiaC 
ill '\\^ :ip>t. AiW^^m^fs yon travel in, there will be some teamed gcnlkoMB or 
othT '^lio ffiil rind or make an occasion to tell the stoiy OTcr again far 
^fyttr >>«pw!itil henelit. And by the time your learned gentleman baa got to 
£h<> "n't of hi^ first story, it will go hard but at the next bridge you enm 
(h*n> will he » chapel, fr an image dedicated to St Nepomucene, and, if 
■o, yo(i mit^ rMt e^natlv aMured that joa. will hare related to yon, with aO 
'ttA a'>'v>mpanjingf \aaaenXM, the whcJe legend of the aaint, which, it is odda 
hnt yoi) hi«ve heard and f''Tgotten again sundry timea before yon set foot on 
Briti^iitn ap-onnd. By th<i time tbe stoiy is at an end, yon are probably ak 
tiM rwTTt brMffe, where, <if eanrte, your attention is called to another 
Hfif^ nf thff f«ndge-pr«>t«ctiog saint, when your charitable infmnaQt will 
be liicniy to '>pen agun with " There, look there, sir ; there you hare th* 
holy ^rwimaV again ; he is the same as tbe one I was tellmg you <£, 
whom King VenzenUus," 6cc., and bow far tbe et csetera may extend will 
depf^id 'm ynar patience under the infliction. Well, in due time the hills 
of Fragne jirewnt tbemselvet to your view, the Hradshin towering proudly 
above Ute rest. Immediately your travelling companion will open again 
upon you with " There, look there, sir ; tliere you may see the castle m»n 
the windows of wliieh the two imperial counseUors, Slavata and Martinitx," 
&c. The next morning you are tempted to walk abroad, but if you come 
to the Prague bridge, beware how you stop to look at fire golden stars thak 
are creetetl there. If you neglect my caution, rely upon it your quality of 
stronger will bo discovered, and some kind self-elected cicerone will 
approach and tell you, " This, air, is the very spot from which St Nepomuk 
was thrown into tne water. He was a pious man, but King Venzeslaus," 
&c. Animated, no doubt, by this time, with a salutary dread of the 
saint, you probably cut your interlocutor short, by praying him not to in- 
flict upon you a legend which you have learned by neart during the few 
days you have been in the couctiy. You fly to a neighbouring coff'ee- 
house, the windows of which, to your sorrow, look upon the Hradshin. 
You order a cup of bouillon perhaps, and while you rit sipping it, your 
host comes sLmperiiig up to you. In your imguarded innocence you may 
allow some Bucii question to escape you, as " What's the news ?" If bo, 
vou have sealed your fate. " Your honour were looking out of the window. 
tiare your honour already hod the condescension to go to tbe top of the 
hill ? But you have from here a very good view of the two windows— 



lonk , ytMT honour, tlutre timy nn, at wliicli manj yean ttf^ a vAry ntniAricaUe 
event oocufTwl," — " Whit, tume minnntic love-rtnrj* 1' * — " No, sir ; from 
those vrintlows it via tliat the two counsclton of the Emperor )tattbia»— 
their names were SlaFat& and Martin itx^-^" "Oh, lieaveiif !" you ex- 
cliiini. ^'uur rvry bouillon turns to bitt«nM-«!i, and you match tip hat and 
■lick, and run to St. Vitii-s'n ehurrh, in llir ))o|ir that irniiv volunteer in- 
fimnant take voii in hand nj^in, ho itinv make th*> pairoii of llic cdiiice the 
topic of lui diacowrw. Idle hp[>c! Ot St. Vitus no nti* duoms it necoa- 
taiy tasajr a word, but one of die &1tcii<Iant<i of thi:: ehurx'h will \k sure to 
coniv lip ti> yoii, witli a fare all mdlant nitli the- lit>pc of a thumir, and 
thus liis innlion will lii'giii ; " Tin; ittiMt rcniiu-kabU- objret in our chunb, 
b tliis rich ntoriument of silver, >vlucb conloiua no less tlian twenty-sevni 
hundred •weight of that metal. It was erected in honour »f St. Nepontuk, 
whom till! Fjtipcror Venzivlam," &c. My poor itranjyer! thi* is una of 
th« <lti:cntnfort» of trnvcl that thoti niiirt. not hope to r«c«i>«, and the aanc- 
titr of the ^aee fnrbids thee the rtlief of a. good set oain. N&v, wotddst 
thou even save tityxelf by utdden lii^ht, the chanees are that thy retreat ia 
cut off bv Aonift \<-iiombIo priMt, v-ha tnkei up die ttory at the point that 
thrlmillUcr nttendoiit had jusi reached. In that case, patieiico is thf 
aolj moiiree. Listen with refipnation. and thciu liast a chonee that tlid 
story will come nil tlie snoner to an end. So, now Ila^')n^ pi-epored thee fsr 
Uu milictioii, hear &>»] attend. 

Nepomuli, or more properly, Jolianko von Ncponnik, was bom about iha 
middle of the fourteenth ccntut)', in the little Boliciiiiitii town of Xopontuk, 
At hie birth, it u Haiti, bright nya ofgiot^- were seen to shine ar«und liis 
mnlher's honw. He became a preaclier in the ancient city of Pnugnr^ 
wbem lit« fame fniread so rapidly, tliat he wait ratt.t>il to tlic otKeo of nl- 
monei* to the ktnff, and bMAme the qu^n'n eonfeittor. Now Iho Icin^ 
(VcDzcslaufl IV., the relehrated German emperor, the son of Charles IV., 
who hod al«o in bii tiiue \ieeii King of Dobeaiin and Emperor of Germany), 
—the kinF, I nay, was deoirouc of knuwiiij^ what tJin nii4>eii, who had ofton 
nauifeatca gnat dejoctioo of spints, mij^ht havo confided to her coafc&sor. 
Vcnnslaiu wished to know whether she made his onn ttide behaviour the 
cuhjece of eoinplaint, or wIiMlieT nerliaps her mcinnrholy were oocaaioned 
by a ttxnt l»ve-aJfnir. Johauko, liowcver, could never be pnvailvd on to 
W'trny u syllablo of what he Iicd learned in the eonl'nsionat. Sometime 
afterword it so ehsnced that there was brought up to the royal table a very 
fine MfWD, but wbieb, ob btiag C4n'«d, wan found (o be very muoh under- 
done, Tie king ww hereupon in such a rn^ that liu ordered the cook to 
Im upttted alive and roasted to death. Nepomuk did not fall to rate hit 
majeity rountUy (or » atrocious an act of barbarism, but the holy man 
took nothing by his motion but a few dayi' aulitary eonfinmieiit, where he 
would pro1)ably have been permitted to indulge for some time longer in liii 
pious meditations, had not the kin^ still hoped to draw from Mm Mtne of 
the qucco'a secrets. Nepomuk rviuoiued liroi, thoui^h he ajtucArt to luiv« 
liaid some fonbodbg of what tint conM-iinenc^ would he, for lie proplieated 
one dey that he woiikl slmrtly die a violent death, nnil itn FAying took ao 
> ■fleetiooste leave of his Irieudl. The following moruinj;, At he wa« posnog 
by the cattle, tlie king called liim in, and renewed liia fanner solicttationi. 
■ Johanko vttu iiiAeiible, whoraupon the king lind him ceiaed, boitod hand 
I and foot, and had him thrown tliat v«r\- ereiiing Irnni the brvlgo mto tha 
JloUau. The king Uiought uobody would have knovm any iLuig about 


Ota «.»***», (rtil ilww *»• wM miitakeD, for not only were bri^t raya rf 
Kt«4 / •#*« l>< "tii"" "*■' ***• ^ ''''*" ^^ ^^7 ^7' **"* ^°*' **"•" *'"''• 
Xtyii lU l*"l "*' *'•• ''''*' *" "7' ™ "'**^ flowing over iL BEi»cle« with- 
^,1 „„„,|*f w«tr« imrtartned at the Bftint'g graTC, and people obseired that if 
Ma *f)Hi< ti»iri'*ti*fl to express a doubt of the bolymaas beatitude, or to 
MU-t, aUtiMuttly '" •eonmilly upon his tomb, the day never passed orer 
mihitiil Mrtif* flw^race nr caumity to tiie sceptic. In doe time the saint 
•r«« UiMillMl hy Pope Clement XL, and canonized by Benedict XIII. 

fHittM timtt, the veneration for St Nepomucene has spread with mar- 
tnUinia rM^ty through Bohemia, Moravia, and a part of Poland and 
AiMtfi*' J" mJ these countries he is esteemed the patron saint of bridges, 
j^,/] th« ■! — ' oraiscMi addressed to him by his devotees is this, " O holy 
fH JKikpMntKcne, g^ant that no such miafortuue befall us on this bridge a* 
ft^^* b*Wl thee." 

$if the Btle of the silver monument of the saint, over which sundiy silver 
Mb«(<tb an Men to hover, there hangs a golden lamp of immense value. 
TIm* lamp has been stolen on three several occasions, and now, to protect 
^Hi aod the other valuables of tlie church, a large fierce dog is rughtly 
gkttt Dp there as a guard to the gems and relics of the holy place. It la 
weU that the Turks but seldom visit the Hradshin, or this dog in charge of 
ft duirchful of saints would be added to the already formidable catalogue 
of atrocities laid to the charge «f the Chnstians. So unclean is this animal 
in the eyes of a Mahometan, that I believe he would greatly prefer to have 
a whole legion of devils shut up in his mosque. 

With the varying versions that have obtained currency of the saint'a 
adventures, I will not now detain the reader, that I may the sooner have 
done with the other great national bore of Bohemist wtuch, as he is now 
accompanying me through the country, he is bound to endure, as I have 
done many a time before him. So here goes for Slavata and Martinifc^ 
and if we are to have the story, we could have it nowhere more oppor- 
tunely than in this very church, in which we may at the same time aamira 
the monument erected to the memory of Counsellor MaitinitE himfglf- 
Ailon» I Courage ! 

Frightened by the daily increasing spread of Protestantism in Bohemia^ 
a CatEoUc nobleman and a Catholic abbot had found means, in 1618, to 
■hut up and destroy two newly-erected Protestant churches, alle^g that 
they did so by order of the Emperor Matthias. All the Protestants and 
Utraquists of Bohemia, amnug whom were many of the first men in the 
countty, were greatly exrited, and held meetings, at which it was logically 
demonstrated that such treatment waa in direct violation of the royal 
Letters of Grace that had been granted them. A deputation was sent to 
Vienna to remonstrate. The emperor, meanwhile, had taken serious 
offence at the stormy meetings of the Protestants and Utraquists, to whom 
he sent a menacing epistle, which the states of the kingdom were sum- 
moned to the Hraushm to hear read. They assembled, listened to the 
formidable threats of the emperor, and pronuaed to return an answer on 
the following day. They assembled agam, accordingly, at the time i^- 
pointed, attended by bodies of armed men, when they found the ro^I 

Evemora, Slavata, Martinitz, Adam von Sternberg, and Diepold von Lob- 
witz, waiting to receive them. Of these four men, the two last were 
generally popular; but the two first, bigoted Catholics, and tyrannical 
tukia^ were univenaUy detested, and there ware many among the states 



who nere of opinioa, Uiat loligknu freedom nmlil nevpr In firmly «ata* 
blixlii'tl ill BnhicmiB, sa Inng as tboM^ men c«ntiniied in pow^, unci thftt 
tlicrcforc ttic brat tiling tiuty couU do, would La In gec rid of them &h soon 
Ba poMibk. Some opposed these Tiolcnt couum^ btit the niajority ap- 
nlauded them, xai crowded from the Grocn Chnmtvr, orhpN thev bid 
Mmi oowultnig togvtbor, into tbc UoviTumtral llsll, where they ^dn-fwd 
Utter nproulic* to the gavernan, for attcmptiug todcpiivc ihe UtnujuiiiU 
of tbeir Letlprs of Grace. Tho Oberstbttr^graf, Adam von Sternberg, Bid- 
dnv-Md Ums tumultuous uMmbly iii a ooacdistor^ tone, and WBni«d tbcn 
A^iiuC the COmmJKKm of an/ act <>!' vii'Ic-nci-. Kolon i-oa Feb tbcrcupoo 
Kt»ppsd ferwud, and «ud tint Uicjr mrant no hu-m to tlie Obentbui^^af, 
nor to liie Lordship of Lnbkowits;, with whom they were well contented, 
bnl iJuit they were in tin way Mticfied vritb Mean. SUvata and Maitiajt^ 
wlw) werct kltray* iH«)cing occtdoa to opprMt tlw Utnqtiuta.* Venanlaaa 
Ton Rnsoora VKrIiuined, that thu best tlung they toaiA do, wonld be to 
throw Uuni out of tbe window, accordiD|f to the gi>od old IJnliirmiaa 
fuiilon Ipo MarotthaAu). Some of the parly now wiftt up to Stmtbv^ 
aiMl Lobltou'icz, teokthara by tlMamir and M thcmriviDy nutof llieroom. 
SUvau antl Mnrtinits began to bo eetioudy frij^bteued, nutde great pro- 
testJitiona of Uktir innocence, and demanded, if iliey )uul doix- any tiling 
wtuug, Uiat ihey might bo allowed a lair trial. Tim inoMiwd fMbngs of 
the aocniKIy eould not, howe*cr, be npp<-tv>pd. Williiun von Lobkowits 
■tsppcd u|) to MaiiJnitac, and seiaed lam ny bot}i hia hands. This may be 
■aid 1o have been the Grat retolutionatj act of the Bohemian insurrection. 
Could William of Lobkowiti have foreseen the umoeakaUe misery that 
wa« about to overtake bit couatJTi he would probaUy bave aliruuk bode 
and liare cried. " 1 «rill not b« u» man to raise the firat stone to that 
fri^lulul avaJatwhe." Not that it can be shown thut the horrors of the 
Thirty Years' War would bare been averted if WiUiiin of Lobkowitx bad 
kept BIB hands off Martinitz, or if the Calixtinc States hud brco more nio- 
dernte, and had tried tn guin tlietr ends by ^r mean?, for great erenta ue 
like MrcMSU fed by liundrodj of aotucM, and the histoian who orguea that 
if Ifaia or ibat incident bad not oc curre d, eonm great political development 
wodd not bave followed, i* like a eettain Auatnaa, win £u)eiad if ha ooold 

* To naie at our Kiigliah n«den it KuAjt net be mperflncHU to cxplaia Ihal the 
Utnqulltsar Calistnm mvi veil thu r luuuc iucotMeqaaieeof thdrdenuid tbatthe 
calix or wint^-cup shuulJ be eiicii to brincu a* wcU »» priist* in the mamtuiicv. 
^H^dem&iidi wrrv complkd with bj- tli« Conncil of UMtl, in 1433, «Jid aflvr tbuir 
yiebory at Biibtniachbrod, in 14U, over tbe Eaqwfur }<ig!«maail, tb^ obtained 
lUwrty uTGuoadcaee^ and oiler ili« Brfb nMlfa n maaitetud ua vnrknu eetMnne dHlr 
nrmpalhjr far Die ProCMtanti. Their renual to Nrva againat tlui frateMaDti fn tk* 
Saalkalilic war, <lrrw apon Uieni, at flrM, menxv pcraxntionK, )iul uflci liiC, Pei^ 
dbanil I., whn was not ul-diipmcd towaide thcoi. oHowcd ihtm lu itiarv In the air 
Tanlaito c»ikc<1«1 to Ini sruiiidkal rabgcctt. BbximilUn II Rrantcit to the Utra* 
qtutUacomptelofrcoJoin'i/nUKfaMMeMreiM), Unikr lUulnlpli II., iheJr ditiatiaa 
vu kM fannmlilc. and thov ku conaidetmUa diflkBlty in obcauiitid (hum Iiim llie 
Maittfltdn^,OKlxtU!rarGnBt,albid»dtaabim, which wa* graaied ua the Mh of 
July, leoB, and by which the Bofaemian CoDterioii. handed in conjoint^ bj- the 
Utramihte, the BMKmian tretbeo, aad the Bmvcttcalt, waa paMefy recosBlnd, 
and lUr wadwfaatfcal ordlnanwe. by wkft-h their idMMb and diaiebca were ngo- 
UxtA. aoi) bv virtue «f which the}- )>a>1 ti>ul their mm CMMi*>orium at I*T«in>ei were 
confimwil. Tbr repeated Tiol«tk>n> o( l)iv Afajfttsuhntfi^ M&ttluu, led to (])« ta- 
nniltuoiH KCOM al the nradjUn, which are d ea u r lljiJ ia tin lest, and which on 
ffeneniljr loojced on aa finmlng the onthnak of tbeTfality TaaiV War.— 7>. 


■top the source of the Danube with hia foot, he should be able to prevent 
tfae Danube itself from reaching Vienna. 

Be this, however, as it may, William of Lobkowits, did not stop to 
make any such reflections. He seized Martinitz by both his hands. Four 
other nobles lifted the trembling governor from the ground, bore him to 
the nearest window, and without ceremony pitched him out. It u said, 
that the assembly stood for several moments in dead silence, terrified dpp^- 
rently by what they had themselves done. A similar interval of silence is 
■ud to have occurred in the Roman capltol, after the conspirators had 
■truck Cesot to the gromid. 

The first to interrupt this silence was the Count of Thum. " Gentle- 
men," he exclaimed, " there's another of them," pointing at the same time 
to Slavata ; who was immediately seized, and dealt with in the same way 
u his colleague. Master Philip Platter, the private secretary, was also 
^ectcd in the same unceremonious way as his masters. No record is left 
us of what was aaid after the outrage, bv those who remained in the room; 
nor how they looked at one another, 'fhey soon anpear to have found the 
air of the place too close for them. In a little while we see them, particu- 
larly the Count of Thum, riding down into the city, to appease the fears of 
the people, whom they told to be under no uneasiness, for that the entire re- 
sponsibility of what had been done, would rest upon those wlio bad dene it. 
Jt was not till the third day after the scene of violence at the Uradsbin, 
that the states met again. They then entered into a covenant, and elected 
thirty men, who, on the resignation of the royal governors, were to take 
tq>on themselves the administration of public afTairs. The Bohemian revo- 
lution was now proclumed, that was to terminate, only two years later, by 
a counter-revolution, terrible in its consequences, and carried through with 
a cruel conustency. It was the last time that the Bohemians can be said 
to have manifested a consciousness of their old Tshekhian political usuages, 
for never since then have tiiey again had an opportunity of exercising th« 
po MtaroUkesku. 

Not the least remarkable part of this little political drama was the fact, 
that not one of the three gentlemen, who so imwillingly showed their 
uilit^, Buffered any serious inconvenience kom the compulsory leap, though 
Ue window through which they made their exit, was at lea§t sixty feet 
fimn the groimd. Master Phihp was the first to get upon his legs again ; 
whence it may be inferred, that the occupation of a secretaiy tends less to 
the promotion of obesity than that of a royal governor, and the inference 
will generally be found to apply to the secretaries and governors of other 
countries aa well as to those of Bohemia. Flatter, as soon as he had 
scrambled out of the castle-ditch, into which he had fallen, ran as fast as 
he could to Vienna, where he told the emperor what had taken place. 
How happy Platter must have felt, to have thus the first telling of a story, 
in the repetition of which so many thousands continue, even to this day, to 
take such unspeakable delight ! 

Martinitz and Slavata found some kind Samaritans in the street, who 
helped them into the house of the Chancellor Zdenik von Lobkowitz, where 
they found succour and protection. Count Thum, indeed, at the bead of a 
riotous multitude, appeu«d before the house, and demanded the delivery of 
the two obnoxious governora, hut the lady of the mansion, Polyxena von 
I^obkowitz, pacified the count with fair words, and assured him that both her 
guests were lying in bed in a miserable condition. Slavata had indeed a 


wound nil hia h»ul. t)iat (>)>I:fr«<I him to mnain Iter euMt for «omo dme 
Innffer, bnl Mnrtiiiiu v^w nl>l« to tcavo tfw city in dteguuc. n« w«nt tO 
Muuiclii whrre Iw died about eixytim afterwards. 

I trust Ute reader will not hate forgotten, uhil« w» haw I>een thus 
discounbig of talcs nf th« oldeu time, tliiit m> aiv titill in lb* metropolitan 
cbnrcfa of the UndahiD, where wd have a muliitudo of curioaitiw co paas 
ia renew. In the chapel of Vcnzeslniu I was curious to knfiw the pTVCiM 
spot where the ilohi^'niiuii n'l^liii vmrv pre^rvcd. My gtiido t«ld me he 
dnriKt not f^rc nic tho rc-quircil iiifornutioii, Um place where they were 
krpt bcinff- a profound sircrci. The cntruicc, he added, wm by an iron 
door seeiirecl by three separate locks, to each of wbidt there was a wpunta 
Ice}', and these tbre<^ kev were eomniitted ta the kecpinfj of throe of tho 
linit' offii'L^rg of state. I pressed him not the Irts to let me into the secret ; 
t«]1irig Kim tha.t I took enien:U delight in knowing myself to be in tlia 
vieinity of any obieet of mstoiiea.! interest, beeauae I felt within niyielf a 
patticolar siucHititiility for the vlvcUifyiii;; itiiprvivioRH cinu»&tin(^ from 
ouch ol^cct*. This, I aaded, wiu purtirulnrh* thet-uso nitli respect to crowns 
aod toeptivs, ia whone poetical atiiiosnlierc I loved to bathe myself, and oC 
wliOTC inllueiive, I fell lusured, I sSiuultl bfcumuconiicious, even tlirouglt the 
incervetiing !in[>ediniml of a wuW. Morttivcr, I lolil hiiti, no crown could 
hnvo more interest in my eyes than oiiv that hud been worn by so many 
Bohemian kis^ and Ocrnian «mi>eioi-s, a crow-n for whoeo sake so nuav 
a bloody hatUe had lieen fought, a croMit which Jnseph II. hail ran-iea 
away with htm to Vieiiiu, and which Frederick of the Palatinate (tlie 
winter kinff, ns lie ti eidled in Bohemia) had mrel'ully packed up when 
' about to take hia departure, but wliich, owing to the prcuipilaiicy of liia 
flight, w:u left itaudiiig with Tarioiu other talnables, in the public market- 
plaeeof Prague. 

It had mvan while ttruek oae o'clock. Ahcavy rain wufallinjt: without, 
and drtaining mc a prisoner within llic chim:h. I was fdouc with my at-, who emboldened by titi* nmitnstaiice, or moved by my eloquent 
appeals, manifested syniptome of relenting. He opcined the VenMslaitf 
oMpel, and told me lliat, tliough he dai'ed not on a.ny account jmint out the 
■pM tome, yet if I would keM> my eye on lu'iti, he would slightly nod his 
head when lie came to tbe picture holiind which was concealed the iroa 
door of (he nhrine were the reigalia were kept. We proceeded accordingly 
to ioqwot all the curiosities of the chagtel. Firstly, thelieaiitiftil antes and. 
jaspers witli whidi the walls of th« eliapi'l are inlaid. Thru tnu tombc 
of the fust dukes of Bohemia, and lastly, the ring which Duke V«ntc*Uut 
|;raspML when he fell to the gimuid wnunded by his biolber. This brotlicri 
wboce name wni Holealav, eoveted the crown, and placed liiinself at the 
head of a oonntiracy of molccontcntt, in whiime eyM Voui;e«hkus was too 
pious, too cmliuaus, and too fond of the priests. V'cniealaus rarricd his 
piety so fiir. that he planted and tended with his own hand the grajies 
and thp com of whioh wiu prepared the bread and the wine used for the 
MnuauuitHi, cutting, tlunshing, and griiidiug tlie corn, baking the bread, 
initpmting tlie wine. AVhat wilh tliese pious exercises, and tiis oonstant 
atti^ition to the ehurdios he was pluiuiog and building, he left Inmielf no 
time to attend to state aRun. Ouo day. having n-pAi(%d to Duiudau, Uy 
attend the consecration of a church, he became hi) bnillier't ^ueat, ami this 
opportunity was looked on by the eonspintors ns favour«hle to the exMa- 
turn of their dcsi^. Ou thv following moniing, the 28th of September, 


936, VenzeiUut hutened, aa wu bis ' costom, to choKli, in of>edi«aoe 
to the mttiii'H chime. At the church-door be met bis brother, wbom he 
pr&ised for his bnspitable entertainment of the preceding day. BoIcsUt 
then nid in a banterinr tone, " I will entertain thee better to-day," and 
with that drew hii >wom and dealt the dnke a beary blow over the bead. 
Be did not wound him mortally, and Venzealans had strength enourh left 
to disarm hii assasnn and fling him to the groimd. " May God forgive 
jou for this, toother," he cned. Boleslav, meanwhilej baring &lleii, 
roared ont for help as though he had not been the assailer, bnt the assailed. 
Bis aerranta aod sereral <n the conspirators came to his assistance, and at- 
tacked the doke, iriio defended bimself stoutly while retreating to th» 
diurcb-doOT, where he fell, pierced by the swords of his enemies. In dyin^ 
he grasped convulsiTely the iron ring of the door, and when his body was 
brought to the Hiadslun, to be buried in SL Vitus's church, which he bad 
built there, the ring, atw^ was brought thither, and has been preserved 
there erer nnce, where ereiy traveller may have the pleasure of grasping 
it in bis turn, eren though he should feel no ambition to earn the glory of 
martyrdom and canonisation, after the fashion t^ Duke Veiueslaus. 

We came next to the tomb of Duke Braetislar II. ; then viewed some pie- 
tores of saints, iududing those of St. Ludmilla, St CbHstopber, and sundrr 
othen. I kept a sharp eye on my guide, and did not (all to notice at whioa 
picture it was that he nodded, however slight the gesture was. My reader 
and I are both in the secret as to the meaning of that nod ; but at which 

C'cture was it F That is a secret, gentle reader, in which I must not 
t thee participate, lest thou betray it to some designing revolutionist 
from whom the crown and sceptre ca Bohemia might be exposed to serious 

Every Bohemian loves to wander among these monuments of the anaent 
dukes and SMnts of the land, rich with & thousand associations with names 
and things, the memory of which he has learned from infancy to love and 
venerate ; bnt the cathedral of the Hnidshin baa aJao its reverse, for at the 
opposite side of the church is a series of votive tablets, paintings, and 
carvings in wood, intended to commemorate the victory on the Whit* 
Mimntun, a victory which, even at the present day, u an object of ftorrow to 
liio Bohemians, and which cert^nly exercised a more permanent iofiuence 
over the fortunes of the country, than was ever exercised by any other 
victory in Bohemia, either before or since, for it may be said to have decided 
the fate of the kingdom for the 220 years that have since elapsed. 
Rudely earved in wood may be seen a complete representation of the 
battle ; of the entrance of the Duke of Bavaria, the Emperor Ferdinand's 
general, into Prague ; of the poor Winter King's Sight ; of the tribunal 
that Ferdinand established. No German, no Austrian, no lover of bis 
kind can withhnlil his pity when he sees o Bohemian moving mournfully 
tliroiigli this gallery. Who, in fiM;t, can withhold a, tear when he tliinlcs 
with what Aiarful tiiroes 1 1trnipiimn aii<l the Reformation ciune into life in 
Bohemia, and with what frightful madions, after so painful a birth, they 
wcm again annihilated ? 

Tnily gratifying are tlin |ii<:tur(>ii prcM-iited to us by Bohemian historians 
of the coiidit.inii of the country timlcr the tiiilil empcntrs and kings towards 
th<> cliMe of the li^iriM^ntli rt^iitury. Tli» artx and sciences Hourislied. The 
churchvi werv adorned with jinintings of niro merit ; picture-galleriea 



vero eoUtcted ; Tycho Btafa^ Ke^iler, and otfaer «nuneat nnriU of th« 
mgfi, studied, wniti.-, and taught in the capital of Ik^cmta.. Tho whocJi^ 
Mtli in town and oovntry, were ciccllent, uid tmt Ktnong tbe women of 
th« land th«n ware many distbiffaislifld for their l^&rninj^ and infarmiUioiL 
Poets and orators rme and floonsbed, and the works thvn wnttcn >ti]l aerYO 
w dune*] models of Ungtuge. Tli<- Mveral fetiirioD« partim, the Htn- 
^iBEla, the Hu«hU«, tliQ Bohemiaa Itmthnu, the Catbimcs, and tli« Pro- 
tcataDti, an lired in harmony with oa« another, aod lueh was the *pirit 
of lalentktni Umi otiea in one and tbo aaioe village, xhirt reli^oitf 
putio, with their tbreo tet'cral pnaton, Kvsd in {xmee niid fn»na«faip 

The angels in twaren moat hare rejoiced otbt such a stale of things, 
hot the Jeniita were griei«d and ofiGended br ic They held ihe heart)) of 
the pRueei in thdr handi, and nerer rated till th4>y Ivul ImrU^d thn tir«- 
bnuid into the peacvFLiI house, and when they had succeeded in setting it 
in 11 blue, they sent priucM and anniia in to queneh it, and uiterir to 
denroy tho burning edifice. The battlB of the White Mcmntuii, whero 
Um icL>-urf^nt4 under ttw Winti-r King. Frederick of the Palotinirte, vrer* 
tlrCrated hy Maxiniilian of Bavaria, decided every thing The imneiial 
tton|i9 omuiHed Prague, « h eo ti e they com nwmded the whole land, and held 
it like a rictim bottiid to tbe fltake, while Fenliniind II,, in (fl>t-divuc« 
to the suggvrtions of bis Jesuits^ anhjei^ted the cnnntry to a series of 
ofiemtiona that bora a strildag ainulitude to the ordinance mth which 
Philip n. had afflieted BdgianL 

A ecalTold was erected at Prague, upon which the leaders of the insar- 
rection suffered in quick nicceitnion. The aentence pranounccd nnd eie- 
rutsd upon thoev decJared g<ulty a( high treason, was a ina>it«-rf<)c<» nf cla- 
l>orat« i:riimiiul adjii<Jioiittou. It itM tlK-rcin uiiimtely determined, who 
ibouM be executed with the axe and who with tbe sword, who should lose 
his tight tumd btjore a.iid who afier lh« execution, and who was to hate 
bis tongue tarn out. It wiu ftlso ipeciticd how the bodies of luch u wem- 
■Iready df«id wrrc to be disposed of ; who were to be cut into fotir, who 
into eight pneces, and on wiiat gates these several pieces were to be ex- 
pnted to the pnblic gaie. 

Tbe establuh4n«nt uf thii tribunal was followed by the coniinenocmeni 
of a syttemacic countrr-nnntutioii. In every boiwe of et-ery IJoliemian. 
town, not only the heads of hinilies, but (heir wives, workpeople, and ser- 
roots^ in sliort all the iumatea of eodi huuM.', wcro dltej an to return a 
categorical answer to these qneatioaa. 

Art yon by birth a Cathobe? 

Have you Men «0DTertad to the Catholic faith ? 

Doyna pmmiae to become a Catholic ? 

'WnooTsr n^used to embrace ColhoUriiini, wiut decloretl incompetent (o 
eurdse any eorpomte tnde, and wim gnnerally deprived of hi* property 
into the bwgain. aitd expelled &ora the country. So far was the >yrieia 
of persecution carried, that the Proiestaut poor and nek were totnird oitb 
of iIm Iir>^(itahi, and orders were giTCQ that none bat CatbtJica ^ould in 
future be admitted there. 

After this state of tliii^s, tbe details of which nie frightful and revoke 
Ibj, had oonlinBed for aeeen ycoiv, tlw em|>emr came to Pmgue with hie 
taiSy, aad^ hanng tuimBOiMd a diet, bod bts »ou FenUnand IlL 


crowned as kinf^. A few yeus before, the questioa had been gnriiy 
ductissed by the states, whether it would not tie better to erect Bohemia 
into a republic, like Switzeriand or Holland, than to elect Frederick of 
the Falatinato to the throne ; in thta new diet, no one even ventured to 
nuse the question whether the crown was elective nr hereditary. Ferdi- 
nand annulled the Letter of Grace, and all the privileges of tiie states, 
commanding at the same time, that the Bohemian language should no 
longer be used in any of the law tribunals. The nobles readily adopted 
the German langua^, and the townspeople were obliged to leam it, for 
the monks preached only in German. The burghers in the cities began 
to be ashamed of spe^ng Bohemian, though, not long before, even the 
nobles bad prided themselves on their national language, and had not 
hesitated to speak it at the court of the German emperors. The peasant 
only continura to speak as his ancestors had spoken, and what had been 
the language of a nation, came to be considered the dialect of the vulgar. 
Distinguished as Bohemia had been, under the preceding emperors, for 
the cmtivaUon of B<nence and art, she now sank rapidly into ignorance 
and barbarism. That the people might be more easily ruled ny being 
kept in ignorance, the Jesuits went from house to house, as missionaries, 
and took away what books they could find, and burnt them. So effectu- 
ally do they appear to have performed their mission, that to speak of a 
" Bohemian" book, or a " scarce" book, ia now esteemed the same. Even 
the costume of the people was changed, and gradually superseded by that 
of the conquerors. 

" I must remind my hearers," says the historian Peliel, at the close of 
his reflections on the consequences of the battle on the White Mountain, 
" that here the history of Bohemia closes, and the history of other nations 
in Bohemia commences." 

Bohemia now stands like its metropohtan church, incomplete, weather- 
beaten, and covered with scars, but like its church, also restored to peace 
and order. We must read the resolutions of the Bohemian diet if we 
wish to know to what extent, and according to what plans, the Bohemians 
meant to have constructed their state edifice ; but the ori^nal plan of St. 
Vitus 's church may be more easily studied, for all the drawings are still 
preserved in a sm^ room over tlie vault of one of the chap3s. In its 
present condition the church is evidently a mere commencement of the 
arclutect's design ; if completed, the building would have been more than 
three times its present sise. 

The treasury of the church is rich in a midtitude of curious and valuable 
objects. In one cabinet I counted no less than 32 golden mitres. I took 
several of them in my hand, and observed to my guide that I thought them 
heavy. " And yet, sir," said the man, archly, " our gentlemen ore so 
very fond of wearing thera!" In various drawers are preserved no less 
than 368 priestly vestments for the service of the moss, many of them of 
astonishing richness and splendour. One of them was of a material that 
might have furnished a mantle either for a beggar or a prince ; it was of 
common straw, but plaited and worked with such surprising art, iJiat the 
whole looked tike elaborate embroidery. Most of these vestments are gifts 
from Bohemian nobles, and the history of some of these presents may 
contribute to illustrate the character of the country. Thus, one vestment 
has been mode up from the bridal dress of a Countess Tshemio, another of 


Gm camnntioii robos of Uorift Theresa. One uf th« riclK'et nf sJl, and 
wliich ia oiilv di>|^ved va ocouioD* of great «olcninitji', hu boaii deco- 
ntei I>y tlie Prince of Scbwancnlnir;;, nicJi ■ number of golden 1tuiu:h«9 
oi gt%pfi nnd viiip-lojivcs, and with all the butMn:! n-oni on )uv wcJiLug 
coat- Each of thccc buttoiu 15 a joveJ of eooiidvrabb T&lue, fuhiooM 
ioto tlic rorm of no animal, and set in eolil. What wiuteful proftutiMi [ 
and what a strange whim, to dwlicate the wedding drenei of lords toA 
lftd»«s ta the service of the church ! 

Odc of ttio vestments wu embroidered l>y the hnnd of M&riii Tlirrcsa, 
but of all the embroideries, the most woiideriul is one made ui the begia* 
ning of the fourteenth ceiiturj' bv Aime Qu«cn of Bohemiji {Anna Karo- 
icvmi Tahetka). She aoid her uit«r Eliiftbclh wvrc tlic two lut dtwcsd- 
aots of the uici«iit priticelT hnv uf Pm*mv«l, whom Libtuwi called to tbe 
tfaroDv fmm tho village uf 8tadi(i o^nr Toplitx. S^yms of our young 
I&diM who think tliiit uivy have attained no mean pn^licieuey in Oic art of 
embroidery, ought to come to Progue for tlic sulie uf hjokiiig fit ih« 
work of tm last priitcees of tlio Iioum uf Pntvinysl. It is n piece uf white 
linen, upon which are worlced, with thnsaiit of gold, tlie most boautifitl and 
di-licaw tlovren and arabesques. Tlie pattern is precisely llic tuLme on ejich 
siiV, imtl ivithal, to iiccurate nod yi>t s» fmicifiil, that one in novi-r tired of 
admiririg it The pattern, morcovw, in cnn»tniitlv vnriod by thf^ iiircn- 
tion of new ficuKs and forma, though the whol'e pieee u thirty-tlirec ella 
in length. The length of way which the little needle and the dainty 
Srige^r of tlio (]ii«cii muHt have tnu-od orer the linon with golden thread, in 
estimated at about three Icngun, and to me it Kenis a* if tlic labour of half 
a hfe must have been devoted to llie norL, which wus rsrrutvd in esih;, 
and sent to the Urad>iliiii, as the parting gift, of tlie lost scion of a lung 
nee of kiui;:s. • 

Of religious rcUca titc church tins alao an obundani supply. Among 

otltcnt, a neatly omnmented litUr liond, said to Itave belonged to one of 

. tl>e little childreu killed ut Bethlehem, on the oceanon of tho mnssacri! of 

[Ihe inuoL-ents ; apietroof thctAbledoUitliat served our Saviour aiidhiiidis- 

I on the occoitioii uf the hut Hiijijier; and a nail taken from lite real 

J and now shown in a nilendid Eetting of piirv gold. A ]ncco of 

the spooLt) with which our Saviour's lips were mmsleDed when on the 

CToas, and a thnm from thu reid crown of tlioros, are Kt in n cruofix, 

■hk^i erueifiE, the king« of Bohrmia n.-8pcctfii]ly kiss on ihv occasion of 

^their coronation. In addition to tJicse, tlierv are several relics brought by 

^God&ey de Bouillon &om llie graveji of Ahrnliiiin, Iionr, and Jacob. 

Id audition to the ernwn and ^nrplre, concealed in lHw aenret cabinet of 

which meatian wu made sov«TtiJ pages back, there arc othor parts of the 

ngalia respecting which less mystery b madct and upon wliich, nccord- 

|aDgIv. I was allowed to feaic my oy«». Hum want, for inrtance, the four 

[mwion ilaiuoa of tlio four aneienc Bohemian sainlj: Admlbort, Vetiseslana, 

^ Vitus, and Ludmilla. These four statues are always csrried iu procesnou 

belbre tbe kings on tlie occasion of their comnation. I was aJ^o showu 

the nrord of state, with which the newly-crowned monarch always im- 

BOMf the honour of kntsbthood upon the shoulders of a select number of 

nis subjects. This sword i<) lemarlcably light. Some time ago. a little 

was discoTered about halfway down tlin Mode. That it might not, 

rover, W uud, Bohemia's sword of ttato liad grown raaty, the v&'eiidiag 

bjnjC was cut or Bled away, and the form of a cross was (pTCU to this 

34 ruBLic msTiTunoKs akd comrKirra. 

Iiok thus formed. The nid hole I aav irith my own eyei ; its euue and 
origin I can only give npon the uithority of my infwnunL 

PUBLIC nrsTrniTioNa and comrEnrs. 

The n^al library is contained in the Great College Building (CW- 
legivmsgebaude) as it is called. My visit to the 100,000 Tt^umea hap- 
poied on a noi§etesB holid^ afternoon. The reading-rooms that in the 
morning had been occupied by the studions, were now still and untenanted, 
like a deserted beehiTe. It waa an unaccustomed time for a visit to the 
library, but the good-natured libnuian made an exception on my accooni^ 
and did not grudge the trouble to which I put hun. When the last 
heavy lock closed behind us, and I was able to let my eye wander through 
the long halls, I experienced that feeling of mingled awe and enjoymeQ^ 
which I always experience on entering a large library, where the boards 
are so richly decked with the produce of human intellect. Thick walla 
and stout txilts shut out the rest of the world &om us, and we wandered 
like hermits in a solitude, but a solitude where nearly all the fruits of men- 
tal speculation hung invitingly around ua. I thought of Ulysses in the Cy- 
der's cave, exanumng the bri^t bowls fitll of rich milk, and the padcagea 
of cheese and butter, and the casks of honey, all filled to tbe brim. The 
diilference was, that Ulysses had been locked m by his Cyclops, whereas we 
had just locked ouf our Cyclops, the great, noisy, busy, bustling world. 

At a time when, according to the e:iaggeratea accounts of some, 
60,000 students were assembled in Prague from all parts of Germany,* 
these rooms must have literally swarmed like a beehive, but if those times 
were to return again, the halls and reading-rooms of the library would stall 
be found sufficiently spacious. Of the sixty-six deans who were th«i at the 
head of what was called the nations, only twelve were Bohemians. Tbe 
Germans were by far the moat numerous. Even then there appears to 
have existed something of the jealousy that still prevails between Ger- 
man and Bohemian. Huss was a sealous adherent to the Bohemiaa 
party. To destroy the influence exercised by the Germans, he reeonc* 
mended that in all university affairs the Bohemian nation should have two 
votes, and all other nations together only one. This measure led, in 
1409, to the departure of the German students, and to the rapid decHne 
of the university. Thus did the pef^e of Prague strike a severe blow at 
the prosperity of their city, and even in Bohemia there was at the time no 
lack of Hdiciile cast upon the Bohemian party; but the incensed German 
students and professors, it is still believed in Pn^ue, addressed bitter re- 
monstrances to the emperor and clergy, and the vindicative charges thna 
brought against Huss, are supposed to have done more in exciting the 
pope and the emperor against the reformer, and to have contributed more 
to brin;^ about his melancholy fate, than any apprehension that was ever 
entertained on account of his doctrines. 

• riii; iinMt nuxlcrntti flccuunts say ao.OOO, a. uumber «tiU itbundontly large, when 
wo cii[i.''i(Icr that even at thi; presunt duy, all tlic German universities togutltcr do 
not eoiitiiin a. larger number. And yet thore wltc tlifti othLT universities in Ger- 
many, anil many Gernmn students went to ItrJy. Uesiiles, Germimy is at present 
much mure populous, umd mnst contain a great many more i>eople tliun it (lid tlicn, 
who occupy ttaemselvca with learned pursuits. 


llnlcM the University of Pr&gne liail at tKat tiau) morn KooV* than it 
haa uon-, the nl»olv ItWu^* ran»l hnvc bpun cxhaasted ii' oiiIt eacb fluctent 
flwnrniitd «""■ work at » tio)i>. Ou tlip 26tli of Jnly, IMl. the mimbor of 
vohuBM was 99,888, and the catal'vpues ore so annQg«d, Unu (lie cum 
totkl rn»v werj cIkv be Luown with Uw givatnt ptvoiiaii. 

Alth'wi^h much thai wan interesting hu btcn removed to Vieona, there 
ore still bonks in tlu- Pmjnte library quit? as w«)l d^Mninf; of d«seri(KioB 
iw «uy other cunosity, oitner id th« tuivu or its riciuity. Od« oFtWnraai 
curimu in, jtcrliapi, a HuMito hymn-hook, wlticli U wnttcit uid illuntinitcd 
witJt nnf^dar Kptendour. The book, which must bava e«st nuiiiy thou- 
aaada of florina, wm th« joint prodiictMn of a ^Mrgo portkxi of th« mbalut- 
sals of Ptngiia. Every gmid and cnrponitioa of the city had « kw 
liyaina wrietan, nnd pit-turcs minieii to acnioipnny ihetn, and aoveral 
BoUe fimiibM Sd the iame, each fiunily or ceirpmAm crfncing tta sma or 
cie«t before it» own portion of th« book. In otoet of tiw othar dCMB of 
IMiemia similar hvmn-hooks were campoil^d during die aacendanoy of 
Vtraqikiata, and 1 iloubt whathrr of all the Climtion aeeta that hnvit at 
Taiious timM protested ajifamat tlia popr, thnv ever wa> one that produced 
liTiRQ-booka of Boch aurpaaiag ipteDdour. AU the pictiura in tbrf of 
rnoiiB an ti£ ft Mipaior ordor, and eiecutcd in a inaai«riy tlyie. Modt 
of n«iD rcprcMot niddanta from biblical history, or from the lifit of Hum, 
as for instance, his dispute with a popiih pripAt, and his death at the stake. 
Bloated priests and looiiks, pope and emperor, ai? represented grouped 
uouimI the funeral pile of Hnu, whnm angels ore comfortinff in his af^ny. 

Poor Ilun raisi^j a Aninc in which he himaeU' nas hiimt, an well aa 
many that came aft«-r him, but fmii) that flams posterity luu dorived 
iMilfici lifht nor warmth. Tlie history of the r**''*''M" of Bohaima is ft 
oftddar ome thaa that of any otiier relig^iona aed, for bo doeCriae ev«T mada 
its way amid acta orgmiU^r linlt^noe, uiid tion« waa ercr annibilBted by a 
monmtlileM reaetioD. Lulheramiim vr«A abo cmllod amid finufiil rtormti^ 
but t)Mt tempest* have spent themselves, and mJllioRs hare become peace- 
ful parttcipators in tlte hleannga at whirh Lutlieranism aimed. The 
IJuantJ-ii mised a mighty eoaflajg>Tatiofi, of which the Autrians sttNtedad 
in tre&diiif^ out the last spark; the Ltitherani lighted a roaring Rre on 
Ifamr own hearths, and their bomee, in spate of pope and emperor, Imvc been 
wanned by its ^niol luHuenoe erar sinreL Yet Hius, despita of his 
herosy, liva in the aAcctioos of his ommtiymen. I hava often ohsorved 
in them n strange strun^gle, on this eoore, between relif:u>ii and nationality. 
As Bohemians, thev )ove lo take credit for all the irreat thinga that the 
Hunites did, thnugh tu Catholie* they cannot, of eoorac, apjtrove of them. 

L'traquiiai preccilnl the art of pnatin;;, hci»ca the praliiM nduniwmt 
of the hrmn-booki J have deM-ribcd. The rinssilps aherwards caiiv^) a 
Boltiteaa of boohs to be pnnted in llr>t)oinf3, nnd when this eoakl n<> 
loiipvT be dene in the comotry itaolf, their bibles were printed alwoaJ, 
ill Venice, tor instancr. whow nrintln^preMeit in the sixtemth aiid 
Mvanteea eenturies, were at the diii|Kuial afalmi>st every religious sect. 
]& tlio Pnifiue libntry are xrrcml bibles in t)ie B>>hrnuuii laoguare, thaC 
were pTiuti.-d at Venice. In one of the Year loOS, 1» a pirtute of hell, in 
which the ilevil is treading down a wliole host of ntonlu aiul popes; to 
tUi aoma seolous commentator has affixed a ittaniurHpt annotatioD, to 
•nfbrm ua that the picture lopresenta " Pope JnliiM 1 1, in Hell." 

Hw bsst bible, however, in the Tuliekbian language was of a moch 


later' date (1579—1593) when a Moran&n nobleman called together a 
number of learned Bohemian! to his castle of Kralitz, where the sacred 
volume was tmuslated anew from the original text. This trsiulatioa i» 
B&id to be the best : the Bohemians even muntain its superiority to any 
translation that has ever appeared in any language, a point wluch very 
few scholars are in a condition to dispute. This translatioa is known 
under the title of BUilia Czeska Braterska (t. e. the Tshekhian Broths 
Bible), and is still occamonally printed at Berlin for the use of the Mon- 
Tian brethren. 

In the Prague library I found a copy of the first book ever nrinted in 
Bohemia. Its date is 1462. These old Bohemian books are well printed, 
and upon solid lasting paper, like our old German and Duteh editions, 
which look nothing the worse for the three or four centuries that have passed 
over their heads. Our modem paper is mere tinder in comparison. I took 
up a new book that had come from the binder's only a fen davs before, and 
while I was turning over the leaves several of the comers broke off. If 
we go on improving the manufacture of our paper, as we have done of late 
Tears, there will be nothing left in our public libraries, five hundred years 
hence, but tlie solid old iucunabulse and parchment manuscripts. 

In the halls of the hbraiy may be seen the portraits of several Jesuits of 
Prague, and of other distmgmahed men. Among them are Compioniis, 
the Jesuit, who was executed in England under Elizabeth, and Colhn, the 
friend of the last PaltLlogus, who was burnt in Rome by order of the 
inquisition. There is also a picture of Georg Plachy, who, at the head of 
the students of Prague, defended the city bridge so gloriously against the 
Swedes. The most interesting^ of all tliese worthies, to me, was a marble 
bust of Moiart, the greatest musical genius that Germany ever produced. 
Thb bust stands in a room, the shelves of which are filled only witli the 
works of the great master. 

Mozart is one of the very few Germans for whom even the Bohemian 
patriots express their respect without any arriere pensie; but then they 
usually remind you, that though Mozart was born iu Germany, they con- 
sider him to have been a Bohemian in all but the place of liis birth. In the 
first place, they will tell you, he wrote all his best works, his " Don Juan," 
" Figaro," and a few otliers, in Prague, in tlie atmosphere of Bohemian 
song. Then they will add that nowhere out of Bohemia is Mozart pro- 
perly understood. In Vienna the people were at first quite unable to 
estimate him, and Mozart himself, they will assure you, would often say, 
that he had nowhere been comprehended but in Prap^e. " My father," 
said a Bohemian once to me, " was one day looking for Mozart's grave in 
the cemetery at Vieinia, but the gravediffger was a long time beforo he 
could make out whom my father meant by the divine Mozart. At length 
the man suddenly cried out, ' Oil, jwrhaps your honour means the 
musician that was drowneil '.' " I thought the anecdote much more charac- 
teristic of the place where- it wan told me, tiiaii of that to which it referred. 

The Buliemians in thus daiming -Mozai t bccnuse he live<I ammiK them, 
reverse the conduct of the Poles, who would nib us even of Coperni- 
cus, iK-cause lie was was Iwrninadtv-iibji.-irt tn Poland, though his parents 
were Germans, tltougli he recfiwd a Gcnnaii oilucatioii, and resided the 
groneiT jinrt of lii;i lil'i; in ficnnany. Th'- .Siavniiians arc apt to appro- 
priate (;v.rj- German who (ioim;* ammi;^ tli'.-ai, and assiiu'latei liimst-lf to 
their sjiirit. O.i the oilier iiaud, hrjwevi-r, »■; are cftin disposed to look 



Dpon man^ a, Slaronua author as a Germo-n, merely because he liu cltotea 
tuo Gttrman lan^^agc na tbe vehidv for giving Iiin idciu to the wurld, in 
the MfliB wfty timt mniiy a Gernutn, bccau«« h& liajipcnccl to writv ia 
Frvncli, b aUnys art down iti France for a Prmchmati. We ofleii look 
u|)on nil the Western SlaToninns us so many Germaiu, perlinjH l)vuiu» 
we consider that thow countries one thdr oducatioa nnd cnlif^Ut^nmrat to 
G«nnany, but tlio Slavotiiuu tlicniselvca arv muclt more ciact tn these 
mattcn. For iusuncr, licfore I cnnic to B<tli«iniA I never dresml of 
looking on Hiua but as a Gmnan. In Bolieitiia I M'as soon cflireotMl aii 
this [M'int, and Icanit that Hue* (the h miist be proaouiit<c-(l with a stronf 
^tt^Tiil iiitonivtioD ) i:i a genuine T»hekhian [di-biaii [lalront-iiiic, ana 
in««ii5 neither more iiur ]«M (hao t/ooxe, HuKt himself was boru in a 
Tthcktiiaii villag«t nnd vta tho*nn of Slnvoninii ]>e:ii'3tit<, and !u |<fOf>or* 
lion tii I bcranie aojuainted more iDtimatcly with hia hisbny, iintou^ his 
natirv hilltf, 1 was inadft gradually aware that the lIuMitti wars were not 
merely religiont wars, but were in reality, a ttnifr^Io on thp part of thft 
Bobeniiaas to shake off the dotaiaation ca the Corman! i the cuiperor uiid 
hb |irie*t« wen) hateful nither us foreign mien titan on accouut uf their 
theolouical srron. 

If I atn not mistaken, I have beard it aaserttd ot Ptague that the first 
inventor of gun|>owder wat likewise a Bolieiuian ; that wc owe the art of 
pnnttag, not t^i a Gcnnaii, but to u Slavonian of lloliemia, hta lately been 
rvpciklcdiy maiiitaitK^d, n:ul inftny imafipnt-' they Imve demon itratcff it in 
the most incontrovertible nianiier. Ttif H«>hi;Tiiiaji vti-siim of the stoi^- is 
this. There lived in tlie early pitrt of the tifl<n'iith rcritiin,-, in a It'iht^niian 
town cull^ Gattcuberi;, or kuttenbiTe, n man r>f th? name of Joseph 
Tnha.itni. [Ie was a ieunied man, aiid after the failiiioii of tlie learned 
inen of his time, he tnini>>1iitod hiii n<tltt^iiiiaii name into Ijitin, and rnlM 
llimaelf Faiutua, for tsAtisOti is thu Tnhrkliinn wiird fur happt/. At the 
tAm« time, aecordinff to a practice that also then pir^-ailed among learned 
men, he added to his own name that of the p):icc of hia birth, aixl called 
hiuisoif Jouuneo Fauctus Kuttvnhorgimuit. In 1421, about tlw eunnnviiee' 
meat of tbe Uiusite war«i be was driven from hit country, and arriv«Hl 04 
B (ii^tive at Strasbar^ wfaerc he dropped tbe name of Faustus, and called 
bimielf simply Johann OutUoberg. Titere is an aDcioni maimneript. \o 
which rpfoiencn is niad« in support of thi« elaim. and in whieh the followinfj 
sentence occurs : — " Pottea^am artcm librQrum imprimrnihrum intern 
Joannes KulleiibtT^ifuis tinrmtts, patria KHUeRbergeHsii. prius 
Joantif* I''austua ftominatHs, r/ui cr>*vi aiiHnm 1421, Mta fftunliea 
fugUm \H Gcr/naniam al/tU •Stnift^uri/t t« Kvttc»f>rri/iv>n a fintria {cx 
mom rjut irmporis et simul utpatriain luam itb iuoeittioHc 'J'j/pvffrap/iiae 
commendartt) opprliavit," 

Tlw house is sUll thown in F^«gue !n which thb Mr. Faurtu* u aaid to 
have lived. He miut have bc«n in comfortable ciruuin stances, for tlw 
faoiiKR is a large one, and has since been fitted up for the rvcvptiua of a 
public institution, that of tbe iJcnf and Dumb School, w)itd> I vtMted, 
Jianly for Faunlus's *nkc, and piu-lly for the sake of the pupils iustnictcd 
tbtm. There were foityone pupils residing in ilie houae, besides twelve 
cliitdron who e»m« nierelT as dar scbolors. Verj- (wr among iheni. I 
found, went- conijilntely dieaf. Tlie smiiid of tbe German u (like the 
£ngli»h ao in proof) they could always di^tinj^tNli, and when we spoke 
wy slowly and dirtinetly, the cUldieti could underMaud the greater part 


«f «fau we eud, by closely obeerring the movemeot of oar lipi ; bat, of 
ensrae, ihey imderatand tneir own language of ngna loiiob more fluently. 
Mtuj of loeir ngns were of thnr own invention. The sign for God and 
hesven was alwftys Kccmnpanied by a pious look upwird. I tried to teD 
tbiu aomething about a tower, and in doing ao, ^adesvonred to imitate 
ilic ngn which the teacher had taught me aa representine the word ; but 
I uw evidently that they mi^undeTstood me, and when the teacher came 
to my aaaiBtance, it turned out that they liad imagined I was telling tbem 
wmetliing about the l>ope, whom they picture to thenuelves as ft lund of 
monJ tower lising far above the rest of humau kind. 

One of the most important public institutions of Prague is the lunate 
uylmn, which, though it may not "fiilfil all that, at the preseut day, ii ex- 
pected from such an establishment," as one of the physicians belonging to 
the house exnresaes himself, must yet be considered among the best of its 
kind, as I think my readers will themselves he ready to infer from the 
particulars I am about to relate of it. 

The average number of patients yearly received into the house is lOCV 
of whom about one half are dismissed cured. The number of patients 
usuaUy in the hospital is 190. The gardens arc handsome end spacious, 
and distiibuted into different sections for the several gradations of mad- 
ness. Those who are not considered dangerous meet every Sunday in the 
principal garden, on which occasion, a band of music is always provided. 
The labour in the kitchen gardens is always performed by tlie patient^ 
and beyond these gardens there am some fields of considerable extent^ 
which are ploughed, sown, and reaped by the inmates of the house. A 
pitce of hop-ground even is attached to the establishment, that those 
patients who come from the circle of Bunzlau, where tliis specioa of culti- 
vation prevails to a great extent, may find themaelves engaged in tbeir 
accustomed occupation. Constant occupation is looked upon as contributing 
mere than any other means to a cure. We saw no less than forty or fift^ 
poor lunatics engaged in mowing, digging, weeding, watering, plaa^ 
jng, &c. 

With the exception of the straight-jacket, no species of corporal punish- 
ment is ever resorted to. Nearly all the work in the interior of tlie house 
is likewise performed by the patients, — such as cleaning the rooms, making 
the beds, chopping wood, cooking, carryuig water, and the like. For my 
own part, I experienced sincere satisfaction, as I wandered about amoug 
the busy multitude, and thought of the principles by which such institu- 
tions were governed only 30 or 40 years ago, of the scenes which 
were then doily witnessed there, of human Wngs laden with chains, 
or strapped to bencliea, and frequently scourged with revolting cruelty. 
A lunatic asylum in th<>pe days was a place in which madmen were shut 
up that they might not inconvenience the rest of the world, now tlie ob- 
jett kept in view is to restore them to society. 

It is characteristic of inusic-Ioving Bohemia, that in the lunatic asyluni 
of its capital, music xhoiild l)e considered one of the chief instruments for 
^e improvement of the jtatieiits. In addition to the garden concerts, ia 
which all as-sbt who can, there are ipuirtettos every morning and evening 
in the wnrds, and a musical diro(;tor ia appuinted tor tlie express purjxise 
of EU{>eriii tending this part of the domeatic arrangements. 

Among the patients there was none who excited my interest more than 
a gentleman of the name of tiiiiher, an accuiuplistuid scholar, who ba^j 



jtmt tnmc t)m« ni the East, had wnttcn aeieral worits of adcuowtcd^ml 
■inciit. and liad, at (»>e tiuie, been looked upon <M a man uT grwit iintval 
aUiUM, u well nt «r wiad Mtjuuiinuralt. On first fioteriug the Iioubo^ 
lie continued for socno titoa to <Uvota himMif to his McusbxiMd avocntioait 
Wi cnduallr be ft^lt iuLa a hroodiog melancliolv, aod tlu-ticu into a i>tat« 
of suUeD inaaaeia wlieui% no man had i^eu al>l« to roaie him. I kiiw htin 
lying ia hU bftd, quiti^ motion l>-:u, and lui eye* cloned, and hia ni-nu trotted 
ovci his bmul, more like h >Utluc nil a tomb than a human being. In 
tliiM poaitjon, I was told, he lay almoct always, do word ever iuuin^ &on 
liii; lips. Kb firiiHvds ooeasioQally visit him and wi>«p around bis b«d, fant 
hfl eeenu unoousooti* of dieir prcacoo c . 1 wu aftvrvranb tonj to hmr 
that ih'm gnnclvmau's prvscnoc in the madhouse stood in tomr couocxion 
with hi< ptililical opiuiou?, nbirh hv had, p<?rliape, had the impniderice ta 
I<rnclaim wnuewhat too Ireely.* 

1 wna allowed to aee Uie fiats of the patiente treated during 3en:ful pTe« 
ceding jrwan, from which 1 dcdaotad two or tfarat* f tatittical iiifcsvnoM tliaC 
niay not be without vulitc wlion oompaicd with ttifr results obtained at other 
nutbliahmnits of a similar diarocter. Amonj^ £ 1 7 patientsr I fouiiil then 
had been 206 wani«i and 31 1 infii ; to that tba ineii were ui i)h- yntfot' 
tion to tbo women of mora than three to two. WivIIim^): itornunl in some 
BKafnTD to bo a preeorvatiro agiuimt nadneos, for of the oli patients, 298 
bod been UQtnarrii^, aiid 224 liwl hei<n in the holy estate ; the proportion, 
tberttore, of lh» »iiigl<> to tliv wuddml patients hail been at 4 to 3. The 
raiddte ftafr« of life would appcv to be inoit liable to attacks of tiiMntty, 

* Tliii ezprc«Blcin nilnlil Iciul Mr. Kohl'* reailera to suppose the oricnuJIfl Bitter 
to bave beua a pcdtikal TicUm of the Annrlaa uionmnMUti wbcteai. In pntni o€ 
Cki, duriair hb Mwr in Farla, In 1830, be maaifbitcd ntcb evUcut njinptcuu of 
iunnitjr, a* left lib MMwla little bopv of boinffablc to pnaerrc him l« aoriM; mnda 
kiagcr. Franelt WlDtam SielKr wi« bom at1pra(!u<^ ui 1 785. At Ills own vx|ien« 
be UaveUcil. in 18i;. br the way of Vienna and IMetle. to the iVivhip^ln^nt whefB 
be aiate Uie UIbjuI of Ciuulia ttie imniedlate ulgect of bb leKaTcliei, Mid ooUmImI 
natttlidi for ■ vuih irkidi be paUUied iu litVt, uiiilt^r tlie tiile at Rate nacA da- 
Jmtd Krtia, whidi b BaoMnpanitxl bj a nuiiil)ii of valuable caKniTtiu{it i-ux-utud 
bwa liU uirn ilnwiwa In ISIS bv vuil«d £g^|i(, uccwied tin Nik I'l Tltubta, 
awl afttrwanl* u»t«]M throogh PhImUhc and S/ria, and daring tbi* journey Ma 
«dlcetfa»B «KK ao eiUiMiva and ralnaUe, thai, wuen on liic retain tb^ were caU- 
bUeil ia Viesna, the puUic refnaed for a lemg tiaiie ta beUeve Uuu one man eoaU 
ban) gjllaclol ao much hi «u aburt a ttinc His odli-clinii uT RK}T^i'>'> aatiquiliea 
WW afterward purchawd by ilu: AcndL-ni; of r^-iniin tii Mtinicli. In IS33, tiietaer 
aScdftiMD Maririllw on a Toyage rocud tbt- vnrld, durioKirhicli be twU-'I ibc Uc 
«r FrNaca, t&e Ca)ie ef Good Hope, New llolUnil, N«w TculKTid, Cape liom. awl 
■rHTod in LnndiM in JbI^, IteiA. Hit cciUootiniu in tbe tUrpaKment of aatnral 
liiMary, during thii ruj-ajjc, «)>ni iuitiini(liin{:t<r i-jtwiiitr, and mre yriiitiiimi to the 
pulitic in Drmlcn ia 18V4. 11itix< .ttrv-mlj' niiiqiumui of in«uilty hettan to auuIfaeB 
thcmKlnaL lie was bauntod bjr n brllvl' ihnt an cmini.'i)t Auttriiui itatminui aimed 
at hta fifr. and Ais iietkn contlHncd lo i-nirrDM biin rDorc and more, lie imudned 
be had ifisoDTared en areainun fvr tb^' cure of hjHlropbobta, and afftnd t« aeU hia 
ARrrI to tb« EBqMwr <if Aiulrin fur a Wiri kuiii of inaiu.-y. KvtUutf t)ie Aoatriaa, 
h o wi j i w, nor aaj othrr gonimnKnt niantfMtffl ■ wUlingDeat (« pa^ giaber'* prU.'^ 
wWch iadoood bha to go to I'arin. whrro in IMO ho pubUahea a fYHpncm <fiw 
■ww w tf U tmi lU fa aaaiw, a wwk whkh betraTi In ffrviy jv^ rafflriml imnT d 
the ndnnchotr coadfllon Into wUcb It* ambw bad tunk, to mj nnlfainz o( tlic r^ 
nukriixblo fllg^twre ailxed to tbe book; " /Vomum GuilLtmt S-rhr, It pin* ^ramd 
ml J- aKnuJ*^ it l^tf 'if FAm^m." Amuog liU otbi-r woiks aiajr he lociiUanKd 
tlMroOowiog: On Ihi.- lladioal Cdty of l]}dn>[itu>)>in, Mnnidt, HUli On ttic Mum- 
Of ECTPtt tbelr Origlt^ Ol^cct. fitc, Vienna, llS«i A Journey from Cairo 10 
' !BiidbBGk,Pnigue, lUSw— TV. 


t' htiit>iti<« tlivro ^^^ ^^^ '" ^^o^ mental alienation liadma- 

'"- ' ^'.J'tl'U'l'""'" *'»» "^^ °^^° '"^^'^- , , ,, «, . 

i„», -..« '" ^^^^^^^^ i^j^ jj^ beeniervants md day labourerB. Of agn- 

^^ 'i*'i t Mn't" Vii'l (fordene" tliere were only 4. Among the 206 
,,,\ ■ » ■« * i^^i |^^_^^ I J gemprtreases. Among tne men, I oUo observed, 
XV ^.. ■« * 'V"|,|,, fm-t, ^at there had been 8 schoohnaaters, or 2^ per cent, of 

**^ t1 ri.Uinl ■"'''*"'' "' comparatively speaking, unimportant, affording ao- 
" I ii 111 bt <»"Iv sixteen children, and remarkable only on account of 

l*iHi'l«K'" tlK-mselTes for the charitable office of tending the sick. These 
r*" 1iiiIm"< ■'" ^''cir return, with a French abbess at their head, founded 
\\'\ in«lttiitioii. to which has already been added, an asylum for the dck 
... I J, I H'liich I found twenty-eiglit patients. It is generally said that 
I .j,.)( lire much better tended by these ladies, who devote themselves 
111 lb" t'ause from a motive of religious zeal, tliaii by hired nurses who coa 
■iililoMi Ix^ influenced except by the fear of losing their places. We visited 
.),„ |''n!i>ch abbess, and found in her a stirring, bustling lady. She was 
writing at her table when we entered, and left her papers and account 
ImhiUh to receive ua. She told us we must Imik upon the institution as 
(inly in i^ infancy, but that it would gradually grow and become more 
uxtcnsive. I asked her whether she felt herself comfortable in a fordgn 
country. At first, she answered, she had pined after home, and one 
ilay, 03 she was sitting alone in her room, brooding over the many 
inconveniences of a foreign residence, somebody knocked at her door. 
An elderly gentlenuui camo in, who introduced himself as a landed 
proprietor, and began to inquire after the cireumstanccs and prospects of 
the institution. " Ma ch&re m&rc," he said, "you are a stranger here^ 
and must have many difficulties to contend with. Your undertaking ii 
BtiU a young one, but it deserves universal sj-mpathy. Allow me to hand 
you this parcel as a trifling contribution to the comforts of those under 
your charge." Before she could thank him, the stranger was gone, and 
nad left a package containing a considerable sum of money in her hands. 
About three years afterwards she received a letter from a Prince L., who 
expressed a wish to establish a branch institution for the poor blind at 
Melnik. After some preliminary correspondence, slie proceeded to Mel- 
nik, to superintend tiic fonnation of the new asylum, when in Prince L. 
she discovered the benevolent stranger, wlio had contributed so much by 
his benevolence, to dissipate the melancholy of the early part of Iier resi- 
dence in Prague. 

She told mo she often received visits from Protestants, like myself, out 
of Northern Germany, on which occasion she always enjoyed, ni secret, 
the timid embarrassment with which they entered a conventual house, 
their ininds evidently full of prejudice and wicked thoughts. She never 
allowed herself, she said, to be at all put out of lior way by this, but spoke 
with them unreservedly, and seldom failed to have t!ic pleasure of observ- 
ing that her guests were gradually inspired with confidence, and departed 
with better thoughts tlian those with which tlw^y came. And I must own, 
it went so, in some measure, with me. Some at the Protestant scales fell 
from my eyes, when two of the sisters entered tlie room and presented 

FCBLic isrrmmoira and convents. 41 

thenudvn tn nic, not as pal«, withered, faollow-cved nun*, biit act!rr, 
boalthy, bmnf boosekeepera. One nf lliem, in i)iirtipuliir, -wm full i>f life 
[and bufttl«, ai she $timM about in tli« kitclien amoDg th& helple«4 inmatM 
of the hmuc. SIic could hardlv be said to have retired from tlio wcrld, 
she Slid, for slio nue early, and was liard a.c work all i\ay lonff. 

The order of tlie ^Icn and Brothers of Jlercy— llie grey, the brmrn, 
tlic black, tlui grtvo, the blui.-, and tb« nd — Rll sa import&nt a blank in 
the lystcDi i<F public cluuily in Catholic (nuntries, that erei^ one must 
wish for lluur coattnimnue until a better or^nisation ia nibnitnted. In 
ttrikio^ oontntst. however, with thete, is au order timt ha« not known to 
ircll liovr tn combine tlie iaiora with llie ont, tind wiu thurefon abolished 
by Joci^pb II. as me lent, but has bean rt^'tiirvci miic« his death : 1 nllude to 
Vat order of Caitnclit* nonfi, who elaim for their fistcrhond the distinetioti 
of being more ancient than any other in Cbrt^tentlom, Mary, Anne, 
Magdalen, and all the other holy women of the N«n Tr*tniiietit, )i»vtti[^ 
bdOTigvd to it. Tlu- CflmielitA moiikj luwei-t Ihal tht-ir ordt'r was nri^unltv 
I Ibunded by the Fi»i)heC Ehns ou ^fvuiit Cannel. in rale^tine, and that all 
tiie pn>|)beu and holy men, from Elins to ClirisI, had Ijelimped to rlie nriler. 
In tliD proud fcehn^ of a piety eniK)bl4>d by iiuch tinunqiajtti-d fuitirpiity, 
sod by their connexion with »o many tainU and prophets, the Cannelitct 
seclude theinsclros witli greater strictness than any other order from the 

trofime world; subject themselcea to seTerer rule*, and hold themnelves to 
e «nlarely dispensed 5«m the duty of doing any tlung for the benefit at 
tbe rest of thtnr fvUow-creaturea. Joft^h 1 1. rio«c<l tlie conrcnts beluiigiag 
to tlus order in Prague and in other paitx of his driminioim, aiid sent th« 
Carmelite nana back into the world. The nuns, however, even afW 
Ittavioj; tht^ir conventSt continued* M well as tbey could, to observe the rulc4 
of their order, lodged generally two or three together, held little or no 
intcreourte with the world, and lived am alms antl on the work of Uieir 
hunds. H'hen the Emperor Leopold bo*nI tlus, he was moved by tb« lal^ 
and made over la them tho Bamalnte convent on itie IlrwlHliin, where 
the Camietite mini have immured thenuelvet, and ithut out the re«t of tlw 
world aceurdin;; to their ancient fMhion. 

ThrK Carmelite nuns urrcr allow any hut the meagrest food to pass tlicir 
lipi; they pray night and day, and sleep but little. They never sleep no 
any other bed but naked boards, and llirar only pillow is a stone. They 
WL-Ar a luur-clotli ganncat next the skin, aud somirtirnvs an iron chain, 
by way of girdle, with sharp prongs that ran into their flesh. Into tlie 
interior of tlieir convent no living ereitturo of the male sex is allowed to 
nenetmt^}, and yet there are amonir them many delivate and young gir)^- 
Sueb was the ai-count I generally Ta-anI of thrm at Prague, logt-thin' with 
ft multitude of man-etlnns and myst«rious particulars. My ciirioKily was^ 
Iherefbce. excited, and I determined to penetrate, as far as 1 eould, into tli« 
niyHttirious reoesAM of the community, and to obtain for myself soma 
authinitic information on the subject. It was a monk nf the convent of 
Str«boff who lent me his aid ana advice. He deacribad to me u door of 
the nunnery where I might knock, and to the woman who came tu inquiro 
what I wanted, he bade me nay, I was a stranger who wished to seo (he holy 
Mary EJmUl Tliis bcAy Alary Electa, it smms, is the wvak point of the 
Cfmatk*!, who are very proud of having her amoDg them, and Mldont 
reftee a stranger the fcwmr of paving Ins devotions to her. " Bat. re- 
verend father, ' 1 rcplietl, " 1 am a l^testaut, so I hope I shall not be 



talM on to kiM tlw Wndb or feet 'of (be Hint, or to alfect b> fr*v at ber 

■farnM." " Vnii will bo iwked no qucatioa* ehoul your roUf^ion ; out an I 
leQ you, thpro m no olltcr way bv which jou can notain aJmitlAnee.'* 

I went ucoidiiigly, fouad the door to vbich I IumI bnn i), «nd 
knocked. The lloor wu owned, and id a Mliall wttibiOe I nw an elderly 
WMBAn, who btJoiiged to toe <loinG«tu tUmduilB of the eoovvat, and who 
wAai mv wliat a WM 1 VBi)tcd> i niplied, la I bad b«cu tauglili that I 
wu ft itraoger, uad wubed to arc tho Holy MoUmtt, Maria Elrcta> 

In tha mil, opip03il« to the door, wua a nmall opMnnff, and in tMa 
opdunf; was a kiud oi' piT|)viiilicular valre, that tuni«d rMrou, and (hrou^ 
wlacfa atiiall niaU<-r4 nii>;-lii: Ix- paMed m and out, nt liic cmn-nt. Hrir the 
■ttetulant kitockt-i], aiid tliortJy aftcrwanla, a low roicv nrso lii-anl to tn- 
^uirv w)int was wantod. " It n a ttraiicr^r, ven«rahb> BatM. who <iri«h(<4 (a 
•M our Holy Motiier, Maria Bl«cta, and reijnetita the JtevH oS tlic cliapcl." 
" Ywt, yea," waa tiut nt|dy> aiid in a tew miimtm a liaavy bunch »f keys fdl 
into ODA of the «f>n)piiTtmenta of llta poTfMmdicular vtilW; th<^ old woman 
"miio acted as my guide ti>ok the ke)'a, aud w« proceeded to ilic chapcL 1 
saw nochin^ very reaiarkaMe in t)i« eliafiel o«i entering, except an iran. 
railiu^ lu-iu cho attar, belund which railinir aonie bbek otgect a|ipL-aped to 
be inorinfT ah^ut. " What is that i" 1 naked. " Boluiid that railing,'^ 
answrrt'd niy ^de. ''tit* our Mollicrr. Maria Hlecta.and one of our vt.'ncirabltt 
sitJterB is uow opening llic shrine, that ym may see it the better. Wait 
Lere a monMnt, and — " But 1 did not wait. On tbe contrary, I haatenad 
Bp to tbc xailinf^, wbicli eonsisted of thick troii bar»i and in the gtoook 
behind tbetn, 1 «w a mm cloaely Teiled, who irn« kneftin^ brfnra an oU^ 
brown, dried up mummy, kiannj^ ita IutkLi and ft'et, and repeating MM 
|mycr alWr aiiotber. Tne nunuiLv waa tbe Maria Klvcta whom 1 waa aup- 
posed to hare ctma« m search of. abeaat upon a rii-ltly oniATn«iit«<l tlironc^ 
and was adomod with a nrofusioti of Uee and tiiieel. Slie wae ssimtindod 
by a glass ca«e, which tne nnu bad o|)en«d, that I tnight see the better. 
'Ibx Holy riater had bei-Ti Kiitu-wluit long orer ber witrk, or 1 had been 
somewhat quick, but at all <-v<tit« t found, in itf>ito of the tewitt rulv* of 
the Carm«lJt« ord<-r. tluit it wan very {toutble for a yoting nian t4> ttnd hitn- 
Bclf t^lc-a-U'tc nitli n nan, and to caiirereo witb her with even Ii2sj reterra 
tban is often impoHil by tlie etiquette of tlie great world. 

" Eveuse me, venemhle RiMer," said 1, oddrMciug her; " is that tlw 
Uana EU-U?" 

" Pniisf be to Jesu^ Chnst '" she replied, after a few monteiili. sad after 
■he liad completed her presenhed tiumlier of kiwes and jirayen ; " Y€% 
tbu is our dear, holy, rocnnl Jlotbcr. >laria Electa !" 

Tito nun wa» now itAudicg upright before mr, and tbougli siie was 
VTSuped iti a thick woollen earment, and her face was ooT<ered with a doaa 
blaui woollen veil, yet her lonu appeared to me ha]idw>iiu; mid gracsAtL 
Her Twee was remariinlily aoft; lEideed. she scem«d 1» Inrathv and lisf^ 
rather than to Kpeak. This tnu at tinit pleasing, till 1 iifuirwardt nhwerved 
that all tJie Ciirnu-litiM linvc the aaoie soft, lisping, melting voire, with C 
load of sentiaieatBl wbuie while speaking, ibu el£ict of a uubit aiH^uirel 
ftom tlteir eonilaiit praying. 

In thic softly hniathifig vmtvi tite nun Lnld m« lli« whole history flf 
Maria Electa. " She was the princi|)al of our order two hundred yeara 
agOt and her pious :md holy life will m-ver allow ili to forget her. I leaven 
iiBS aiiraculoualy p i«Mrvvd for ua her chtiri^ied fi'sut^ which eoutiuuea ub> 




i>am^itv(l. SIm ia jttst » Ae vu vheo Itvin^. H» hands, snm, nnd 
finfi^n sro still i^iiiti? pliant. Oiu* holy Tfltlwr tli« Pope will therefoTD j>to- 
imhhf caoonUe ItKr, wnicJi Ina not ^'ei been ilanR. 
" Ynu wub that lie Kliould Ao m, I *ii]ipo»e ?" 

''Oh eoTttiiilj', m wieh it von- nwh ; tnd tnd*rd the buannc bag d- 
reody bovn takcu io band. Sbuuld we succeed it vovM ho to tl>e hoooar 
ud to tiir profit of our conveiiL Wv hat-e printed tbc hiitory of Muu, 
and I »'ill ffivo yoii n cmpy of the boolt." 

With tiiftt slw handi-d mc a little book, whidi I snaocsod witli nnw 
4i(licttl^ hetwccu the bw. and oWn-cd at tlie Eame time tJiat hrr Wamd. 
w*B cx(]ai>it«ly white mad delicate. My imairiuatinu icomedintely {netured 
to me a countooMKC eqtallv pl«a«inft, and in honnony with the softtMM 
•lid midmly of tier vmoc I W^n to ralstc of the other saicts and cfatinliM 
thnt [ liad Be«i, and of my own erratic manner of life. She luietied to ma 
with cvidont interest, and ] indulged Iter the inor« willingly, that 1 mi^^ 
httv a riglir, in my toru, to qucstiuu \kt ii little aLvut her cuftomary wiiy 
af living. 

" Oh, our Gfe," Raid lUe, " is ^^lorioua, ibr it ia devoted to pnyinp to 

God. I hav« bMu hem now for fii-e yean. I wu born in Styria, oud 

vbrn I dec'lawtl mv d<rtvniiinHti<in to viitcr » coonnt, my pamitti wiving 

me to chuoxe onp oi Uib kea severe orders. Btit I {ircfemxl tlie Cannelitcs 

to every other, for only those who renonnc* tlie nnrld ollof^'ctlier can b^ 

L Joog altoj^etbfr to llcaveit. 1 n-aiiily aiibmitltd to the strict no\ieiate of 

[^BVe ypaiv, to wliich all must kulmiit who ivisli lo he reoeicMl bj ai^tera of 

' Our onler. ilorini; thi* time wo muit ]in« ihmujfh seveml nrdcnlii, one 

• of whtdi ia to ahftain for a w holo year Cram all i iicccb, buyv to Uod aocl 

bii Munt«. Kvva our asten, durinp tius yvMr, spiaik to u only by 'Ri^ 

Laiu] tliat asfivldomaspostifale. Tbose vfao, during* tfaeae three years, mtre 

] pat eonttantly inaiiii<Mt«d a joyful devotion to their seven ta^k, are not 

veoeiTed into the order. Thmc who, before tlie oxniration of tlie tnn«, fed 

their naahition fail dipm, tnny retire, for wc wisli to have ntnw far our 

■ifiten bm such as freelv and teAlotulv long to renounce the world, that 

they may devoto tltern«elv«9 to praytrr, and to a nommuuan witli the sainta. 

: ]Nor is any allowed to Inha tho vow* Iwfnre her 2-lth year, for when the 

I Tuwa have onee bom taken, all iwtum to the worid U imjHMaible.'* 

From these pn^mieea, I calculated the i^ of my iiiK>rmaut to bo under 

ihiity. A |)rotty *gti* thought I, and a marvellouiily long way off from 

pifaat total benumbiii^ of tlie tleMli, -which I ohwrved in tho third jM-Tsonage 

no oar iotervtew, the ^tothcr Electa, who at rathroocd in hvr giaat caM> 

13 inqnimd whetlier there weie any titmcea at present in the boose 

** Vea, four : and there ore nstcnt Muten of us." 

Siztven marrcUouA, ToniantM, and very melaacboly pcrrersioD* of mind* 
lliougbt I ; a f^atc of thinf^ of whose existence, at tJiis time of day, many 
'onr cold Nordtems will tind it hard to fonn a very clear conrnptiou. 
" As siatars too,~ A« resunocd, " we lerwt a life of constant H'lf-ihmtalr 
■Qeh aa to yon, do doubt, will seem tcjt liard. Ko-cn hi>un a day ne io- 
variaUy Mjinid in piny«r, beside* which, on certaiu holidays, ne have 
|my«nt and masses Io eliaunt at midnight. Uimnr^ ilia day we sehton 
<p««k to one anotfacr> and <mlv in the morniug and evcunn^ we Iiavc ons 
hour of iwreatioti. Durbg tfiese two ho«n are vi»it each other, and con- 
vene togvtfaer. Wa make and mend our own clothes, and attend to other 



ymrlt in tli» counnt, auiUmvonriiig to do as inucli of it aa poniblo with our 
own Iiaods." 

" In it tnie," I uke<l, " that yon wear nothing liul thi« coane garment 
of woolnr liur?" 

'* This is the only ganncnt ■n^ wtar, and our food 'a equally »iinpl«*] 
Meat we never touch, but onlv vcjjttnblca, and fiah, drei>5fHl either with oil 
or hutt«r, and water is our only driuk ; but vre are cheerful and eanteDied, 
mud it ti«vep occurs to m to covet any thinf{ Ix^yoiid tliat. \Vc *li>*p on 
Btrair, Bud n sack oF otraw errvrs iia for a pillow. Some of u^ honoveri] 
imtpose. at tiIIlv^ additional hanlshitu on thetuM-lves. Thcv will sWp, iatj 
itiAtano4>, on the naked boards, or noil save a portion of their acaucv mcabp' 
and mill it out to th« poor iu the world, vi Uil-v wiiJ pii».-i whole uij^hts ut 
prayer. In thirht cKcn-iw.'* we uftcii cimilato cich other, and think wo 
eannot carrv tlivni t'Ki Tar ; fur, intliK'd, liow can we ever hope fiiif)icioiitly to 
cliaflUM a»(i niorlifv our Hitiful lle»h ?" 

(jihmI (io(1 ! thought I ; and ihisu: Mi-nfiiv*, the«it onU-alM, are impoaed 
jn n hoiiM; lurrouiidi^d )iy tniiijituiiiu pnliu'i's, and in thv vci'y o-atre of x 
popiiloii4 JnxurioHs pity. Almost uncon8cti>ufly 1 excltiiin<sj — " But why 
tlo you not rathor choose to live in eomo remote solitude, in eomc gloomy 
forest, or on some bleak heath ?" 

"It would inilced he beltt-r," rMiimod my nun, with her neemtomcd 
swvctncsa of voice, "and wo would much prefer it, but wo citimot rcnioru 
the convent that has ber:n assiffncd to us. and are not rich enough (o build 
one in a more suitable placp. Besides, we may livn hore as elsewhere, free 
from all cpmracrcc with tho wurltl, Imppy niid cheerful, in pcrf-.-cl concord, 
and dcToicd to God, amd to frii-Ddshi|i for each other." At this iiioiiient 
theK arose before niy mind's eye, one of those cronked little bl.ick lliiiigs 
that ask question^ and 1 bej^i to think, that btforv my iuforniArit per- 
suaded loe of tlie obecrftilnt-.-»!t and pi^rfect concord of hvr little conmiunity, 
U would bft nMABary for her rn adtnit me a little more beliind tlui eurtain. 
"And you wvro rij^ht in ynur doubts," said a fi-iend to me afwrwards ; 
"the concord, 1 am sorry to say, b not such as might bo expected to pre- 
ml anion;^ beings devoted lo such constant exercises of pietv, Intri^cs 
and cabals are of constant oeciirrence in this little state within the state, 
porticularlv on the occasion of electing ihtir principal, mho is chosen anew 
trrtry third ycnr." 

My gfflitle Carmelite, however, unconscious of my doubts, contiuaed in 
the same strain. "Oh, you cannot inia^ne how happily, how bliwrfully, 
VK live lierir, without a wiiJt or a. vaut to^atlfy. It is only ndcs so severe 
u oun thai make it posiibls to enjoy heaven already upon rnrtli." Thu4 
Bayinp, shu closed the glass case of Maria KWtn, after she had once cuoro 
kisteJ the baud of the wliithered nniiuuiy, and prnyin]^ tiotl to have nic la 
hi« keepinj;, iihf «itlKln.'w into tlie iatenor of tlie convent, Tlintujrli llio 
OjK-ii door 1 diswiiied ii Iruij" pibssa^, and at the eml of it a etuall piece of 
ground planted witJi tiees, the only pl;icu whence these pour creature* aro 
ever aI»lo to gaze upon fiiml's heaven. God be with tlicc. poor girl, thought 
I, tu the end of nor gurmml vauieheil round the comer, how prievoui 
tnakcft thou life to thywif ! and yet luw not the Lord himself said — " ftfy 
j-okc is soil and my burden is li^ht?" and then I thought of the many 
ai^ful, pioiu niutW-w that I had kiKiwi) without the ccinvotit walls, living 
a life of godhneea, and of daily utefulnose to their feUow-crcaturos. 


PUBLIC nrexiTCTiosa asd coyvEXTS. 


Tlic ^reftl charm wliich conTciild, pBi-tieuUrlj nunncrin. have fi)r us, 
lies in t)ie natiir(> of th« vok-s t&kea tiy those v*)ii> retire there, and paitly 
i& Uie uuiMoalneas of chuncter and ri>rtun« which we |iirosttin« in tlti> in* 
mates. Another cause of die mat interest we tak« in t)>e»e inKtitutious, 
is (he mjiltiry nliidi HunYxiniu them. Iliis ctmm), to inwistible to a 
fobor Protestant, uttraolexl me once inor« to tho Ctumclitos, but ttiia tiiiM 
in cQinpany with a lady orraiUi of Pnt^e, who went to pay a Tisil to tlie 
principal of Oherm Aloysia. We *er« received in the [lajlour, which it 
l«|MUiitod iiit(> two <livijrit>na by a doiib1« frmtinfif, such as is plac«d in all 
Csnactito conriiut« hcfora evvr; window and opening throu^D which the 
profane world might look into tlie dwelling of the holj sister*. Behind 
this g;rating hung a dork cnirtiun which was mlled up, and preaentud to us 
the prinrapnl aud aoothcr nun, wito liad preceded licr in office. B'tth wcro 
closclj rcile<l. and my imagination was Id^ nt liberty to embellish tliem 
vnthcndleis clinniis, of the ei.istence of whioh I was not allowed to obtain 
any more satisfactory cridcDM. My companion offered indeed to ask th« 
pniicipnl to uijvc!), and dxpTMin) a conviction tliiit the n,-<|ticst woiiM be 
o^mplied witli ; but 1 prayed }m'. on uo account to do so, for I fe:ired, I 
■cnrce know whv, tlie dissipation of those agreeable iUosion) iii uhich I 
had been iudul^ng. 

My two risit« cmivinced me, nt all vircnt^ iliat tlie CarmiOite* did not 
livp in wicli numpleite eeclusion from the world as 1 liul been told. T)ie 
principal ke«}is uji friendly reiations with many ladies in Prague, reo«ves 
risiu froiu them, and acceiit* trifling preteiiLi. Nnr do I believe, in B]ute 
of tlie a(«uniiioi'« of my tint inforiiiimt, tliat they would at all like to re* 
move into a wildfmnw. Tboy do not nee the wor^d, indeed, but il is some* 
thing to know that (ho wcild is about thnn, and though thoy imagino tticy 
have renounced every feeling of vanitv, still it is necesfary tn them to know 
themsolred admired for theip soU'-dciuol. Thej- place their solitude among 
the princely palium of the Hradshin, na Diogvnes placed his tub uppodte 
to the palaLTS of thi: Atlienians. Tho pulnccs tliat he despised were as 
iieci-!i>>ary to his self-importance as to the pomp of Pericles and Alcibiades. 
Ilnd the Atbeninns all ukcn to living in tub*. Di<;g«nt,-« would Imve tfoou 
found hi.4 nnv hiu-k into u decent house ; nnd in tliu Mine way I am. con- 
vincecl, the Cimii elites would not be long in knocking away thvir grutiogs, 
if they were to hear one fine morning tliat all the fine ladies in Prague had 
immured themselTes. 

In ViMnia th« Cormulit^! nuns have not boon abia to roMWtablifih tliem* 
solve? rinn; iho daya of Joee[>h, any nmre than the Je^iits. The Utter, 
however, are tolerated in several of the pivivincial citiea of Austria. Prague 
hoa, indeed, far more com'eiits and reltgiouK orden) than ^'ie1lIla, or than 
any other eity in the emperor's dominions. It would lie niucJi more ean 
to enumerate the ordcri that are not to be found in the Dolieinian capital, 
than to count all (lie varieties of idij^ous baluts nnd unifonns that one 
encounters in every Htreet. 

\t noubl be an interexting thing perhapi to obferve all these monks in 
thpir cells, but we sntisticd oureelvei with a visit tn the mo«t imixirtant of 
iheni. the wliite Premnustrants of the monastery of Strahoff, which contains 
one of the trmi celeLrat^d libraries in Bohemia. This eonvent, whate 
n>al tintne ia Straalia, which the Germans have corrupted into Stra.ho(}', was 
fonnded in 1 140, or only twenty yenn after an angel had shown to St. 
Tfarbert, near Coney lu France, tlic field on which be was to build the first 

TBI mnr orAui'Aicr 

ga u w ot vf tlw otdnr. in Uw AirtMatli %nA tm rt mUh omtntiti, t)i» 
asda* fotBumai Unt thousand notnitcnes. At ptswat tiw Dondm doM 
ml cxcesd one fauiidred, of winch that of Strakoff ii prolMbly hy far tlw 

Idka all iba PrathMitter or convmt* on a lai^ tcalo in Aiutria. 
fl ic abo ff ii oat^r partially fini»Ii«d. Thv chnrrh is Ld a ruiooiu condition, 
tmi «Sen a paiofiil cnotrast to thm ma^liceHc« of the interior of tlw 
lUaarr. The beneficial «flfecU of this librorjr inDJit lie inestiiDkUe, if aU 
tbt noBS tnta and noral pr«eept4 with which it* walls and columns are 
■o Hoetally inHcribvd, have not only aervnil as architectonic d«conaon% 
boe have, at th« mbm tinM^ basn Aniy inpcaaect npoa the heoru of the 

The libmy contuns filVjr thnuianil rokiinet, airangad wttJi exmnptarjr 
order aad dt^anniv whidi would bo the mow j^ntif^-in^ if tfane were mxA 
■o few b«w to collect the honey Irom so fair a ^aid«a. The thirty ncoki 
of tlw tiHi>«nt CAD enjoy Init a small poct!i)u of tJw rich nreets eoaa^;i>ed 
lo their ki,x-]>iuff. and the chaunf^k thnm^h wbiidi their fertilising ioAHiiea 
night be nude to flow orcr a wider iipacr, iv<|iin*the bold hand of another 
Joseph to MMU tbem. ZuGa« who |>reaclu->d in the name of Husa, and 
baptued with fire where Uuaa hud come armed oiily with watcr.^Zuca 
wboM Tuima, next to that ef Jonph IL, it oftencet heard in BohiMnian 
■oauterics. inatcnd of H-ttiiii; tns |^ii mm i vweetA Free for the boneBt of 
■Minkinil, would han- ntoppcd them np alt(^;ethcr, fer he desCrojed the 
monaitery'of Strahnfl' u lia destivjcd many others before. At prcsenC, 
however, hia wild one-eyed cauoteoaiice Iwii^ iu the picture -j^lvrr at 
Stoahoff, along wilbii inallitudr of other fabbarics^l portraits ; indeed I liare 
feond the pictnre uf tlot puller down of castlce and convents, occupyinj^ a 
prwainuiit and lionourabw place in the coU«cticn of ntany IJohcmtiin cm* 
Tcnts and caatks that I liat^ had oocwiun bo risit ; and tbtxe who, if he 
mvTB still linnp. would iiii>ve hi^vwu and earth to brinirliim to the gallows, 
now that he tt not likely to do thttn any more mischief appear to be not 
a littlu pruud of the prinlii^ of counlutg such a darvUevil antouj^ tlieir 


The Jewish oommunity of Prague boasts if bniui^ tli« nio«t nnmofoua 
and moat ancient in tiw Aut-trian monarchy, and iudeed of all Genrnmy. 
Jtconmtaof 10,000 indinduaK so that it compmw about, niie-tenth of toe 
wbok population of the city, tn the Golician citio« omly arc the Jews 
senetiiDes Fotind in a eteater proportion. Li Vienna, on thie ontraiy, they 
anaant to only ooe-finli of tlie number resident in Pra^e, and if tlie 
;^r««liT population of Vipnna is taken into account, th* Jews of the Bohe- 
mian Etaaa in nttniprioni [iroportion to thoeo of the Austrian capital, m 
twenty to oae. All Bohetniu i.i »ud to contain ahmit 70,000 Jews ; odc- 
aevriith of the wltole, thcrcfon-, have their domicilcx in Prngui*. All Bohemia 
cniitwits four millinni of ialiafailants ; conHv^nentlv, every itixti<!th man in 
Bohemia is a Jew, and ia ibe capital cTcrr tento. There arc Austtisa 
provinces lu whidi nn Jews «r« to be met ivitli. Tbtto are Austria abot-c 
the Kit*. Styria, Carirtthia, and Camiola. In dta laet-oamed pmvinoe, 
withia n Pmv vpats, ten Jews haut cut ;ih limited tbuiuclvia. la Styria OUO 
lolitary kroclite a said lo hold Uia ruaidcuo;. 

XaS JEWS' QITAftt&b. 


III the wbole of the AiuUiaui states there ftre at prM«ut 6o2,000 J««« ; 
moro tliiiii oue-tbird of thi^ Mholf, 2().>,000, beiug mrtiidvd wicbin AtutriiiK 
Polnixl. iind nMfH u many, 260,00(1, in Huiiguy. Aboat one-aisth, op 
110,000, lababit Boluiiua uiil Moravia, and tb« Kraainder an distributed 
in inudi postiona^ over th> remaiuio^ proviocefl of the onpin-. Thiu, in 
Tniu;tvan» there ore S;SOO: in Tytol 1900; ia l>alinatta, .lOO; ia 
Lonbartlj, SOOO : tn Venceiut Lontbanly. 4O0O ; in thr >GIitiiiy Fron- 
tier, 4UU, Ac HaDce it would iccm, tKnt iti aiicictit times, tbc Slavonians 
and 31ag]ran must bnrc been moit tolerant to the Israeliti-A, wlulo tlio 
Gamuu and Italiuu must alwayi hava been lev wiilinf^ to lulmit thAm ns 
fojdvnts. Tb« puft-ly Ucrman pnmnoei of Auatrk contain only 2000 
J«ws, the purely Italian only 7000; whereas in tltoM pnvnncn ia which 
tlie Slavoiuao and Ms^ar elements of population preponderate, the Jewa 
aniubcT iM 1ms than Clit^OOO. Mo<«o««r, in thft G«niian aud Italian pro- 
fliaccs. the Jewa anyeariydecreMtng'iit nnmberp, aJtboo^tbe populatioa 
rnmndlj U inonnnug' ; in Eluiif^aiy, on th» othw band, the ilewi an 
- 0MMDff at a £arinos<e rajiid r^tio than any othor class of the populatKHL 
Ttia otntT (|u«tiun, lliut whidi nSaa to the antitiiiity oF tnv Hukrew 
conuuunity at Prwiiv, will 1m leu cii^ to »dve; ladMd, ao wi<k> a ran^e 
fM tbam batwMQ d^rvut anthontiM, lint than is a diffareree of nn Ims 
' ihan a thouMad years Wtwccn ike date aao^aed by one party, and lluift 
ConileBilad for by thoae of an opponte opinion. The Jews maiotAin that 
tiwir wktlvHieut at Pncua data* back at leact to the ymr fi32 iif tlie 
Cliriatiuu era, tltat date ning' ioacribcd upock the mon aoci«i>l ImnbabOBa 
f>f their cumctn-y, whllo aeremt torabstoiies aio still to be RMnd ioflcribeA 
witli vartoux dates from Oie 8th (wntuiy. Tlie Bc^emians, tiowever, 
ytfuftc to KMJgnise the claim of the Jews, and deny the auth«nticity of the 
i atone altof^too'. The Jews, they say, have oecupicd thvirpnsciit quarter 
• only for a few centuriets, haviii|f been jvmoved to it. from the opposite side 
of Uie liv^r, by tha iiipiam oommaod of one of the kings nf Bcnenua, who 
•saigaad to tham iba k>oimty now 1um>wd under the name uf Judm-ttatti, or 
[Jews' Town. Oae Bolieniua antii^iiaij told rae that the inscriptiion in 
[questioB nbmd probohly to the year 1632, and not tiSi, it bein^ still 
[anial in maay parts of AasCria to sbtidgo dotes by leavinfc out blic tint 
' fi^iTT-, and to say for twntnnnfY 84 1 , in spealiin^ of the year t R-1 1 , 

If Uie Jvira are eorraci tn thuiv Aimoiogy, their coiuitiutiity must have 

I'flsiated as earlv as the reijc^ of the eelebrabM Slavonian kJatg, Sano, wht» 

rwutad BobesBiaand 31oro«ia inboapowarfulSlaToniaDempue ; nnr would 

I there He any thing very niarirelknu in supposing llut tliti mifjrhly sorarui^^ 

I mder whom conunrico is known to have been actively earriod on, should 

r«b«ady have had Jews amonff his rabjects. It a not, however, known in 

Iwhat patt of his dominiona Kinjf Samo held \u3 residunve, and it is only hia 

. neoesaor, Krolc and Libuiaa to whom credic is given for havinf:^ founded 

'frafnx- NovvrtltcJcM, ocvordiii); to PtdouHeu*, there is rrry little doobt 

that Marobudum, die aucirnt capital (^ the mighty Marbod and bis Map> 

liomaits stood on the some spot on whioh Prague was aftrrwaids built, in 

wltich nuc it is very likely tluit Samo mlud over the whole land (nrntth* 

i of the Mohlao. Tlwrt: would bu nodiinjr abfurd (faercftre, in su^- 

that the Jews may have dwelt for 120t) yt*n wbi-re Prajpie now 

stands, even thoooh we may not f«cl disposed to rcL-Wv« ihcir tonibst«DM 

•« aiitlii-ntie evBMnce of tlie fuct. Naj, it is quite posiiblc. tliut ^Inrbod 

Jumerlf, the colemponuy of Augustus, as he adopted so many thiiiga Grom 


the Ronuuu^ nifej, imon|r otlicr importstiona from Italv. have rewK'ed a 
Gooaigomeatof Jawi for UN 6Ui>ply(><rhi( cttv vf Murobudum. A Hebrew 
oolonv may even ha^'c ciUtcd here at a still parlirr pfriod, when, pre- 
viouaiy to the Christian em. and befure the invEisIoii of the country by the 
UukoniMU, the Celtic orcrei^a helcl their court in their &nti<^u« capital 
Butneniun, which tniul ■!«> hi»vt- btini titiiaUttl vrrj' nrar to where Hnigue 
now Ktaiida, and probably on the spm now ocmpitil iiy tlm tilbigp of Bu- 
benets. Iq this way the Ji>w<i mav buve dwelt in tho country* evea before 
it was ruleJ even by Gerniaii!> or Sluvoiuaii^. 

\Vlieth«r or no there he aiw fniiii(liiti«ii for the«c speciilattoo), it i« not 
tha lea oertaia tliat tlic said Jpwish roinvtory )ia« nil thp outward tippenr- 
■nec of gnat aoUquity, and belougH, as well aa several of th« synaf^^es, 
to the most intereirttug ol^ecti llial a Imveller cati exjicct to look upon. 

Th(! cotnetery lies in th« very lietirt of tlio Jutlnuiiatil, when; it in en* 
circlvH !>y huilairij^ anJ narrow Iaovs. Its form U v«ry inr^Iar, niodin^ 
now broad and tlion iiarmw, amid the houses that overtop ita lofty wall. 
This Tiiry irregularity of form aeems to r|k!»Ic in favour of thf liijrlt an- 
liqiuty nf the placo, to which, thmtigh meenedtn^ cfntiiHrc, a friif^ninit 
M«nu DOW to have been added heiv. and now there. In tbc ccntnd part 
of the enclosed sp&c«, the tombstones are crowdt^ lo|retber in a manner 1 
never saw Liqunlled anywhere else. VAiytc to the wall, on tlia inside, is tt 
fbotpatb, and a man must walk tolcrnblyfastto bo able to make the round 
in a quarter of an hour. The Jews do not as we do. inter fresh corpses in 
ffraves whose formnp tenants have moulderi'd into dust, but always place 
Sieir dead either over or by tlie side of caeli other. This practice occtuion* 
the astoulghiiig nccuniulntion nf tombstones, of wluch 1 am sure there aro 
several hundrf^d Lhousand in tliis cemetery. They Lave all a family re- 
ecmblaace, beiiijj four-eomeped tablets with iK'tttly-exwut«d iiigei-iptions. 
They AtanJ liliirally iu closely toj^tbcr as ears in a cumfield. AU aie 
cnrefiilly pre^ervei), ihnu^h some tiave sunk more or Ins into tlie gronad, 
eo much bo, that )\wv imd tliero you see a stone, of wliich only a small por- 
tion ia stJU viaiUi;. The wholou overflown with elder hu.ihc3, tliat stretdi 
th«ir knotty and confused braiidici" fmrn stone tii «one. The*e elder* an 
the only trwu ihiil gT*»w then?, mid some of them scvm to be nuaHy ac old 
as the itonce which lJ«-y ovcrshndew. The pj-eeence of tlic eliler-treo ia 
tiirytiifT-grounds us not, however, i>eculiar to tlita place, but prevails Tery 
gt'nftriilly throughout Bohemia. 

Ilere ond there a small patli winds among the thicket of lombfttODM 
mid elder-trees, and on following it you come to small elevated afiacea «f 
gronnd that have been left unocoupiod, attd arc now overgrown with 
gntt. If 1 were a painter, and wi«h«l to pMnt « picture of the Rejurrcc- 
tion, 1 must coufcss, 1 should clioose one of these Ultle ^ass-grown knolb 
til th« Jewish eemetvty of Prague for the scene, in prcfttrenee to any other. 
I call iinagin» no moro iiictureaque vpot frnm which to contcmplato so vast 
a spectacle, and I woiia«r, wheo we have so mnny pictures of tho cele- 
brated buryiiig-ground at Constantinople, that our arttsu should not also 
hav» litlccn that of the Jews at Pra^e ns a jrtibjeet for tlwiir pencils. 

Tlio iuseriplions awMicarly all in Hebrew. Ji'owhccc did 1 sec a Bo- 
hemian inscription, and only here and there, on a stone of compnratively 
modem date, ha* Uie German Inuf^af^ benn used. The year is always 
at the top. Tho tombs of those of Aaron's race are distiiiguifihcd by two 
bands i|pu%-oa into the stone, and those of the Levitcs by a pitcher, to mark 



tli« HFice of the latter to pour wat«r <>a tlie bamla oC the fonuer, nlieik 
p«rfortnuiff their kblutSoni in the temnl*. 

Tltc •icxccDdtuits of Aaron ucv«r vi^^it the (emetenr durinr tbeir lives. 
Any contact with, or vrtax a, near n[i|>n)ach to, a deaa body, i« « i">!hjtion 
fiir them. Tliey may not, tht-ivfore, ivtiikiii in a hoiiKo m which ■ AvnA 
body M lyiDg. Th(Tv \a Imt ouv cxcrptioD made to tliis law, nanielv. wlicn 
the lathi-r of oii Aarointc divs, in nhirii case tlie son may cuitic ntliriu ilirre 
•Ub ol' the body, and follow it to the buryinj^-;^ouini, till within tlmtt olli 
of a ptave. The Jewish taws evpn pnsmbo tli« di*tanc# at which on 
Aaruiiitv iiiuat kci-p wlieii piuniiig a burj-in;j*groiiii(]. which (iisCancc-. liow- 
evcr, I* iiot cnlculal»l from thif out^r «-&ll, but from the tipareft grave, 
Now, in Franu-, it liuppcii«< thut niie street posa^a dose to thi> vrali, and 
that just in this spot tho ^raYea not oidy reach up to lJi<! v<-ry wall, but 
that MQie are ercn aup)jo»c<I to tic undrr the [tavciiicnt of thv »trv«t. 
This would. cuBDoqucnily, bi* u furhidtU-n rontl to rvrry Anrmiile, ba<l not 
paiticulAr ammf^mont* been mn^e to proi'ide a remedy. Tbii has bv«ii 
ooiio by undcmiiiiiD^ that part of tlie 5tre«t. and the empty Taiiltnl iipacft 
ihiu obt^ned. protects the Anronil« afi;aiiiiil pollution, fur acconlinK lu tha 
lav, one hnndn^d ells of vaulted £]ia<'c, ar« deemed c-r^unl to ono thoutond 
filled vritb iioUd earth. 

Here, ai in even- other Jewtih cemeteiT. apiece of grnund has hvin net 
apart for the imi.'niient of children willboru, or of pmnalarc biiili. In 
tlie coime of time, this pin tion of the wmctery hua ktuwii iato a bill nr 
nioiiiid. ri^hty pn(-i-» hm^, Uti nacct broad, and tvrdt-v fret ht^b. Kphd 
iK the.! Ileiirow word for n child whoae lifo does not fittend Iwyond llio 
fiturtli week, and Ephfl is th« name gi\^n by tite Jews to tins iiMund 
fnrincd of infantine remains. Close to this Ep/tel are eituated Home ol<L 
booMt that aeeni to be ou the point of falling in. Thty are projiped up bjr 
bMuna r««dnj( on the Kpliel ; thun thn mouldering bouM of dec«a«od in- 
CaaU lend their support, perhaps, to the tottering dwelling -places of iheir 
livinff parents. 

^Vhea soma rixly yeara a^gn, the Kmperor Jotcjih prohibitcil nil ftitiiro 
iiitrniicnt« within thv walls »f tbo city, the Jews had pun'hand a »inall 
piece of land, and consecrated it as an additinu to their cenielcn'. Hat in;^ 
once been couneemled. though not one body hiis bi^on inlencd tlii-iic, tliu 
p^uiid ho* bcconio holy, and may not be »oId ii^n ; but thov^'h it ntay 
not be sold it moy be let for hire, and accordingly n dcater in wood has 
become the tenant, and uses the place as a depOt for big nierc!mndtie. 
The whole cemt-lerj', since Joseph's tiin«, hu been only an interesting 
{liirci! of antiquity, »till no |)iTtion nf it can be sold or built upon, 

Th«r Hebrew community «( Prague «ajoyfl a hijfh irpntatioti Bnioiijcr all 
the Jews of Central Europe, and many cel«brat«<l Hebrew schnlarf, many 
diattni^ULed women, and many eminent niprchauld aud baidtere, rest 
within its remetrrj'. The ttvmniunity of Prague may even lie looVeil oa 
HM the jiarent liive, nlioncc many an entcrnriiiiig twann «kF)iart<Hl for the 
colon ixnl ion of Poland ai>d Hungry, and 1 had subuxpient npportutiitie« 
of sntl>fylng ninelf of tlie iiifluenoc which a Jew from Prafjrue is able, even 
at the iinnvnt my, to cxerciti^ anion^ ht« co-ivli<rionarie!i of Hungary. 

In tne CAtneterv of Prs^ic, many a grxve is pt^inud out to the Rtraiigvr 
a« that of a man high in renown anions: thote ofhix tivm naUoii. Amount 
oUieri, I was calttd on to admire the beautifully- tculjitured moinuncni nf 
a fair Jeweat, who liod rifon to bo a lady of high rank, tbo vife of a nvniihy 

TBB nwr ^AKTSB. 

railh oentit. TTH>r* ««I9 ■rr«nl tnmb« which. I ww told, Itdoafted ta 
Xiflvibai Uiil Rabbis of lugll baoe audi diilinctioii, kml to ont my Ktt«utiQa I 
«u direoted, as tliat of a jtmth who died tome cciKuriM n^, at Uio wijrJ 
Rge of oigfaleen. Ttiis youth had been, even in childlii>od, they told bh^ i 
• nurteic of Icwuinj;. wwlom, beaun-, luid virtue. God had eouowAd bttn 
ivith the moot nleaiiag qoalitiM, nutl Jehovah's spirit hovered uaceiuiHgly 
over the boy'* need. His was too Tirtuoiu, bowerar, for thia world, and 
hi j Creator therefore called tnm away in his eighteenth year. At tiis death 
thi-rc WL-n- ngiu and lairaclc and tlie h«aveiis were oh»vun<d. The Riojf ^ 
of Bofaetnia who then rvigned, uiserviug this, M-nt o>er to die other «d» 
of the nver to dmnand of the win tnoa among- tho J«w«, the cniuo of tln» 
auddva daHcneu, and was informed, ia rvpTv to his intorrogatoriot, that aa 
ang«Iic soul had jiut departed from the carta. 

Una tomh, erected early in the ]fut century, was pointed out to mo a* 
that of a wffolthv and benevolent li«ra«lite of the name d MdMd. Ha 
lind inherited nochin;; from his father, and eifntitiuod till dcatli, lo he a 
dealer in old iron. He lived in tKe same modest and nantimonioua manner 
A! t!» majority of hU natinn ; but with (lie mmey that ho was ihiu nhlo 
t*! narc, lie Imilt th^c J«wi»h council -house at I'mj.'^";* aud four Bjtuii^jgnM. 
Six streets were povcd at his expense, and sittv y>'"r jirojiltf wi-rc weekly 
fed by him. No one knew wheuee liis moupy came, or where In* concealed 
it, but it wiu suppoHd that he iiad fuimd a <)uantity of ffohl amottg' some 
old iron that he hod nmdentally pun'hiiaed. 

At present, the Jewish eemetef^', lik« mnst old niima or dtwrt^il place^ 
■etvM as a rcfugi; to a number of thieves nnd df^ort<T«, who are often ^lo 
to conceal tliCTn-tclvcA for n long lime aiiioii^ die bushes and tombs, ,\mr>M^ 
the iraiiu'i^atoly ndjoeimt ho»»o« iire oii jwytuni for young children, an iii- 
iinnai'v, and on hospital. For the aoeommodntioii of the children a (loor- 
vay haa beeii broken through the wall, and a (mall unoccupied space of 
the cemetery ban been aMi|.med to them as a plavRround, where a shed 
witti lii'iicheu luid table* hju been erected for t)ieir use. 1 own, when t 
saw tlK little cTcatores sportini; about in their little comer of u churdi- 
ynrd, and froliekin;^ nmonp the etosriy-erowded f^vestonra, I could nob 
Iielp askiiifi' myself what in^ueutre euoIi a iitaygmund was likely to exercise 
01 er the future derelopount of their mmils. They were plucking wild 
flnwi^rs froQi the {*nvei^ and Vtvuthing them !nti> earlauds. Thcrv wcro 
laxay pale, nicncer, helplcffi little creatores among' tnem ; atid, u I htoked 
on them, I could not but think of Uw different bte of the little &rourites 
of fiiTtune, whose first tutteriiig steps ore made ainoiiff flowery parterre^ 
or owr Uie lawn of a pnrk. A sinf^iilar cnntratt to iiiia scene presentad 
it»elf when I viRited thtt iiitiminry, where 1 found a number of afi^l em- 
tures o( both tvx*:*^ who hnd complotelv sunk into the hclple.«m««8 of » 
second infancy* Amon;a: them was a JewcMi more than a hundred year*- 
old, who had been bedridden for years. Shit -lay eronked, blind, and alinont 
motiomletSi more like a revetable than nn anitnAted being;, and th« only 
sign of life manifeitrd by tier, was sji occnannal whining sound. About 
forty old men and women were coughing, hobbling, and grosntng around 
UK. I WK accompanied by a man m some eonsideration in the eomniuuity. 
He was saluted by t))c inniiites of the house in a compUtcly oriental Atylc. 
They ouoe tottenng np to hitn. kis»od his gnnnviit, addressed him o%-gt 
and orer again by the title of " Gracious Hakter," and wished him Inn^ 
Ulc, health, and the blessing of God. Many of these pocr people hod no- 


I Irat K ntJv coucli ui a *er 


or a 



tluii^ in tine imti t w IioQ but k ntdv coucli in a very uninTitiii); 
room : yet ihey wen unceasing in ihoir profenioni of gralitiiide for tlw 
nnvics Tondmled ta tboo, tbougfa tfaeie BMOied to ne to be littto about 
the boun doMrvio^ of ooawtt qi iiation ntoept tbe ftot of its cxiatoncB. I 
aiinddcred wturn I thou^bl liow wrvtcbed miuL be tbe dam, to be rewoad 
from which, was calinilat^i to cull fortli sudt wxnn e ^ p rowi oni cf tfauik- 
fobms. Id fact, 1 b«li«r«, tJi&t in tbe Jews' tjiurter of Pngue, ma&v s 
Ti fffi t»ii bcin*; breAcbes forth lik i^iirit&nannj' scenes of euch b^rt-rendin^ 
WRtobednan, that oveii na iiitintur}', inch a» tliat I vat n»w visitiaq;, imy 
itill dcMTve Co bo docntcdn bpiuitw^nt institution, ontitlin^itt foundcn mm 
npporteni to the thanks and estoem of erery truly beuerolent mind. 
Would tliat they were more [)Owerfull^ seconded in tn«ir humnne en(l«a> 
TDun, that tb«y mif^t rcieem a laffp>r tluire fram Ihn floods of aa^ry 
with which the Judcnrtadt of Prif^o is at present orortiowtng ! 

miat a vut extent of moral dosolaLioii there miut still exist in tliu nty, 
mado evident to me by tbe case of n hnmoQ beiu]^ whom I saw in tliif 
Ilo wai a boy that had beva (ouikI wnodcrinf; about tbe stieota 
Prague. He appeami to mc bo Iw btrtvrveD ten antl twvlre vean old. 
He wu taken up by die police in the streets, a wild little creaiuiv, ^nnd 
VDoblo to apeak or imdcntand any huif^aj^. He was handed ovor to tlw 
Jewish magutratcs, who placed liim in tlm iniirniivry, iifW havii^ nunly 
endnniared to obtain a clue to the cluld's family. The name of Lebcl 
KMnwer was given him. We found him crouchinj^ in a eom«r between 
A window and n Wrp: dieat. *' He is wild tuid utiji^iivcnmbb," said tliu 
niperintend(-iit of tlic houae, "and tlioiijrh I kan^ beaten him fur it re- 
peatedly, he will GometiiDM jiunp like a. cat out of tlia window, and |^ 
iudiug tuuoug the busho« anil gravcstonpiq yonder. E^Iia delist is to luiut 
» cata, and if be catches thciu he kills them, llis limbs are powerful. 
id hia teeth remarkably atroog and sharp.** So sayinfr. th» man pulled 
'open tiw boy's mouth, and showed ua bis tftth, much iit the same war that 
s abowman nc a fair would hare exposed the tusks of somo wild aninaal. 
** He will eat aa much as two grown meu," enntiuued the mpsrintendent, 
•'Hot be is not at all dainty, swallowing indift'erently every kind offnod 
ofiemd liim. Sometimes he is more ^un iBunlly wild, and then he \b dan- 
^eionfi, bitiiigatid scratching oil who comcncar him; me, bowerer, benerer 
Vtntnrcs to attack. He iaj» nothing, and if any one cpftakt to bim, Iio 
nerely rvpoats the words like an indistinct ecba" Tbo countenance of the 
diild was regularly formed, and Itia eyes were fidl of animation. 1 naid to 
him, " ViHiat is your name i" and Iw replied only by imperfectly articrulnting 
the two lait wordii, " your uame." " Wliy nave yon no trotisen oh ?*' 
Mud I. " No — trou — on." was tho edio tliat answuircd to my intermgn- 
Iniy. " Lobel Kremsipr, an, you not cold ?" " Old" was the sound witli 
which he refilied. Whilo he was thus repeating my word*, bis face was 
diMorted by * kind of anile or grin that Momeu to tromUo over his 
iatunm. i attribuieil this to einoamssmont, bat my guide told vw it 
vaa tlw effect of mere tvfror, aiid then, for the Unt time, I ebaerved thai 
llw whole body of the ditkl was trvnibliug. After] iind [>«ted on, llooked 
ImcIc, and saw that be still sat cowering, trembling, and grinning. 

In doselat* plaoos, among fomts and raanboa, such wild abandiin«d 
Wing* hare sometirae* been found ; but how it was possible for a wrvtclkcd 
rivnture like Lebel Kremster to grow up in a pt^uloui aty, a a riddlo I 
am unablo to solrsu 



There are no Ipm than twenty Jrvruli Bmmi Medtrahf or houses of ui- 

ttruclioii, brndps eight temples, the greater [lart of whicli are in the im- 
mediato vicinity of tl)» amfiUiry. T)ie oldest and most inMrMtin^ is ' 
all«d the AUneutchvU, whose iottnol amuigvtaeDts intereeUol i»o _ 
iQQni, Bi iJic wiciviit »ty\f. of thu archiU'Ctun^ nnd the order of divino 
nrvioettill nbpervetl tln-iv. nffi>niwl inonn npiwrtiuiity of inwilutingaooni- 
pamon with tli« reformed syskm of woreliiji which i« molcing rapid way 
Kinong the modcni Jcwh, aad has ah'euly taken Gnu root at Pra^^ue, 
where it tbientens to drive tlie old >]:nap)gu«i atid t)ie old schools com- 
|tlift<-lY out of tJic Held. I Hcarecly bxTicve thnt there \a aay thing like 
tlic AUnciMchulc O'f Prague to be found, at tlio present day, lu any Other 
part of Gi-rmany. 

The outside of this sj'nagogue looks like one of those old w-arebousM 
thut may atiU b« seen in some of our UvmtuLii cities that hftvo uudergon« 
but htt.le rhiui;^ vincc tlu.- tniddlc agva. NVithin, tJic dust, dirt, gloom, 
ami iiniokiu(!4« of llie whohi place, remind tini* nf a catacmub. From the 
ceiling hangv a large Ha;^, »n bu-ge, indeed ih&t it extends the whole leoj^ 
of the syiiagngue. 'fliia flng; waa given to the Ae\\a by Ferdinand III., 
after the [ermination of the thirty yoan' war, for thi- iinlHotiHin and gal- 
lantry lliey had div^iliiyi.'d wh<-ii I'mcriio wnu bi-xiejriHl by tlw Swedaa tn 
till' lA«t y«ar of the war. Duriiig; this ticg^ nil (he ciliitous of Prsgue, vrtn 
tlie GtudcDts, the Jesuits, and tJie monk.-i, had fnu^hl bravely on the walls, 
and hod creo mode several sortiei to attack the bokiegen. Di reward for 
their gallant behaviour, tlic emperor cnnforred tlte honour of knighthood 
on a number of citiieus, indudmg all the uty councillor}, in addition to 
wluch, variam honours and inunuDLties vrere conferred on sereral of th« 
oorporatinna and convent.«. 

The Utorau Natkin» {that potion of the Bynajroguc eot apart for the 
wimiei]) is psrdtioned off (ram the body of tlie temple hv a wall a foot and 
a lialf in thkkneas. A nanuw Btuicose, tut^h a^ nmy \ya seen behind the 
floencs of a low theatre, uivcs u the only mcan« of accent for tl)c womni. 
la the iiitm>w tnuMgei mimnindcd by wnlLs they liavo their choirs. At 
Rfpilar iut4-n*au thirc are in tlte wall irtnin rentd or apertUTM, about ait 
ell ill lonutli and on invh in bresdtli, ond through these nurow boles eentM 
all that the female members of the cuugrv^iti^'n arv allnwcd to hear of tha 
word of God. Here tliey crowd tn^rithiT, Innking^ sni) listvinng down into 
the (cmtJe through an o|)i!niiig tbut niitiM Im nbundantiv small for one of 
them, if »he had it all to herself. "They wiJl hear b'ut little there," I 
obMTved to the Israelila nlio conducted me down the stairs. " Oh, quite 
enoQ^ for women," wiu lii» nngallnnt reply. 

On the tfib\ine, in the centre of the K/nogogMe, stAod an old R*l>bi aiUl 
preached. Uls lifti-ncrs <j\>wded atx>und the tribune and some bad even 
intntcled opoa the tribune itself. Cltise before tlis preacher «at a wlut«- 
luiired old man, who appeared to be hard of hearing, and siretrlicd forth 
hi4 ear in tlw elT^rt in ctitch the nordi of the speaker. Xcar him was a 
ciMivd of boy^ Tlte prenehcr w&a not, a» with us, confined within tha 
lintitod space of n pulpit, but mored freely about from one side nf his liagw 
to the otncr. There waa moeh in this that would Iiave been highly ia- 
decoroui to our ProtMtant tmtioiu. As iiu- as grouping and outwnid form 
are coaeamed, a highly iulen-jitiii^ dagunreotype picture might have been 
fitmitflMd fay tbe assembled congroeation ; but, howercr loudly the preacher 
vociferated, the spirit tliat •hould ttavu givui wanuth and life to his dia- 



course 'ITU altogethor muttiug. Hu discourse wm the stran^st nietUcy of 
German and Hebrew that 1 had crer beard. Ererv t«il frnra the Bible 
waa Arct mwa in Hebranr, and then Iramdatcd iiito German. At one 
, aoincnt tn<- ipeaLcr would be caumcnlin^ upon Nolnicliadiiciucar, thon 
'upon tlic de«^truc(ion of Jcnisalrm by Titiu, then again he would cn- 
liu]^ upon the false Uj^hts of modem timei, to elucidate which he woaid 
< ricip up (he whnle ladder nf history to the day* t\( Adxm. 

Tlic c)utii|;^c4 introduced into their temples of Uto years by the niorti 

enlightened Israe]ite«. have altered none of the essential parts of diviue 

mcc, wliicli, in spiiit and form, remains pn^ouc-ly suf^li as it is proscribed 

_ ' the aocicat law. Il 'n only tliQ inunvnlioi», that had crept in durinK ^^^ 

jeoune of time, that ))ave htwii n-form«l ; and iu complying' with the k-tteir 

' of the law, they have eiideaToured to avoid, as mueli as possible, whatever 

il caJcuUted to oSend the enUghtentDeot of modem times. Thus, ia 

the reformed Jowinh temples, tho women .idll continue to be M:[ianitcd from 

tho men ; but by niwti rntlings, and not hy thick walls. The anHeiit hymn* 

: have been rctainita ; but lh«>y are more careAiUy perfarmed, and a vuitahlo 

''Cboir of siiigcra is maintain^ for the ptirpoK. Tlie doctrine of ll>e eer- 

' non may he also little aliened ; hut nome oratorical ability i« lookwl for in 

tha praaeher, who i; exp<x^4!>d to niltiv*t« a purer style, and to refrain 

tma a perpetual repetition of ncbrew quotations. 

Id was in Berlin and Hamburg timt ihti fint ossociiitioni were formed 

wuong tho Jews, with ii view to brinyr kbout these rofonQB, and the cs- 

•iDplo was soon followed iii every part of Germany. In Pn^]^e, about * 

tliundrcd men joined toother, built a new »}-na^)^c, and snit a dejiuta- 

ItioD to Berlin and Hamburg, to obtain more complete information n-s[)ect* 

"gig ih« reformed mode of worship, and to seleet a preacher of learning, 

''~ty, and oraturical ability. The lin<t Kelectiim was not a fortunate oo« ; 

the new teae^ier obtained but littlo favour in t}ie ey«8 of his flork. 

' Till) «ecnnd, Mr. Sua, who, like his pr«deoeaser, eame from Berlin, liaa, 

however, become so popular, that even Proletttanta and Catholics will often 

I to hear him preach. I went to hear him on the day kepi in noro- 

noration of tliv dMtrucLion of Jeruaalnn by Uti^; but, uiifortuniitHy, 

[ arciied too late, the sermoii bang just over. The women, like the men, 

ere sittiug in the lower space of llie temple, witli this diffi-reuoe ouly, 

It the mim occiipi«d the centre, and tho wmnen tlie tide aisles. The 

Mr WM eompoMa of a numlwr of youn^ men and boys^ in a blade cos* 

06, with small black veln-t caps. As they sun^, they were accom* 

by a tiiiall or^un, and the psalms had hem reudenid into a pure 

and well-written (><rrman vention. 

Tho reform in the Jewish temple to<A toot in Vienna somewhat looaer 
than in Prague, and is now eilendiii{r its influence from these two eentret 
L-toaJl the Hebrew communtticiS of the Auttrian crojiire. Schools, hoi* 
ptals, aud other institutions connected more or leas with rchgion will not 
to be boneflrially nffectod by the movcfnent : whidi, indeed, tltey al- 
TMdy fed, as I b3dsub3e<|uenily moru timn onee oceanon to rvinatk. Tlu) 
Anatrian )^)T«ninteiit haj tolerated and even encouraged thefv reforms ; the 
jnorc readily, n« they have not liitlierto led to any rrli^uus cabala and 
JiwensiopB. These iiuleed, the friends of refona and progress, are sedtilaia 
to avoid, and for tJiat very reason they always protest aeaioat their h«iflg 
catted or treated as a separate party. Ne^-ertiieleaaiaometaiugUke&feeltiig^ 



«f •Tsmon (bom Jttelf t>etw«cn tliow of tli« old faith and (h« n»w. Tlw 
OU Jem look npon tlicir iouoTatinj; bmtliivn, liowevcr cauUotis these may 
}>t, lu vioUlon of the hw, and muTmur at tlieir pro»«<lJiip iKCordingtv ( 
bat iftlw re fo tmew condntw to ofaaerro Uic nm» rnodtraiion, tlwy will 
cany their whole natioo with them in time. " Our diief rabln, Bappopat^ 
isan«iilig:bt«ne<ltnan,'' said one ot^ntornmn ton*, " awl la nubearfc^ 
h« a Mfriaiuly on oar tid« ; bat ha mint not qtnmtl with either aidev. 
•Dd tbeitfbre d«M oot chooee to pronounce htnuelf too opculjr tgiitM tlM 

Till* Mr. RaffKiport n at prMent one of t)ie mo«t eminent and mort , 
bi]fblv-<oaader«droen in tli« wbolo commuDlty of Pra^oe, though It k bi4 j 
latdy that he arnvnl then-, iiud that &om Polnnd, a countrjr in which M>( 
onp can ny tliat «nligh(eument has aa ypt made any grvat progTeMl 
among tlm Jews, U» rerided fonnedy u ToinnpoJ, in Galii'ia, but hicT 
KpttUtioo for leanif^ iimI hberality apread fkr and wide, itud caused 
him, a few yean ago, to be nromoM to the post nliich \w now holdi. I 
want to pay my rospects to htm, and found him sunouodal by a cirda oC 
learned scnbes. 

The rabbia in thia part of the world — I mean in Bohemia, Poland, asd 
Ilun^ry — continue to lire aft^^r llic fa^diton of t)ii< wiM> Buni of the Eaat, 
They lUlnw Uic li^ht nf iheir wiaikm to tjiine upon the world in a rciy 
different vay from our learned |ihiloaophera of Europe^ wfao* wilcu whrn 
addrMring a reepectftiUy Tutt^itng audiMrj- from the rostruin. are eddoiM, 
■ nrariMf to t]icmulutuci<;th:tt «tiind tn mnch in need »f their iuatruotiailb I 
H«ra the rabbis «t upon the ■^jK'n markel -place, like the Idn;^ nud judgti 
inaaAm landa, and in their hoiu^n they Kit with open doors, ready Ut' 
iwcave andaiuwerall who eomv romiiiHoliitinii nr advice, Thia ia narti- 
cvbrly the caac on the aoleotn festivak, when tlic mblH* receive all «ho 
flMne to them, tlw-ir dn-cllings bein^ luoVed upon, apparently, on thoM ' 
OOttWMtt, Ims as priTBlc bouMB, chnii aa places of aasefobly for the wbola ' 
CMigregatton. Tlie wifo and ditu|;ht4M« ore j^^eraliy found in an antO' 
rooia, whore tlicy recttiru the i^csC, atid tulicr liim into the inner apatUi 
Bent, into the presence of tli« rabbi, wlui, arrayvd in bis [wntilic^ grena*!^ 
rally nts at the end of a loii;' tabi e, oncirrled by a numerous asMmblajg^ ot 
vinten^ rtmngtn, and fnisido. 

It was thus that I found tlw thinf nihlii, Happoport, whose ncqiuunt- 
•Dce I was denraus to make. Ke hnd not vot Hudwnde the coiituiue of 
the Jews of Eastern Europe, sod tat i& his ano-chair in a black slLk caftan 
•od a hi^ furred cap. uriielites from Magdeburg, from liamburg, from 
WatMw,and from Amsterdnin, wcresittinfr aniitiid him. and other visitsA i 
wweeoiutantly arririnfr-aoddepartioiE;. Mr. R«j>|t<>port u an Aamnite, ft' 
distinction that corrirs niili it pririlegea far more bunltauomc ihiui pro- 
fitable. Of i>ii<? of tlMue I liat-u itlrcudy spoken. Another is, that vrvry 
newiv'boni clukl is brou^t to an Aaronitc tliat ho may bless it. Th«r»j 
•reaiaos^iDe Lerites at Prague, but tliey arc less liumcruus than tlit] 
Aaiui/iles. The taioo t* obwrred to be the case in the otiicr Jewish 
ooBwiunieiu of Europe ; and thin, I wax told, was because Cyrus, when hSil 
re-«8tabliabed Janualem, broog-bt back to Paicstine a gireatcr number of i 
Aaronitcs ^an of Leritcs. 

Jilr. Bappouort told us that lliv Jewish Carailes of tlio Crimea and 
Turkey, had lately found a etone, from the imcriptions on which tfacj 


■Dugbt to ihow the virj nnot* aBiI(|iiiiv of Uieir lect i but that he h^ 
Utcly nrittcD u tputlc to Uiem to diow tbat lli« stoDC «oul'l cot be go- 
Duiuc, B3 !t prori!sscd to be dated frtmi tlic crvatioD of the noilil, nt a tiiiio 
when that wvs not tlie era. hy which tlio Unwiites redconed. In bis lettm* 
he nid, lie had provcitl ta the CaraJtM, thiit the «ra From which the Jevs 
orij^inallj- rvckminl una (be Hl^ht from t^i't, with whicli thvir political 
huttonr comniPiicL'd. Tliis ^steni of clironology thw rrtaliied for about 
tnn looiuBnd vears, when tlit>y adoptc>d the era of tn* ScIcticLdir, whidi 
prevalU-d amotig: the Cbuldeom, toe Synaii3, tbo Pcniuu, aod ttmoDg 
nuMt of tb« orieiiUJ natiotu. TUs sjrstcm of compuUlioo was retamed tm 
-th« J«wa till about five hundred ywtt ago^ -ndien Uw ereotiou of the woria 
ms adopt«il. 

Ballon among the Jews fonua naturallj a subject of constBitt and 
&Diifiar ooDTtttsatJou, (u haviii]^ bran the eleiuent ui which their political 
«Dd moral r«UtioM bftT* at all tioiM boM developed. We ven} led to 

rk of thu BulnMt by on allusion to the ehomb wings \atvly cUccd by 
IsTKelltM of Pm^e, o»er the holy abrine of tlie tableU of th* law. I 
obierred that thcu wtnf^ an|>car<rd to am very iQcom|)lete witliout tli« 
bodies of the angolt. Thjs tiiey told mc, odd atid all, was arecnaric that 
noDii but a Christian would have thought of uuikiiig ; tlial to tlieni stuii 
Sigana of angels would bo nu obominatiaii, nid tliat wlt«i»ei-er tlioy en- 
<ered a Chnttiui church, with iu Dtctnrca and atatues, they felt inu4h ae 
thar fotttfatltera uuit luvc felt wboa ibcy enteral tlui tccnpU* of the 

From the rabbi's hon^e Riy Jewish irieitdfi condiietMl tne totjieir oouucil- 

■ liOQae, erected by tlw Umelite MeiMeh of whrnu 1 liavv nhfndy Ji>okt?n. In 

'ihia building is pnavrrcd the sadeDt eliarter of tlie cMiiimiitiity, which lias 

I lieen si^na and coufirtiKvl by fjich of the cuipeiors aitd emprewM of 

AuMtria. This charter l» prcM-rvcd m aa iovnluiililv trea«ire, and yet I 

fcelivvc tlu; only privile;(n granted bv it arc such aa ^waccful eul^ectfl OUg^ 

to enjoy, without n>i|uinn^ llie security of the sign maaual en their Mf 

fweipu — oamoly, the tolemtioa of lh«r rtlijcion, and the pcTini«8»on to 

exist. Prom the tunvt of this council-houM tlio whfdtt Judtnatadt loay be 

eurvermi, bounded oD one ude t^ water, and on tlw other bv a row of 

Chrieruan churches. From thia turret may be teen all tlie Jowuh stfCetJ, 

■warming wtlli Ix-gKan. and all tlis wretched roofs uador wliicb so many 

fiinni of wretchedneM creep for shelter. As I cawd on nbal I knew to 

be the aoane of so much auil'ering, the words of uie prophet Baruch came 

iato my miod : 

I Tbcrefbtv tlw Iionl liatli made ipood liU word, whidi Iw pronnvncod arainst as. 
andagainst uiir jiiil|n-« tliut jwlBcd txrad, auil against uur kiligs> anil nipuatt vU 
fxincea, M)d agunst the mm of Ismt] iunI Jui&h. 

9 Ta tekig upoe as Kre«( |>lsm«*. nch ns neivr lunMOBd nniler flie wIioIb 
baann, as it eaae lo pass In Jmuideai, aa»raiag to the uua0i tJiat wee wrlttMi 
InthclAwuf Moacs; 

3 TtutantaasluiildnU thcfl(wlioriiisowti*on.>ndltieflealiaf liUowadauslitcr. 

i Uoreonr fce hath iMlvcrvd ihcm In Ik- in nihJiTiii« lo itll i)k kieiplwn s tbW 
•R rvuad abeut ua, l« te u a prprnwih rarl ilrmiluluin aiuoiift uil lliC pMl>le tMnl 
about, wlien tbe Lord bath ecBUcrvd them. 

ft Tbus we wars cast down, utd lut exalted, tecauie wc ban shmul against toe 
Lam oor Ood, Bad have net iNwn otK-dknt unto bis voictv 

Biiam, diap. tt. 

It ■• tnelaneholy to tliink that tliis desmptioo has continued true thnngh 



eenCiiri«fl, «n>! applici ev«n nt tbo prewMit dnv to t3ie eoofitioo ct Ilia 
lar&clitea in evciy henwph«n! and ia erery laua. 


Tlie Auitriittu tav oT tlie BolMTniona (tlint t> (a ny, of the. fjeouine 
Tiliwkli.*). tiint i)Ky m« iiin^iable of nbandoaiii^ themselves to Bny thins 
liku n frank, cheei-ful gmietj'. their leniiier bniij^ lutuially gloomy ana 
rescrvftJ, witli atcndenoy towards melanclioiv. Thia judj^ent respwrtinjy 
the BnbaniiiUis is ao utiivcnidly nJopUKl \ty the <^ti«triaii>, that there oiust 
l»e aomn ^unilntiun fur it, for there is nlway^i mme truth in thi; M>ri«^nve 
whielt one nation pttssea on another. Vie vil) not at pimenC inquire lionr 
th« Au^tmo* caxae to adopt »ueh an opiniuu, for oiir buaness u at ])rvs<i»t 
nitlier with fiicT.* tliim s[i(ii'tilii(ioii« ; niul n* fiir iw iJin city of Prayue ia 
coTii'cmoil, th<! mminorit i>f tlio pco[>Ki Iimh* lici*!! no ilt'i*iil(Hily Gcniuiriixed, 
or fath« Aintrianicf^, that tlie provinoial dictinctiong iwt whiph I hat« 
hintfcl are not likely to appear \fiTy evident to « Btranircr. A German 
amrinjj at Prague feels himself ia an Austrian oily ; he heara everyvrhero 
the Auairo- German dialert ; tnottU nt ercrj* turn «nme .tpodmen of Aus- 
trian |*ood-huinour ; and in the popular sconce tlmt prcsctit tlicntivlvvd M 
hi« notice, he wiU recognise the chiiriictrrittic gaiety of the liuniblcr clamef 
ofVitniia; nor will he, for aome time, even deto<rt the niodilipationt 
wbieh till- miuincrs of Vienna 1u«-d undergone in their traiisplantation to 


I was one dnv parsing tliroiigh the atreets of the latter city, ntud «aw a 
hou«4.-dor>r «tuiKling oi>en. Musie ttiid song were sounding from within. 
I itogifiifd, and saw in the courtyard a boy with a b it m^l -organ, p]a\ing « 
Bohemian Pnlka, and tivn pretty girls were waltzing along the hntl and 
■round Uie cuurtyiLRl tt> tho an^anijiaiiiTiK^iit which chanco liiul thus pro- 
vided. Their danco wiu gracuful niid spirited, and I continued for some 
time to look at and enjoy the Kenc. As I went away, 1 endeavoured ia 
viuii to rointinibor having uvar seen tlia like, from th« slr«et, in any other 
^at citj*. 

Another dav I went to the FSrhrri/url (Dyers' Island), to close the day 
agreeably by liicening for a whili' r.) tliw pveuing music of the grL-ntidi^rs. 
I came unfr>rtiinatoly, too lat«, for hpf.iro 1 reached the Spert gardeu, I 
met tb« bond ou tlicir return. They rtiarcheil nlmig ttie hnmd mad of ths 
iatand. playini; a lively ^r. Thiit nU-eady plnunl me. I hid vlsi^whvre 
leen military bands break up, but they wont home singly; here thoy wpre 
niuching homeu-ard in i»il)tiu-y order, and giving i>ue tune more for Uie 
benefit of thv public This made a» Bgreeabie iiiiiwv-Mion on me. But 
now for tile manni^r uf their mareh. liy their riiJi' wmit some five or six 
boy* with torches, and in front of the banil, along th« broad Jc^el path of 
iJm; ia^>uieii;»de, souie ten or twi-lvc njciTy couples were ilancing away lus- 
tily. Tlio band wen; playing one of fitraiiss's waltzes. These daaceis 

were not merely children, but grown peojile were among them, whirling 
" iping, "' ' '■ _ 
•y gitrknil* wreatliing thenisr'Uirs nnnmd the huge trunk of wnio 

were not merely cinuiren, nut grown peoiiie were 
and tripping, in froliuwnte mood, around the stiQIy 
flowt-ry gftrknilt wreatliing thenisr/iirfrs nnnmd tni 

marching soldiers, liko 

tinift-honoiireil mi>tiar(^h of the forert. Tlic beanded grenndien mean- 
while, >ocm«d to enjoy the gaiety of their youthful altwidiiuts, and tli« 


jnwc mrn-ily thcw daiicttl. the more luntily the olLcrs blovr swaj-. Tile 
yiiiing girli seemed iudelAtip;Tible, Tot if one pair gave in, oiiother was ture 
to iieue from the •econMnivinj*' crowd ana join the ilnn<<ert. Thus the 
inarch proceeded tiluug tlic whole prtntKiiodo of the Farl>erinerl, and vnxr 
the hndgf which cnnnecU the ialund witli tlie mainland, wh«r9 the 
rou^hiK't;! nf the pHvemont put an end u tho hall. Hera was aaothe* 
popular scetur that I thouj^lit welt wortl\v of bi-iiij; enj^ren on my Jne- 
mary, aiic) I wotiM fain huve had a |ra!iit«r iil huml, to presfrrc a copy of 
what aiTunlMl me s» much plc*!urp to IwiV i>n. " This is Tcally a irmnrit- 
kUe ictmo, " «aid 1 to my companion. "It is an ovety-day one hnv,* 
me bia reply. 

That tlie Bohemian* are [ia>iHoi)ar^1y rmiJ nf mtiaic. danve^ and «onf^, is 
iindoubt«dly true. 80 faraa rnunic it conrcmod, th<> wnrld haa long been 
tware of the fact* for Bohemian musicians ar? to be niot with, not only i& 
•11 parts of Europe, but some hiireeven wandetvd witli the RusHiang into 
Siberia, to tlir *cry continwt of the (Jhitiese i-nipir* ; other* linte of late 
year* a4.'c<»ni|ian)cd tlic Fnmch to Alpcrs ; aud «mi in Syrin and Egypt 
B»h'-iiiinii bands are ]ii>tened to with pleasure. Of their foiidnens for 
dancu and »on^ I hod daily opportimities of cnnvineinj^ myedf while at 
Pngtie. 1 met with dancen where I could never haTc expected them, and 
where I fhould not havo met nith Uiciit in any other country ; and song — • 
ay, and well executed — 1 was daily hearing from cellar*, from Kcnonta' 
hallf. and upon the public Btrcet. Aa to music, not die lowest alehoiue 
ill tJie I'itv is without it. 

TIie»e low alehou*e» again have quite a difiV-rent air from tho.«e of tlie 
large citi(>f that liorilur on Bohemia, — sudh a<i DroMien, Munich, Breslair, 
8ic. ThiNie of Prague have lomothitie; uinre p<>tlienl aliout thrin. L«t 
an euttT for inatanc^e, one of the many beerhouses about tlio cattle-inarlcet 
of I'raguo. They consist mostly of lar^ rooms or lialls on the ground 
floor, and arc niglitly filled with menr ^cst«. The enttancc i* jtvncrelly 
taalvfuUv Ktlomcd niih biaiiclics of hr or other cvcrgraem, and tlic walla 
of the room are nficn tajie^lriiiJ in tlie same way. n«n and there you 
may see some neat iirhours Ktted up in the courtysrda. which are illuminaiod 
at ni^bt. 8nturduy», Sundays, and Moiiduya, there u music tn all these 
house*, and tn many of them nx\ the other days also, and music of so su- 
perior an order, that I ofteu woiideri'd where so much musical tnleiLt cniiid 
come &om. Thc»e itinerant orcheatriu of Uobemia, I was told, had much 
improved of late yeiirs !n conseriuenn' nf tJie n-vohitiou rffcct*-*! at Vienna 
by StnmRs, Tanner, Lihitiki, aitd tht> other composer;, bo popular among 
the dancinj^ work). The compositions of theoe eentlemen require to be 
plavcd « ith remnrltable tinnness and {Kecisino ; ana ehcntgli 111 snnw reapectd 
their intlueiire niiiy have operated ti-iy unforttmatcly, yrt I Ix-lieve it lias 
had the t-ffivt, by exciting; enitilation amon^thc inferior clme of mttrieians 
in Bolicmio, of rouidng them t" jucreosed efforts to improve thcnuclvcs. 

Nor is it an uncommon thing;, in tlie heerhousM of Prarue, to 6nd 
dngers who necompany themfielrca on the luirp. lliey have m ^nernl a 
very varied collection of son^ and mvlodies, and a muneal eollector mif^ht 
£sGO*er many that would be new to ttie world at larj^. Their eon^ are 
sometimes German and sometimes Uoliomion. and many that I Itesnl were 
evidently popuUr favouritei, for I could M>e that the waiters and the gueM 
knew ilie w«>rds by heart, antl fnqtivntly joiner) in choms. .Sometimes, 
the wliole assembly would suddenly uitemipt tlioir eonvemtiou, and ae- 



wmfuay lh» nogot with u Mvt of wild onthmiiuni. The gin^r had 
ffMMnlfy • t»U« Deferc him in Um centro of tbv nmai, mmI on this table 
WB little fiilea of co|>]>er Amizm accuinulated fut, for almoct ererr guott, 
fu he left the looni. )l«pMited his oJTcnnjj; tuiftiked. llKse sro CnflM, no 
doubt, but I believe liuim to be pcculsir to I'niffur, and tb»r sffiwd Mt 
iufligfat inlo tint lorv »( ooog aiul muaic nhicb pomidw m flnnyn ia 

It Manu stnuige to me, tb«t after Tenian lad Ortodft hare imnoruUMd 
tbe boorish dances, tlie Itrolwii boMles the black eyes, the toni hair, and 
tlw r«d BanloliJi aoam of th« Dutch gin-shops, and that bo deli^tfuUf, 
that princes think theraMlvm happy in having one or two of tlieee oomm 
tmcchunolian pctum ia their dniwtn^ rooms, — it dgcuiu 8ltan|;« to rac, 
I say. that none of our iiiodimi |islnl«« «hiiult1 tuv^ atcomirtad the tat 
DHiro |HK-li(Uil nnd eliiirurU'ristic coonss that tav of daily o<wurrano» ia ooe 
of th€«0 bct'i boiniM (.<f Prague. Ims^ne the crondc<I room tnuis&md 
to c&ara^ tlic siog^r ri>niiiug the oential figme. the guesta jt^iiiiny; in 
chottu. the waiters with their mii^ iif bwr miatcliing u|> a rnifriiiciit of 
th4> tfag u thev Itiutm fmm mir customor to tuiotbM' ; the jolly wolUfed 
Iwst moving; witxi dipiity tlirongh his little world ; Dor must wc for^t the 
■talk at the door for tJie nle of bread and sauM^ea, for the i-ender of beer 
CttppliKi not tliese^ )i« nunist«re anly to l)lc thirst of hi« tuiten, and thoM 
vrlio would wlisfy tbcir hungvr muat briii;; tbcir viandi witli tbcni. 

Ercn the ool1vc*housM, wliicb arc iintnbiTloM in Prat^uo, nheiru ia 
Dresden there are none, liarc many peculiarities ; but lliey nro all fashioned 
after Austmn niodeU, of wbii-li I sludl liuvc tn'ouioii to «pc«k liervancr. 
X coming from the nortli, wm struck by fix brilliunt nuutocr in which 
tbcM places wun> lighted. I c\nil(l not ut first penmade rnvMlf that tba 
rooDW wore not iUuniiuat«d with gas. The fact », the people hero niider> 
aland the manaffaneut of u«l Iauius better lliau in any other {iiu-l of Ger- 
many. Somatuu^ of tliti, I beheve^ is owing to the superior (juitLity of 
the oil. 

" So, now w«*rc to be bored ^ont lamp-trianninf* !" methinka I hao- 
■omc- of my fiur readrn uxrluni. "IVtty company you take us intot 
Firtt yuH uitroduc« lis to girls that go dancing about the ttri't'ts, boaroa 
knows wliy ; then to the beer-bibbcr* of tho cattle market, to tti« tobaooo 
JuDies of the coffee- bouses and — " No farther, my fair censor, pray. 
DoM your name hn|ip)-ii to bo Anna, or Annette, or ^Vnclien, or Aiinetl, 
Uaney, Nannotte, Nnnnorl, or Nettchen ? for so far as the .\u>triiui ^acla 
atretcDcs its wings over the fur sex, tlitvo aa.:uvs all paH» for one and Uie 
aante. If any one of these names thtm bcloiig to you. I congratulate you. 
fi:>r in that c<ue you are most premtn^y sad kindly invited to die ff>stiv&I of 
St. Anno, cc-k-brat^ this day in tlie chamiiug Moldauiusd. aud there it 
will be my agreeable duty to intrfiduce you into very weU*bi«d and agrve- 
ahlc company, in which you will find all tlw pretty Annes of Pragiiey 
S crowd worthy of all admiratioii, and «berc you will find tlw popular 
manners of Prague presented to you in a totally dilferent pinnt nl' view. 

&t. .<\nne'B day is one of tlia most dUtiuguiiheil populsj fostivalB in all 
paru of the Atutrian dominions, but nowli«rc ore tiic Anncs made mor* 
of than in Pragno, This holiday fidls on the £{itli of July, and on the 
preceding evening ev^ry street-comw is tapesliied with urgent inntiitinns 
to fi^stiviti^ of every de«criplion. The tavern keepem and other«FC 
of tlie rvvela are vaiul^nu lu theix d»criptiou» of tho bnlliiLut preparatJans 



truulc hj them for the ontctUumnont of sli tlia pretty Abiwm to Pngito. 
One addreucs hiciuclf sinifAy to lliu *' beautirul Audm," anotJieT to tlw 
" cbatnting Aiia«8 of the Bgliemiau c^tal," a third b«wU hn jilavkTd 
with an inToeiition to tbe "bif^lily re<;pected NonDcttc*." Accomio^y* 
wbfu, utt the aU-importoat day. tiiu hato^ mis idieds his iUumiaatiiifr rays 
on tliP (Tomera of th« ttreeU of Prsgtxv tfaoM pretty maidens far whan 
ihoT gntlmothprs haye takuii th« ncoeoary vare, may behold thoir Kted 
Bane luuili; gloiioiu iu vvUow, blue, aud ml Ivttcra, in Latin, Gotliic, and 
Oennau cliamvtcn, a»u may see tbemMlvM inrtted to radi a cnuotlMi 
mtinbvr of dinners, lupnen, brMkluta, mral exonraona, bolla^ aad illumi- 
naUoiw, that it must Moly pQxil« tbem to d«t«niiine to which of so maay 
kindly talicitine adiiiiren they will estend their a|>]>n>Tii>g'cnu]e9. 

Tlw bMutiful Fiirhfriitael is always die cbitrf uoint cif attmrlion ou tills 
Aty. Thi« ialand, porlinpc one of th« tnott beautiful placoa of public rceort 
in all Gcnoany, ia not Wgv^ of an onX fwin, about 1 50 fatlionu long, and 
loo liiiliQtna brood, is aunounded by the rapid wat«n of Mia Moldau, and 
pivxciiti iu vinterx with a «oaiplebe Paiinmma of Prtif*un nnd it« hl!l<. To 
tho ii)^bt you sea from the Farifrintei the old city, to tlie left tbo Iliad- 
shin anil the KleiriaeUe ; behind risca the Visscbrad, and in &ont lies the old 
Mtddaii bridge. In the oentn; of the i&land are tome elegant builtUnj^, 
«hMb Btood open all dur lon^ for the «atcTtiuDuicut of stran^n. Iu Uw 
tear of dtmp bwldiog«, no mIio feci!) Iiimself disposed for sc^lcntary enjoy- 
meut, will Bud abtniasDce of beuclii's und tables laid out under ttie canopjr 
of ht^ •prcadit^ tr««a, and a tribune «rect«d for tbe atwommodatioQ c£ 
ma omiertra will aeldoai be found unoccupied. Ou both aide« are path^ 
vhieh wind off ainoi^ p^nj^ota aiid btuJuf, and ii» St. Anne'a dar* 
«vmF place u bun;^ witli wreatlia and garlandt, with tit-n and th«ra trt* 
nmi'liBiit aidiee, illumiuatcd at tiight, and dtvorated with cotoMal A's 
and N's, 

Kariy in tho moniirif^ the host who Saraa the bridfre tliat lends to thic 
chatroittj^ little iiland, liu already takcji a mora coiudderaUe t^ll than is 
tWCcitMl during Uie whole twenty •lour hours on any other day in the year; 
for the luiuic, on St. Anne'a day, begins ac sunrise, and clooes not till tbe 
tnooo has vanithod on the foliAi^ioj; night. The greatest tliroiii;^ is 
betwM-n tiw and s«Tcn in tbe aEbenioana bnt tho more wiftocsaUo of 
tile ^Vnnes generally Tetire on tbe Grrt appearance of tha nooD aod 

Tliu afU-moon on whicb I found mywlfln the Furttrimtt, iu houour 
ot tho distinguished day, wa« broun-d by the moat deliglitfii] weather. 
Tha lair avx wens iu a m^ority of two to one^ owing, uo doubt, to tli* 
BMt number of Annas with whom Pracue has from time tnunemonal bewi 
Ueoaed. The pliice was amall and ihe crowd great, so graat that ths 
vintan could do litlie else than more in slow |>ruceaooo obog the braai] 
wallc which endrdea the island. 

*' 1 can Doufidenlly say that I am not what is goocrally called an eit- 
thunaet," said a friftid who accompanied roe, as we pluufped &om the 
little bridge over the >loldau, into thia Nream of life and beauty, *■ but it 
dots Bvcra U> me ad if iu the whole ooune of my life i had iierer been 
KDTOundad hy w> many angeb' bead*, bv so many graceful forms, or byn 
many beautiful Cuoa." — " It is truly a bewitebbig sneelacle," was my an- 
swer. Wc now ptoceoded to st^ui the curreiitt that we might aoinire 
the fair promcoaders at greater Icisurv, and without maluag uso of tho 


roruLAJt scENns in praoce. 

aligtitast hyperbole, I was obliged to own t)iat iM-vcr in mj Ufn had I seen 
60 auwnificeDt & duplfty of besuty. Ono invch' far fnll^twi^i onnlher in 
auiok taeoeaaitm, nua ervn 1, dull and tinexcilalile as I \invc oi^cu btvn 
obl^«d to dmm niy«olf, could nol rc-sbt the uilltience of the scene, and 
titf fnthiuiuni witn which 1 in\*ii«lf itiipircd, nnu to me the host pfoaf 
that the spectacle hu one of unusual beauty. Like Xcrxo at the H<-llcs- 
poDt, when cnnt£iupUliii^ hi* nuraerou* array of sotdien, I could have 
■bed a tear at tlic tnau^ht, that all the loveliness before ine was destiued 
t9 be tJio prov of Tinic and DvAtb. 

That the htUe u^lr. •qiialliagt rcd-Esoed nraturcs (for all ncwlj-boni 
babies are alike) Bboiud gton up in Pra^e into suizli ramnrkably beautiful 
girla, is one of those phonomeria of nature whk'h 1 cannot take upon 
injMilf t<i r3|ilaiii. Simic litLvo attiibutcd tin- fiu-t to ilie mingling of 
German witli Sliivoiiian blooJ, but this the Slavonriui* pmtent a^raitiM itu»t 
loudly, tellinff yon tlat in the Tllln;^ of the interior, whtiro no Much tnis- 
ture of the races liua tokfii \}\iim, much finer »i»ecimeiu of female beauty 
are to he fouiitl, llian in imy iif the frontier distnru. The aiem!>ers of the 
Bolwmiui Patriotic AMonntioii boast, inorfoicr, that hy far thft rieheat 
display of beauty it to be scon at their balU> nben: nothlitg but Bohtniian 
is ever spoken, and where, consequently, the bulk of tlie company must be 
eenniQe Slavonian; nay, even the fnr-faraed beauty of the liungarlan 
uidiei is attributed by thtuie Eeoloiis patriotii to the mixture of Slavonian 
blood «-ith that of the oiiginal races. The tlicorv it not one that 1 would 
at once reject as absurd. On the contrary, I often fancied, iu the cuurM 
of my mbsequeiit wandering, that I fsw rc'a§ori (o believe there wa« sorno 
grouod for it. Be this, howovcr, ns it Kiny, Prujjue u dccitiedly a very 
garden of beauty. For the youog ladies of 1641. 1 ain ready to ^vc my 
testimony most unresen-edlv, and many an enraivtuiTd traveller bus left us 
hw books as living witufsses to l5n' IvveUnvs* of tJie gnindinotliers and great 
grandmothcra of the pn-jt-nt generation. The old fhriinii'ler, llaiuiiitT- 
■chinidt. and his caiit«nipnrune«, dwell with Mpml {ilcnjiini; on the xweet 
fit C C B that ainiled upan thont in their d&y!i, and tho pii^ttine gatlery of ninny 
tt Bohemian coatle U there to te:itify to the truth of tlieir statements. One 
^taess there is to tlic fact, whose right few will question to decide on such 
a point. Titiait, who studiod lhi» faces of lovely women for ninety-aix 
jrears, and who, while nt tlic court of Charles V., ipent five vears in 
Germany, tells us, it was nmonc the ladica of I'ra^e, that he fournlltiis idial 
of a beautiful fein;jde head. If we f^ hack beyond the times of Titian, we 
bavo th© declaration of Chtu-lc» IV'. that Prague was n horlus drliciariiia, 
and whoever has read tlie life of that emperor, will scarcely doubt that, 
beautiful women niunt have been included in the deliphu of a oa|ii- 
tal so apostTonhixGd. Xay, the timo-honoured nobilitv of tho l>onuty of 
f n^e, may be said to go back oven in the earliint tradition, wlieio we 
nod it colebrabod in the lefri-ndu of I.i1iu««a and Vlaitta. and the countless 
longs composed in honour of the Urrii/ StamttsAr or Tahekhtan daiati'ls. 

1 iiwTi I am still at a loss to conceive how it waa poe»iblo fur Pntcinyal 
to njcct tlic overtures of liia fair Bohemiai]*, and how he coidd find it in his 
heart to wage agunst them the borbaron* war that luu since become so 
famous in history. I am not at all sui^uised lliat hi* 6r«t eut«rprisea n^inst 
tfiun dlifnild hnvf been marked by such aingular failure. ] am suio that 
if tint twit thniiMuid Kancies and Nannettes whom I saw aj(.«embled on the 
^drberinKiJ had taken it tuddeuly into their heads to get up ui 'mxairve- 


Uon, and iotrmch Uu'ituelvM witliin thr:ii liltlo uliind, any army Hal the 
c»ip«Tur could haro ecat ngramt tliem, wcmlil hare been much iiiore Mk^y 
Ui siiin>iid«r at duovdati to the besieged, thau lo tum their munI<>roii4 
artillery againet eaeb a garden of loreliueis, nr ta flo^li tliou- bn^lit guonld 
auionf tlic Yieiin& sb&wU bimI Frcudi mUu tb^t wero paraded so bewitcli- 
inglj' UL'forv myvyt-s. 

By tbotiine that, gtrniming this lide of beauty, we bad niiidc tbo rotind 
of ifie Uland 3i>m« tbree or four times, niglit IiaJtitijIcn upon us, tbouj^li to 
do bim justice, Ilelins was in no burry to run away from eo fair a scene, 
but wcomvd to liiigf-rlonn-, unwilling todrnnrt, befure bo could make upliit 

^nitid to eotwjg^ liimsclf In the aoeuttomca omhinces of Tbetis. The (irc- 
vodu had to wiiil Ions before it wu sufHciviitly diirk far the pn>per dii> 
piny of tite rockeU and Chinas fire that were itit^ndcd In blue in hononr 
of the Any, attd whcti they were let oiE, they turned out to bo very little 
irnrtliy oi being waited fur ; but tbc music of tlie Bohemian poUeu and 
Tfdorah compensated for the failure of the fireworki. The whole fe«tirtty 
dosed with a " iplendid supper," at wliich I found it impossible, cith«r tn 
money or fair vrcrdit, to obtain the sb^itvat particlo of any thing to oat or 

From the delightful prtiincnadc of tlw FarlfFriiuety I went to one of the 
pojiular balls, given at the twelv*^ danciiig-roouis at Prague. Th«w rooma 

I .aie never clixhld «a Sujulays 'ir hoUdays, but on tlii* day they had reeom- 
nwnded thvinielves to public fnTuur with even niore tlinii wi>iited oasiduity ; 
I extended my pBtronage to an vstablL^hnu^ut nf wliii^h the hntt recom- 
mended hinuoli by a hwliug of " VciuTatiou for all Kanucttca." The 
clajucii repreaented in tlib ball -room belonged to the huntbler section uf 
tlib* middle orden, and I am sorry to b« obliged to own that I found neither 
tlia Bohemian boauty nor the AustnEiii merriment that 1 had looked for. 
Tlierc is something repulsive in the ini)>i«&ii<jn produced by on assemblage 
in nhich no find the costume of t!ie cultivated classes copied with great 
preciaoD, but from whieh the mauwn and eonversAtiou of rcfioM] lifv are 
euttrciv escluiW. In pr)[iortiuu as the £aahii>r)« and halnio of the great 

rtn imitated by the little world, will all ongiuality, chrerftdiiess, and tiiD, 

MM extiipated from among ub. 


One of my 6rit wnllu In Prague was to a Tsltck)iia.n bookshop, and lo the 
Museum of the I*alriotie AiBocialJon. I was atixious to see what new bloi- 
■uiiis the Bohemian true hod iJiot forth, and what auciunt fruits it had garner- 
ed up, Hie kIiod in which tlic literary novelties of Bolicniin are nfTcrvd to a 
putrottizing public, is situated in a narrow gloomy lane, and the niuii who 
owns Uie shop, and is the cliief publisher of modem Bohemian literature, is 
a CennoiL Ilia aliop is Nniall, hut is ofti^n visited by tlie young patriots, — 
Uie advocate*, the «tudent«, aud the literati. — who go there to turn over 
Ul BoboTnian, IIljTian, Polish, and RuMiaa books, and *amciime« to buy 
a. AW these Slavonian languaee) are at present studi'cd with groat 
by tlie Dohemiaa patriots; aiia it ii a tingular coincidence. (Iiat in 
[SuxKia, ftljo, there is at present quite it mgc fur lb« study of Bohemian. 
^oUsh, and Dlriian. For Rusuan buoke, I wot told, there n'os a ire<iuont. 
emand, but lu«y were diffiaiJt to ohlain. It lias long been ctutomary 


amon); the jnunj; me<a Dt Praf^ue to atniy Rtusun, vhu;]! tbejr acqaira 
with fittlc trouble, &nd irliirh tnotiv find of great Mdvuitag*. number* of 
TOinw Bobemian pimdmiw enufpnting vMrly to Rnans, wlwrv tliiiir 
fUnltuiCT with the slnvoniiin lancuagn (srilitstM their ndTDncemtrrtt." 

BohtTtnian litcrftture worlct for tJic eiilJehteninuiit nf four ooimtnus : Bo- 
liemU, Moravia, n part of Sileoiii, aim tlie country of the SloraJa in 
Buoj^nry. For thU rensoii tlto B<»h«inu«) inunftlH (tliu VTastimit for in- 
fltancc) point to the fow com«r» of th» worlJ, or mow propwlj^ to the four 
oomon of the paitcr, with the four words : SJezan, — Czech, — StumJi,-^ 
Jforavntty — (tlw Silvcion,— the ik)h«iniaii, — th« StovBk, — aiul tlio Mo- 

Among' the new pahlieationfl of 18-jI, I wu shown the SemM Sad, or 
the Old Law of Bohetnift. The Aiutriao wnsors were lonjr before the^ 
could be indtH^ tA luxori th« Jmprimatur to thii work, on aeeount of 
some severe articled which it contains &|*aJii*t tlio Gcrraoiu, but the ccnsor- 
•lop is beoominjr more indnlgnit non, and, with a fi^w omisnonj, lh» book 
hu been nllow^ to wnlk forth inbs tbo world . Tho Uohcimjuu, iben&nc^ 
may a^^nin nng in the word* of the famous old poenit the Judgment of 
Libuua :— 

Fluuiicful twcni from flcuniina' liiw» to borroir. 

Laws HC lis*!? uuThvItv* uf liuti* nliitutv 

Uraught in da; ■ of yon bj our good tMium 
Tu tUia laud of bk.iujug.f 

Twenty yGom ago,, nay, fifteen yean n^ tlic Ht^tmture, that u the 
lirittff literature of Bohemia, was perfectly iniignificant. At, lime 
little WM spoken or heard of the Ii^Uvoniaua liwng nndpr Gorman iloinina- 
tioo. Some of our travvlluni of tliv last ciiulury curried their Biniphcity » 
far, as to exprest oirprisfl in their printed b<nil(», at finding tlip country 
people of Bohemta speakiof^a dialuct altoi;et)iertimiif«'lligililc Ion Cti-rman. 
Some very learned people Iiad ouly au iiiilutjuct uotloii, that in »oitic parCV 
' of Gennany thu |>r>pu1acioT) waf> of Slivimian origin. Boliemi»n Utrrature^ 
in tlio nioiuit.ittii-, hiulsunk to a U'vcl iilHiiit na low a* tliiitof the lA'IU'naad 
K«thonia.n8 in the. Bulljp pro^-incw of Itu«*ia, and wa« ponfinwl almoKt cx- 
cliaivcly to popular ballads. Things have chanpcd since then, and tho 
Bohcmiani go «o far now aa to talce it very much amisa when they read 
in a German hook, that " Prapio in one of tlin moM interesting towns io 
Germany." TIio cuckoo, tlicy soy, mi^tit juBt as n ell call the neat ha 
otvn, from wliich hci has just expelled the linnot. as the Germans 
call Prague a Gonnan city, net-in;; it was biiilt by the Tshokhs; but 
here I would humbly remark, that tho cuckon «o«Id pUy a lets ndiouj 
part in oar books on natural history, if after taking poMcasion of nnothcr 
bird's nest, he were to embellish and beautify it as the Germans Imve done 

* TlicTarious SluYnniiu) (luk-ds I'RuBsiun, Piiliah, nulieininn, riTrion, &c.) ticar 
•0 Strang a rcicmtilaiit'L- U> vudi uihcr, that tbc puunutv of one of these mustrioi 
can imuLlly mnko. biniMV nndcnCaod to thOK ot nil tlie ivat. 'Flic Rrninmalieal 
aC'luirerDcitt nf t)ic KuMlan langoogc tnuM, thcrelare, be an «€My toak to a wi>U-«da- 
catcd Bohcniiiin. — TV. 

t Eoliemlan poetry, Itka that of moat nf tlu Slaronian InnsunsM, fs Jectitoti! of 
rhyme, a dcfldencT the leaa ftlt on Mconnt of the lUstJnct mcuiiro of time wtilcli 
prcTolb ill the Bononlan verd*. and vhich mokes it mon; casjr to aSapl ihi- Itomna 
•nil Oieek rhytlun to the Ycnlflcatkni oC this thta «f any vlher nivilixu laD- 



hy Png;ue. The fact u, tlie wholo of Bohemn is itUl a disputed tcrritoiy 
. MtwNii tha Gvimnns nnd the SIavotu»i>t. The Genuuis mninUuii it wns 
taigiuHly a G^rmui land, or, at l^ut, thnt it wu islnlHtcd hy the Gei^ 
nuuiH four liitiiflrctl jetn before tlie 'Ctht-klis came into the country ; bat 
tlie Tahi^klM (_»c« F^Axk^'it Wmnty iil' lloliciiiia,) say — " You Gennatu) 
looJc tlip rtwintry Prom ihn (ioyrw, anil held it Ijy no other rieht than that 
of the Bword. Uv the swonl you won it, aitd hy tbe Bwora you lost it 
sgsin, anii for rigfit hundred yean we heM ic ngalnft jou." To thij wo 
CiiTouinR may tvply ' — " Bui we have af^ain won the masteiy of the lanil 
from j-on with the sword, and wv bare tiiumpbed over ynu y«t luoro by 
the eufrr^ of our civiliiation. Here are two swordu for one, and as 
■Dcient and modem lords we hsTc the most perfeot rij^ht on our ride ; bo 
wt shall continue to call [ioliomia a <!«mutn land, in H^ht of our aword, 
OMT ciTiliBilion, and our industry, — a German land, in wliich tht; tnlrudiit^ 
Xihekhs are condemned to plough our fields."* 

Till Terv lattlvi there hnd edsted no good Bohemian dtctionary; but 
thi> waiit liM now bvcn aupplk-d by Mr. JuDraaon, who, though '« Ger- 
nun by name, ia faid to Iw a very sealoui Botieaiian patriot. His die 
' tionary was the work of sevi^ral years, and has been published at hU own 
[expense. Ue is wen eaid to have sold a vineyard, lu drfrav tlie coot of 
[itei undertaking'. The puhlieation coimnenced in 163€v atid u now com- 
plete. 1 was nut so inticli tttrjirtMid at ths McnfieM made by the patriot 
scholar, as at tbe backwardness of other patriots, to astist Um tn his 
nndeTtak!n||r. One might almtut be led aom this to believe what a Bo- 
hemian once *aid to me, in spenkiiig of the great movement and uxeite- 
meat among tho Roliomian pi^Ats. 

" It is a hind of luxnry," said he, " in rtluoh » kvt idle yoong men in- 
' dulge, and in which they aTeencotimj^ by the profi^Mirs and anti(|uaries; 
DC it in no movement origiiintin^ in thewant^ or emanating from the 
risbo^ of the pc«pk. All that is emiuent mt)i ui is Cremian. Our moo 
edocaljon read Schiller and Goethe in preference to any other miteni ; 
■rery official man, down to the hmnbleitt clerk, writes and spealcs <i!ennan t 
' as every Bohemiiui feels tliat he cannot get on in the world without 
linnwli'ilire (if Gemun. he leek^ to li-am it him;ielf^ and teaoh it to liis 
rohildnm. and has no time to trotiblp himtN-lf about th« fantasUe visions of 
the t'ahekliian patHota. Befades, tha Gerninn lan)>itage is taught, fjp- 
of^cui, in every whool, and many of oar gentry do not even undcmtand 
Uiu patois of tlie country. \\*ith all tl>p»e mighty agents at work, what 
avail tlie efforts of n fiiw emhiiriaHbt ? The govemmi-nt, m««nwhiler feels 
itself itiong enough to let the Tshekhion portv go their own way. Fo- 
reigner*, moreover, ar« deceived, if ihcy attribute to politics all that i> 
done hero in tliu way of Slavonian inveatigntion. Tlie inqiiirinfr xpirit 
of the time, the rp»iT>>d fondness of c\*ry thinj? that tend* to the illuArn- 
tioii of antiquity, has letl to ainuliu' efforts in otlier countries, as well as in 
Lthittv inhalNanl hy SUivonlans. Every province in Europe has been bur- 
»htng tip its rc«>llectj<»i»» ; trfry city liiu been timiing orer the leaves lif 

* Bolicnila cia scacoilj b» saitl lo owe mucb dvilbatiou u> <3«f man/. Wlisn the 
cmrtrr psMCd uitHcF (ho dasuaetiMi of ^the bousa at Autrin. tticn was no otiur 
oiumr y that stood lujrlier in pi\nt at dviBsnibiit. If Uiu Ikiliemions have ilm^e 
ftlbn Into tbe rear oftlie " inarcli ori iu pio v e n wnl." Aiutrion opprcarion. oiid par- 
tSnitafly the unRlemlne tnrhulty wUb which the t'lutefuuit ivUj^ was utir- 
jttiKi, man bear tbe Uame^— 7V-. 


iU chronicles, and npurinff it* nthednl or its town hwue. Not otJj ihm 
SUvuiiwii pruTiocM, Mit mII Um proriiKM o( .Austtia, haTe bmi coUecdn^ 
thpir MitiqiiitiM, tluitin^ their rKordi, and new bindii^ their dnmidct. 
The *Mii« liu bwu d«MM> in the province* of Prussia, and indeed in the 
proviiicM of aliiKwt vveiY Eur(it<««a covntrr. We have seen Oanan'a 
Uteraturf iVMHtfd frvMn iu lumb in Scotland, and in Gennanv wv han 
Mfiii V<>M wntiufr |x^ni« in Ilatt /AnibrA .- wv !■•«« seen Westpbafian, 
Saxon, Hiiil ItRvitJ^iibunc AssoriatiDnf. not to speak of hundreds of other 

riviiii'ittl >ocit>tU<« : anil thut the &«hion has reached Bohemia at kat. It 
iu>t HUv inoliiiKtitw on tbv [>art of tW W«sieni Satoouuk to accept the 
ftntt^rtiiintiuii oAVrvd ihent fT\^t the East, ihat ha^ led to all these SUto- 
llini) jouriHtl*. )fTatiiniar», diotiimarie;, and ptvlical anthologies In Ci^ 
Uitil. and VV9U ii) Fraiirt', bix^L» aitd nev$i«pe» hai« been minted in the 
IocmI tlinltH't*. and ao in Kumi* havv workj ^a of late pnbfished in Let* 
tl«h and blithoiiiai), ltut);ua^:ef t^ wtuch. ioote ^-ear* ago. no cnhiTated 
niKii iuihIk luc uiileu |M'rha(i« in thv pul|.<(t. It i$ not to be denied that 
Uic proviiiciat, litcmrv, and (latniHic nxxvaieuu in the SlaTooian peoriocae 
of Atutria, actjutro a (wouliar (haraeter &oai the niiit of I^nslansmia, of 
wliich »o niuvli hai bwu beard nf late vears. jfo naboo, while jct a 
bri'atli (if lifo i* in it, betx^me* nvonriled to the lo» of its indepen^Dce ; 
and tliiiii)fh th« Ibihcntiaiu. the Storaks. and the other SlaTosians, wonld 
di> Uitt«<r to attai'h tlicnuelv«« nkwe and more to the mild s cep ti e of Ab»> 
trin. tluiii to itralch out t)i«ir hand$ mtter the qoentionaUe independeDee 
wliicit lovini to U> ofivrod them irom the East vet nadona. Eke in£n- 
iliuiUi uro not vx^nipt (rwa acts of kHv, prejudicial to others as to tfae^ 
aolvH t and ftv their own sake, therdore, as wdl as for Aistna's, die 
UnliPiiiiaii* must be watvlted. The classes, however, which haie onst 
liilluiiiUHi in till.' country*, ure the least disposed to crmpathis with Raam. 
'I'hti i'li<r)fy and tlw nowtity know how little ther wmud be Ekelr u> gwn 
by KKihiuitfiiiK the ■o\'vre)gntf of Anstna &r that of Rnssa- Beccot 
flVKiita in I'oltuul have likewise mocfa contnbated to cod the inihiiiiMni 
roniinrlj' niauifMted for Russia. The less instructed Bohemians. i^Aail, 
look ii|ioit iimvli tluit they hear of Russia as mere German cahnmues ; hot 
tli'MK niiu)iiif ui who stand higher, hare had oppor tni ii t i ee , naoij of d^H, 
i>r MH'iiiff with tliuir own eyes. In short, shoold it et«r tfjum to a s u m jI b 
iMttwiH'ii tliii Ntavoiiiaii and German elements, the TthMm, m tptte of tMir 
aynipntliitii nnd atitipAthies, will be found fig^tiofi; 'fo the nde of the Gcr- 
liiniiN, laiil it will bo for their own advantage to do %!>." 

Ill tho jiiiiMiiini of tlie Bohemian Patriotic Ass'^ciati'ytt, tm the Hraddun, 
wlilllixr I witnt ill ci)iii)iany with a learned and higlily esteemed Bohemian, 
iii>tliln)f liitttivNtml mo more than the coUecUou of coins. Though not so 
nriini>liit« m tlio Dolioiiiinn antiquaries wish, it ts by far the richest Bo- 
liKinmn ciullwtioii in oxistonce, and consists exclusively of national coins, 
llioiK niDrrly put into circulation by the Boyera, the Markomans, and the 
ItoniAiii, btuiiff vxi'ludcd. There are old Tshekhian coins of a period &r 
aittti'tHloiit to tltu Cliriatian era ; these are rudely fashioned pieces of gold, 
soinowhat in tlio fonn of modern buttons. In the early period of Chris- 
tianity, wlion it was still uncertain whether Bohemia would be brought 
within till) iiifluonco of Bysantine or Roman civilisation, the coins of the 
cotnitry loem to have had a decidedly Byzantine character. At a later 

eiritiil, whoii the Iluiigsrian invasions had cut Bohemia off from the 
yzantiuo world, Uie coinage assumed an Italian or r&ther a Florentine 


chsmctcr. Oa th« Flonntuie tlucsbi oiiied tn Boticnua, mni7 be eeea the 
Ftonrntine St. John, widi & mmll Ituliciniim St. Juhn hy lui side, in th« 
same way as dtiriug their revolution of 18^1, the Poles coined Duliih 
ducnto, on wLicli a diiiiiuutii e Puttsh Qagle ap^cun by tlie aide of tli* 
Bstariiui kiiighu 

As w? reach less remote flf^s wo iriftjr obfitrv* alCtrmate ailTaacca and 
ntroffressions in the arts. The culth-atcd tigs of Cfaorlci I\'., and tb« 
fanatic century nf tho art-destTt>vin^ Iluss'ite^, may be iltitincll^v traced 
in Oi« little gUtteriagdaaani and <iucau, dnlkraaml unul^ati. Cnmt may 
1ilcewi«e be seen hcn> of all tli« grwit Bohomtan fumilioji that, at >aric>u9 
tjtncii, have enjoyed the priTUec«?. Amonp these fontilics tlie most diittin- 
guuhed arc the bt^hlicks. the Rosenbergs, and tlie WaJilsteins, or Wallen- 
Btebu, a* SchilJer, for tlio «onvenirocc of his rhythm, has tliought prnper 
to call thctn. Of the Walditcin family, however, none have exemscd tbs 
right of coinage since the days of their great ancestor, of whom some veir 
braotifa] gold coins still exist. The Counts of SobUck excrciitcd the |>n- 
Titeg* longer tluui ouvotlH-rof the old Bohemian faiotliM. Cobiofa 
Tcry recent dale mny bo seen with tbfir effipy- Their celebrated silver 
nuura at Joachimsberg were so productive, that in llie begiuiiiiig of the 
16lh eentury, th*y winod what were called Joachimsthaier, nihich wt-ighcd 
U full ounce, and wliich mav still be found in circulalinii tii RiU'ia, witcro 
they are known sonieLuues hy tliu iiante of Tfiateri, and Hotiietimei by that 
of Ve^mAi. 

A prciiiitir kiiiid tif iJuheiiiiaii cuiiiage are the royal litcfitiipfetiniffe or 
counter!. Aniijiig the rfiritnui puhlii- dcjuiiinienti of the Bi>lieniian go- 
T^minent, it ROfinN m have Ihi-ii ujmiiU from tlio earliett purind to liavtteni> 
ployed, for boJancing public tu:u£niiit«, n certain coin which may be looked 
OQ in the light of a copper rcprtscntutiTe of a certain amnuot of gold op 
silver. These arbitrnry coirs circulnted only from oito public department 
to another. The noble families of Boht'mia appear to nnvo adotltl^<l tliii 
custom, and coined similar copper counters for Uic conTcmooce of tlie va- 
rious departrnenls of g<i»eninient on iheir nitate^. The coDectian of tha 
Pairiotio Association is richly provided with vanoiu (pecinions of tliese 
royid and lordly counters. 

The fiohcmisn linn, niih n crown on his bead, nith his two tails, and 
walking erect on liis hinder feet, is to bo seen on nil Bohemian coins, even 
OD niott of those Btmck by the ».jvcrei|fn»ofthc house of Ilababurj^. Uuder 
Huia Xh^rvsa tho lion becomes li^s omniprcscut. The latest ducata 
that bear the efligy of the royal beast are those of 1780. It was ou tlis 
brge silver money that he 6nl reil^^ied hi* crown. On the smaller silver 
coins he continual to hold his *tntt.i thmiiffhout the whole of Joawph Il.'a 
nigii, but firico then tliv whole coinage has been purely Austnnii. 

Of all joyful and deplorable ereiits in Bohemian histnr>'. there seems t« 
halt! bce» a denre to preserve the recollection by means ufsihcr and gold 
medals. Thus we luive medals of Hew, who, a* the iiucriptions infoniL 
na, vu burnt at ConotAnce in vinlation of public faitli. Frederick of th« 
^latinate has also not failed to leave goldea and tilvcr moDtunvnU of hi* 
brief and dliastxnus sojourn in Bohemia. Close bo these, and adorned witJi 
onunous iiucriptioiut lio th? niednU etmck by Ferdinimd on the occasion of 
*tii MCgtiinaiy victory on the White Stountain. In honour of the victory, 
Peii&ittiid elected on the mountain a church, winch he dedicated to the 
yir^n, and tmdcr tlie foundatiO'ii-st(me a very large gold medal wu de- 


yoBteJ. At a sub>cqumt iwnod, Jom^ demolinlied tlits chiuclit and tin 
Bodnl, Wing fcnnd. wu Huut to Pn^iic, »i>d cvnc, b dae tiuic, to the 
nuuoum of ^ IVthotic- Aau)d»tiati. On oiip side it a mw of the coo- 
queied dtj of Pru^^, over wkwb U wma hovvring Uie image of Maria de 
Vielitriu in aUtii Monte, nitli the inscriptioa HeiMite erga quat atat Oaa- 
aarix Cattari, tU ijnatsunt Dei Deo. Cliriatlittltf ti>on|^it, when fa* nn> 
nounc«d those words, that they voiiUl Ix^cAmo nae day, in the mouth <» aa 
inperioua ricbcn', a svhiIk)] of l«rror to miUions of bunion betugs. Ferdt- 
bsim], am wc are told, ntv a riuoa t]ie nigfat before thi* baulc Our Sa- 
Tioor, it is aud, a|>pcu«d to him in a dream, and mid to him, " Fordi- 
tUDd, I win twt ffvsokc thee" To this viMoa alluMoa is made oQ the le- 
verM of the medal oa which ii reprcsentMl a cnicitiE. whi-iicc i^ja of lighc 
■hine on the emperor, who l£»e«.'U before it, and undemcach am the worda, 
*' l-'erdinattdt, e$v te nim davram." It eeems rtmn^ thiit aftvr he had 
made lo unchriatianUhc a luc of his rictoiTt our I>ord did not again ^i- 
pMr to hiTD in a riaon, and v&y to liim, Std tu, FtrdinaHde, tiu et maot 

AHn- the battle on tho WliiUf Alomitain, Germaiiisni became so ini- 
preuwd on Bolipiiiia, timt mnnv Boliifiniun families GermuiiiiMl thv Sla- 
vnniao namt-^ they hnd borne till t1>i<n. Thtif tite fnmiiy from «-hieh had 
taroed the celebrated St. Jolio of Ne[)oiuuk or Nupomuteitiu, bore uri^- 
mll; the Slaveoian nam* Haasl. fC»i)Uiiiuk in a Minall town in Bnliinnia, 
and the bivliop, aocordinc; to the faeluon of his duy, was called Jolm H»«dl 
of Nepomuk, aud soiuetines, for greater brerity* Joba NepomtUt. AJW 
the battle of t)ie White Moutitain, the FtaralH traiulaied Uieir nanie into 
GemiAtt, aiid called thenutoives t.oo%hnor. Mnnv "f tlu; notiiiiii, lioworer, 
had Gcriuaniated their naoies loug Wfore tl>e catA.«tri>|>hi; nf t)i« White 
Sloiintiiln. IiutancKS of tho Itijid i»ocurred diirinj; the rci)r[iB of Charlei IV. 
and lua aaa Vviimtluxu. Durinf^ thuir roigiis tunny c&fitk-!) were built on 
neontains and roclct, aeconUt^ to the Geminn tiuitiiiu, whcreu the aa- 
Otent fiobemiani had hem accu^omcd to build for t^rutber stmn^h amoD^ 
nanhea or on the banlci of rivera. Tlie«e castlei. built after Genoan 
£uhion, received also (lennaa names, i?ndiiig gcucmlly ia &ef^ or futry, 
■nd tho fariiili.;^ W^n if U* culled ;iftt.<r tlieir eaaC,l««. lu tliis H*a.y the 
family of Vitkory came to he thv fA.mily nf KonrtilnTg. the home of 
I>ipotdita changed into Uie luMtee of Riutonburg, Rstieki> was metamor- 
phoacd into Wal.l«tein, and Z>iri«hov» into Sternberg^, and all Uieee lanii- 
lies became much more famous under their Gmiian tliim ttii^ hud ever 
been under their Slnvoniau^rHiaut. The Bolirniiaiipntriou claim all these 
familieJ aa firMiuinf^ Slnvoninn* ; mnintainin); that a SUvonian is no more a 
Gemiiui Ikcau^c he has taken to 3|>eakiiig Gemiun, tlian tlie Ruastna nobli» 
ca.n be ^lid to be Frenchmen Wcause they *peak habitually French. 

The largest Atulriaii ^Id eoini have the VM^t of twenty dticat«. Ten 
duoat pieces I am told, are vtill colued, and are occaaiouiilly found iu cli^ 
culaljon. As my readen are nil honei^t people, tlierc can be no harm in my 
tellinp them that fifty of these seduRtivo lortkiupf lumps of gold arc to bo 
BM-n ill the ci'Iiectioti at I'ra^v. The lar^ett gold medal in the museum 
wvi^is no less than one liundred ducats. The most mcuJcm medal 11 one 
ftttvck a few yearj ago, in honour of n visit paid by the Emperor Nicholas 
to Plague. The intcription is : J^'icAolara /., Cfvartek HusiAi, ifC. 
(Nicholas L, KussiiLn Emperor, the Illmtriniu Oiiest iu I'ragiie.) 

I also found much that interested me in tlie library of the figbemiaQ 


Auodalion, tliota^li I wu not so (brtunata u to have the learned anil 
csteeiii(>d libnuiau, I^rofefisor Huikn, for my f^iid«. The d«|>artni«Dt of 
}lobenti»n litvratun: M hy no uKans CMnplctr, much liaviti^ b^mi tiiJifD hj 
the Koj»l Ubmrj- vrlicrc a section u set apart for it, Tm collection oi» 
tii« llra^lshia is ticii cliietl^ in Xatural History. On llic utlter hand, 
bowever, (iiekiodred Slaroni&u UtvratunM ofitoNua, Poland, lllyria, Scriia, 
and Cariiithia, bave ««ch it« dcpartint-ut I ira^ told that a RuuUa 
granitiiar tor (lie m» of Bohomtoiis would shortlj be publi^liMl, and could 
not but feal Burnns»] that tlae relations between the great KufKtn nnd tJto 
IhUe Bohemia should olKadv have hecone m> active, that the want of such 
■ wivrk should have beeo ML It is not many yman that Gennsny has 
iMen in iKixxcMiuu of a tmUe Russian eianunor. 

Of Bobeouaa £il>lM many aie to oo seen here, as wcU the fiutkiiil 
L'tnu)miit venoMi &oin the orifiinal languages, as that arranged for tbo 
Cftttiiilifv from tlift Vulgate of llicmnynius. At prtvent, Bolteniia can be 
supplied with Tthctfliiaii biblM only by (nntrabaud. There is not Indeed 
any prohibitian a^cBj^ifit their aalci hub they are noL oUnwt^ to br ritlier 
printed or imported. The smugglej-s on too 8ax<>n fruiiticr, lioneriT, aro 
T«y active, and keep the morlict supplied, though perlinps rathor 
sparingly. Tlic hibica arc supposed to come from Berlin and from Eng- 
land. The Bible Society of Dresden. I naa osninHl by the jirenideut 
himself, did not themselvej send a siug^le copy into Bohomin, bttt l)i« free 
traders of the frontier, in the saaw way m which tlicy receive orders for 
coffee and sugar, ircciTC orders probably from time to time for bibles. 
Two years ago, I was told, tercral waggoo-losds of bibles fell into th« 
hands of the Uohemiaii custom-house oiflicers, by whoai tlivy are ket>t to the 
present day under lock and key. 

Autofrraphs of mm oalrtvnted ui t1u> history of Bohemia are likewise to 
be soea at this museiun { among nuuiy others, llioec of Ilnss and Zixka. 
The Utter usually added the place of his nativity to his signature, and 
Bgne<1— Zixka von Trounow. Some of hit letters, huwerer, are nigned-^ 
Jan Zixka a'Kaliebu, from a eoatle which ho Itod built, and to which bii had 
given tJic name of Kalich or the Cbahce. 

ht tliu <-ahiiiet of natural lititory on the HradjJitn is shown what strangers 
an told was tlto loKt bear that ever eusted in a Htnttt of nntum tn ilohcmia. 
This animal is aud tobani been shot in 1U17, but 1 had eubscqocntly an 
opportunity, of Hali^ying mysdf that tlie race of wild bean is not yet ex- 
tinct in th<- country, for on the Sell warzu-u berg estates, near Iludweis, I 
•aw ot l«a«t a iotva of tlicm. LyBxe* and wild cati are also to he found 
in the niotnitaius. and beavers al«Ti^ the banks of the Moldau, and sonu- 
tUDea even in tlie immediate i-icinity of ["rague. 'llieir uususpericd itk- 
eastce near the capital led, not long ago, to a singular lawsnit. A farmer 
vfao owned a field near the river, obvenvd that khhc trees and sluube hod 
aevend tiniei been cut down mid canned away during tlie niglit. Ua 
brought an action, in eonsenuenee, against one of his nrigfalxiura. Tito 
court appointml persons to vuit the |)lacc aud tuii[>«ct tlie stuiuiis that re- 
Btaiued. Tlw>ie nerscnis, on viewing the ground* diTlarcd iininediatcly tliat 
the property had heen earned away by four-footed thicvos, and after a ctooe 
•eardi, a li'tUe eoLmy of beaver* was discovered, svppoiwd to have come 
down the river fixrni the neiKbhourlnHxl of Diidneis. 

In ths mineralogicat collection the most ceU'brnlWI piece is the " aecnrscd 
burgrave," » meteoric eWM mif^bmg upwards of (wo hundred poonds, lo 

r 2 



-which popular tradition Itu aUacbcd a Ugeod of a ty iM iaa ai aoUe^ ^"^"^l 
when hii toul wm ulton «w»y to liell, left thia bla«k metalUe lamp btthiiw' 
in the iiIms of his ImxI^. Not u a nstaral cnrionty. bat w m mibis 
proof of Uw d«vil'» potency, the atoae was for many ycsre prrarrrcd at tha 
tonncU-houso of Ernbomo, where miraculous pon«4 were even ftttribiited|| 
to it. Wboevei liAc<t tTtc " svcurhxI baTgrnnf," it was Mid, would be cunj 
of Hindry coniplunts, and many prasaiits fre<iurntly came ta Ebibogvn to 
tact tlw twaliuff powen of the ttonK I have no doubt it« <>flr«icts were &•> 
oueatly very Mtu&Mory, for a lidc man who retained strencth enough t« 
lift sjic\i a wci^^t, was not liktOy to Iw in a de^fwrate condHion, and migfafe 
at the same time hope to derive benetit froni u few gymnartie faau. lu 
later tiro««, vben sneni^e em^roadied more aiid mnre xtpon the domaini of. 
aapcntitioo, the Mumuhi at V'itftina l^d claim to to ran a speciniaB nil 
serial imnnalogT. The oouuelbrs of ElDbogra fought lustily for ihair f 
treuttra, aad at lost a rompromise was acn«d to: th« buif^Tv wa* aawa ' 
in two, aiid one half w«iit to Vienna, while tlic othvr half retoainad at I 
Elubogen. The Bohciiiiiui Patriotic Asaocialion poMcuo cmly a model at 
the wholo a* it ajtpoarcd befora tho ruthtof* partition «u carrtL-d into 


To tboae who bave read the history of Bohemia, it will b« no matter of 
WDodar to ba informed, that e\tti at tlie preseiii day there continues to be 
BO much talk at Prasufl of xiw ffcnren Stdmte (My I^mlt the Stntei), of 
whom you will one day hear that they have hctn criahliihiii^ nn nip^cnl* 
tiintl iiiKtitutioD, im anotWr that tht^ have directed a suspenaion-bndg« to 
bo built over the Moldnu, or that tht^ have ndvaiie^d niuney for ihe con* 
Struction or repair <■•( »onic public biiil<lin||;. There i* as much attrihtit^ii in 
Prague to My l-tmU the State*, ai tbere is in Rome to tho Pope, la 
ancient titnen thfv elected kings, and regulnied die articles of public fnith; 
at present thotr (nativity ia limited to the le<is important cpliore which I have 
juit indicated. Formerly the citiet of livhcuiia, pnrticularly Pm^s tad 
Guttcnherg-, had coiisidernblc weight in the nMcmblics of the Scales: at 
preeimt the few deputies for the towtii that are Etill fldinittcd, are consi^ed 
to a single Wiich— a sort of stool of repeotaue« — in an extreme comer of 
the hall, where the bur^^cncs arc efiectnally separated from tlio remainder 
of the deputies, and that in sueh a way. tliat no civic repreieutative. unless 
tf nor* than ordinary boldnvis, will W likely to have tne a«»tiruiit,).' to in- 
trude hia ufHuioiis npou liia ntiriut collcnf^c^ " My Lords the States," 
in Bohamin, are at present neitlier more nor less than the highest order at 
nobility — Damely, " the reigning" counts, prineat, and banmf. Tfie head 
of the Caniily bemg is possesrion of the Mate of the family, ia always de- 
flci-il>ed n» tlw " m^iiiig" count, Ac. 

Th« Bohemian nobility, owin^ to their great wealth, to the good edu- 
cation most of tbem receive, aud to the di3tiu|^ui«lied altililiea •L-f some 
among ihem, occupy a liigLlv iin|>ortniit [io«itiaii in Uii> Auslriiui monarchy, 
and axBicisa a far greater innuencp upon the iidniiiiiNtmtion of tliu empire, 
than do the nobles of any other province. Tlie lii|;))««t office in Bohemia, 
aficr the king, a tlmt of Obfrstburggraf, a Bohemian dignity of very 
remote Bulii|uitv. ]]e in assiictvd by fourteen MmnM>llorii of gon'mment 
or Oubernialrdthe, ADd by ft vic«-prcsident, besides which, tbe country i« 



, £nded into «xU<«n eirclas, each arele luvin^ k nptnin and tiirtta caiu- 
tmUBaries to su]>eriDteDd its affairs, 'iliis gnuluntcd list of public oRiccrs, 
from die Obentbufffffra/ to the Kreittommutar, or commiisArj of tlie 
eilde, is oIImI tho f(uvcrntiK^it of tlio counirv {dia bohmiarhe Lnndetrt- 
LgifruiH/), and ufNU-ly all these of&«« are 6lled by [acmlers of tbo oitt 
Enoble famitiL-s of Bnhenua. 

This Bnhttiiiim f^ovi-nimniit, like that ofGnlicin, Moravin, AiiMrin, ftc, 

ttaadi otidcr the control of what i* called th* Unitrd Court Chunoery at 

[Vienna. At the head of this central dcportmeDt ia a Superior ChnimMlnrt 

runrted hy a Chancellor of the Court, tno Vice-Chaacellon, aud aj cnaiiv 

; Aulic C'ouiidllord ns there are ]imvin<iea or eovemmenti fubieet to tins 

court cluiiit.'&n'' iluiiffary and TjaQHjlvania aavo separate chanctrries for 

tbe control <n their alTaini. A singular cin-unutanre connected witli tlua 

Oouiteliaucen^is, thiit itenjoj-sthc title of Majesty, bein^ addraised " Voup 

Majesty Ute C^aucvry- erf the Court." Thitt b m aome incaiun; chamc- 

tenstic o( Au^rta, wrierv it in u common uyin^, tliat it u not tlie emperor 

who reign^ hut lua officers. 

Not only over tfie adnniiiitration of tlieir own country, but over tli« 
whole eiitpirr, the Uolieniiims <>K>;rriMi great iufluence, owing to the im- 
portant |)nRt4 to which thvy have mt<sed (litiniipire* by their ability aud 
official aptitude. In ei-erv office in Vienna you are sure to find Bohemians, 
and they are mostly ttit; Mivouritci of tlieir superiors. In the Polish aud 
Italian nroviiictm il w the Hainu, an that white the Dohemianit are i^riimbliiig 
ftbimt tlip >tal« of dejiLxiiIi'iici^ in wliich their countrv i» kent on Austria, 
tbo ether provinces might nith more Juitivc complain iti tnvir tuni that 
hthey are subject to Uuhemians. Two of the most Oiatitig^uishcd mcmhvni 
f the Austrian govenuneiit are at present Bolieiniaiis — namely. Count 
tolo^Tat and Count Jlitrowski. 

To pve Hii account of tliti picture-galleries, lilrrarim, rimI muMuni)i, col- 
M^tml at tlie variout ca«tle« of the Buhcmtan Tiobltu would, no doubt, be M 
liiifhiy interetting oeciination, but would at the some timo be found an 
Berciileaii labour. At I'ni^e, there are many prirate palaces veil deserv- 
igthe atr.ciitioii of a trnvcller, but 1 tan »orr^' to say I was able to visit 
ut few of tiicin. The only private picture-mllny 1 was myself able to 
inspect was that of tlio No^titid palace, but Uie puoces of thv fniuilivs of 
Wallenstcui, Czenii, Lobkowils;, Schwarr.enljerg, and others, ant nil <te«erv- 
Bg of attention. M'luil iHLrticiihirfy inU'n^nteil mo at tho Nostitji jpalnre, 
M the model of a marble monument intended to be erected at Topliti. 
i nqpresents tho Knij^ht Prxemynl Ubourini^' at the plough, at the moment 
Irlieii the envoys of Libussa arrive to olFt-r him tlie LTunu. On another 
ride U a group in witiob h« tx ncen ns King of Rohcniia holding; bia 
•ntrance into the palace of liis consort. Tlie Bohemians show (|iiito a, 
paMioD just now for illustrating the earlv jJeriods of their history by nio- 
noinents, and many a name is brouglit ti> light, and becomes more 
liuuQua perbaps in tluiH days, tlian it ever was during tJie life of itJ 
Owurr. There ts in the same gallery, a beautiful group by Canora, of 
Copid and Psycho, ^-liidone's U'onmii (alien in Adulterv !« n choniiing 
picture, but there is one by Eyh that in ni<Nit ruvcjlting. Christ is tvpre- 
8enti.-d imdiT n prww. with blood spouting fn>m liifi'i-rent jiarta of his Ixtdy. 
strvani of biood giuhet from his broast, luid it <-aug;ht by ]irii->it«, who 
ilribttte it atnnng [lie people. There i* an exquiitito pietura by Von 
Sobalkea, of a girl csling a peach. The {teach is sucli a soft, juicyt deli- 



oat«, Telr*t-d*d frmt, ttiit ■ mintar can rhoow no more nnUbIc -nmsti 
OD which to make a lav«Iy m^«n Stut. To bit# into «□ npple, she muat 
make on cfiurC tli«t dutocU ber foatww, but » peach tuKj be enjoyed wiA 

I spent but Itttlo timr, howftrer, ia the Xoctitxi Gillmj, for tlin<e wer«> 
other objects in PrsK^e that I wu more wixiviu to »c«. Araong othcn I 
W9Dt to risk the Tein Church, rajoe the chief temple of the Huasitca. In 
thiilr tino the pictures Mid imieea were lUI dosiro^-ed, but at preient Uie 
building it ajc^iu amply providcij vitli them. Tim cboreli contains a mul- 
titude m monuments. Dot those tlmt most attrsetcd my notice were on« of 
Tydii) de Brohe, with a Latin iiiseripUoD to the offeet (liat neither wealth 
nor power, but only the works of soenee are iinn>nrbU : and seroniny, the 
tomb of a Jewteh boy, on which was a Latin iiisiription, of which tlic fol- 
lowing is a Iraiulatiini : " A little Hebrew boy (Flebraeolua) bciii^r itispired 
by God, (bad, iu the year IGiV^, to the ('iMiieiitinutn, the CoIIp}^- of the 
Jeauits, that he oiigbt be bapttxed. AArr a few Aayn he wati treacherooaly 
taken a.wny from hU place of refuge. Ue wa* torturpd by hi* parents, wl» 
ajrailetl him mith ct aMU ^ nnacee, blow^, hunger, and o4her torments ; 
oererthelcM, h« remaiaed ttcadfiut in the tnie faith, till o» the 1 2th of 
Februaiy, I ^4, he died, in caneei]uenoe of ttie treatineiit he had fvcorcdi 
His body was privately boriod, but on the sixth day wa" dug up again, 
and, on htilnff initpmted by the maj^stntee, was fotinJ free trom all 
offennvc smell, of its nataial ooknir, and floating in Tony blood (rosea tan- 
ffume), whereupon it was earned fironi the towit-liovm inmlemn proceasion, 
followed by an immense multitndo of pious people, and was hTOught to tlua 

It is cDrange what diiferent anawen ^-en will rewive in Prague, if you 
taquin whether tluTO are still nnv lluWtes in the plsoa. Some say poii- 
timy "yea," and othen arc <]uice as pojtitive in staying " no."" Several 
perwHU a«ni«] me thor* was a Hussttu li»iu<> of jirayer in l*mgne, but 
004, likely to be WfU iiifomiod, iaid thi^ro linJ bfoi) muh a plare, but it 
bod «noa been convertod into a tt-arc-house. Most people rrill ti?ll you, 
■'Oh, in tlie mouiitaiiiH tiw-rr are iluisitcs enough;" but then the [teopJcoif 
Prague dispose of a tiiultitude of tliiogs bv turning them over 10 the 
mountuns, « Yes, them are Huamtes" another will add, "but tliey pre- 
tend to be Protostonte." In jMliit of diet, tlicn.- are no Huwitea officially 
lecoguUed a.t such, but it is pmbAble thjit many in secret still ti^-tnpathit« 
with their doctrines. Of Protestaats, aeeoMTing to the offirinl consul, 
there were Sl.CMJO in 1S39, or aboot 2^ jier cent, of the entire populaliou. 
In Moravia they are niorc numerous, amoundng to 1 10.(X)0 «.>ul», or 6 per 
cent, of the population. Moravia exeentod, howevw. tho Protestants form 
a larger pro|ioTtion of the population in Bohemiu tliaii iu uuy other Aiutrian 

Amoiig tlie princely gardens of Prngne, I visited those of ('ount Salnv J 
and Pinnee Kinsky. In the count's ganlt-n I found twenty gnrdonera ani 
OMtstaiit K^trdeuen vui)ilc>yL-<l. i^itb a court gnrdciicr (ffofffartner) to so- 
perinteml them. They told me they Imd no le«8 than 3.10 kinds of I'ricas; 
and of tliese, aa of the fine collection r>f Australian pbuiti, there were mftnj 
that hod bem brought into Uohemia for lln^ timt time that year. A ^^eafe'' 
trade in plants is c&nied on with tho iivtvnor of Austria from Pi«gu%.J 
where ihev ciui be had from England and IloUnnd with toVrable facilitT 
ewer lUmljurg'. In the KJnsky gorden, 1 waa too much taken up with 



tiie beautr of the pUoe, to imlie mmuj loqiurMs about its etattrtical detail*. 
He gmraen U arranf^ on ■ saanman at tumcaft, that riw from Uw 
Uoldoa op the nde of n hill, from the Rtmnit of winch thv vyv rwpU rii a 
pOBOnunic view of l*r«^e aud ltd enrirong ; ooft of tbo«« vi««« on which 
me dwelb nitb liii^-jiu^ (bnilnets, bnt o( which the pea n powerl««* to 
convey B (iBseriptiaD, and <^ nhich all w« ran aaj U, tliat it ih beautijiil. 

At my feet lay tho ul«s nf ihe MoMsu, nitd tliv niEpmiition-lini^a, 
When this bridge aiid iu 8{)iirtxtcbbi are finltlted, the aspect of Praeua 
mUl be materi^fv improYwd. Th«ra waa fomMily no Qi>*y tioag the nde 
fif the rivtr. liiis want will ik>w bo ropnlJed, a ntmbcr of old and itl- 
iDokit^ bouses baring been bought up and pulled down, with a view to the 
aoiHtractioii of a quay and of some kudsoiiia buildings calculutrd to fomt 
■ more (iiiiable frantt* tn tiic atiMdn. M uw efo ui StAmaJtett (an Austrian 
ivord for hoau) ouinutod the watcTi along whose buulu lay utivtclii^d a 
ikliiDcal and sereral private fpudens. Oa the othvr fide thu di^rrted 
Visiehnd seemed to mourn mi dcpaited gloriea: and tracing tU» up- 
Wlfd couisc of the river, the eve rcrted at k-nglh on the Bnnnik loA, 
, from whose vntrails had been torn the matrriola tliat hnd |^ni^ to the niak- 
[hm itp of the many houses that lay at my feet. Hw itonn dbtnuiej from 
Ifais rock is remarkably fine, and in the time of Charles IV., wtw known to 
Iw ItalisD orcltitccts under tlio uamc? of pa»ta di I'raga. The rock itself 
1m Its legend. A valiant kuiglit of the name of Braniuk i) aud to have 
'4veh tber«, and to lie buried there with Iuj brave ooatpaiuoiu. In one 
«f the c«T«nu of thu rock, the donblvd-tailed Uuh«niiau ti«n u swd to hold 
Ui i^^iiieuw, and wntth over the graves of its farniwr tenants. Oneo a 

Cur be comes out and salutes t)ii< Moldiiu rallvy wttli a roar, and then, 
nig received no answer, hu creeps iutu liis h»l« ^^ruIl, to take another 
twdvemouth^ renow. Should he, tuiwi-vrr, oiiu day receive aa answer, 
there will ho a mtglily str»ggl(> tn Ikihfnita, fur Uio gimats of tbe deceased 
heroes rut from their graves, and arc to secure the ricUwy to their eoun- 
fayRKii. Thii legend bkiiis U> live still iu tho full contidcncu of tlie 
people: hut then in Bohemia there it no end tn legendi. You fall in with 
niem nt the corners of the BtreeU aoij in the deptlu of forests ; they aliound 
Biid thrive amid the crowded thoroughlaree of I^guc, as in tbe sdeot floU- 
tldes of tlie country. 

Amoc^ the manufacturer of Pragne we must not forgot to epeah of the 
warofaouMS ofglnsa goods. Tho workshops ace gcnendly at »on)e distance 
in the eountry: but tlic wiirehoiites in Prague, for the gn-uter |>art, are 
the property of tlii? niuiuifiu-tur^nt. These have chemists aiid vaiaU ia 
their pay, who arc constantly luoking their innntiou to extend the domains 
of i^asti, by dijooTeiing new articli^ that may ndniit of Ix-iiig formed of so 
hritllo a material, and to j^ve new eolnurs and forms to th(«e article* which 
the glass euttete have long looked upnn u U-longing to tlieir kigitimate 
^k*n> Of each new discovery or moiUlicatJon a drawing is made, and a 
copy HUt to the manufactory. Tho drawing utd llie copy bear conTcapo i id* 
u^ mnrlcs and number*, so that if a sudden demand oomes to the ware- 
bouse for any partiridur artidc, all that is neccMaiy pnbaUy i< to send so 
order down to llie country, to uuike up immediately no many doseut of BUSS, 
or whatever nUe tbe number may be. I waa allowM to look overa number 
of these drawings which won- ncatir b"uud up in folij volumes, and I woa 
artonisbed at the immenie varietv o{ designs imd inventions for coffee, tea, 
and milk pots; at the cndleu modifications of form whieb so nmple an 


FKOM fhaoue to BnnwKis. 

article u A gldai ftoppcr vw nudfr t« uDd«r^ : and St tho prodi^lity of 
ingenuity that bad be«n expended on myin^ th« conformation of a tiling 
■o nnimpoKiiit u a buiyt Bmollin^bottle. In the difTurent ahadea of 
colour lh«n- rrta almost ai ntttch rarictj a* in the form ; yet the praraiUng* 
tastti appeats to be alviAj!). in the loD};-mD, in favour of (hat nhich is moct 
eimplo. Tho nlntii, iiuii>-, culourlHS, izryitallii)e gloat hu always b««n in 
lavoui', and vrill mftmtnin it* iiupr«mfu.'y in the end, however VUte may 
■port for a while ainoug tlio brilhiuit coloun, and varir^atcd fonna wliicb 
■cieuce has found the meana »f inparting to Urn beautifid matiufartore. 
All the btif^i " Lcooore greens'* and " Clu^-sopnw" of 1840, and tb« 
" Anne grrcn," the " gold gltm" tliv " dead glut," and the " aastMute/* 
of 1S41, may hold thrir place in public favour for a time; but thry will 
have pwwd away when the pure L-rystal vril] be priziMl a« murb aa «ver. 
Evvn ao man may surrvadcr htnuelf awhile to a chao* of abanrditie* and 
fanciea; but the pure crj-ttal of good tast«, niomlity, and jnatioe will, ere 
long, make it* worth be felt, and carry away tlie pnM of public favour from 
all Its eoQifw^tors 


Variniu an are ih* ra«m« by whieh a traveller may cimse hinmeif to ha 
con^-cycil from Prague lo Uudwei*, — by diligence, by mail post, by SUfl- 
viaiffii, or with a I.i>hnh¥Uckrr, or hiri<d carriage anil liorMa, — ^>et none of 
these iiu'iktit of IiK'ii'iiii>tii>n can ))e called excellent in tlM*tr kind.* The 
BohfTmian diligence! am very inferifir to thnte of northern Gnrmany, and 
the I.ofiKiiUsrkerw ate nuilc as slow in their m-ovcnieuts as in any otlm 
part tif our country. The .Stelltftiffrn had one [mwfrful recommcudalioil 
few mi\ and that wa« tlint I hml never travelled in one of them before. 
Tlicy arv to be met with iii all parts of tlic Aufitriau doniiiiioii!, and »erve 
as a means of communicntion bctwirm ihic soieral proviiicial towns, for 
tboce who make but few pretenraons to gciitililv. The Slflttrofffit, in 
contcquenco, is rarely favotirwd by foreignera, and thcrtforu all the more to 
be recommended to tliose who are dtutn^iis of making ac(|uaintaiire with 
provincial peculiarities. Accordingly, one iiioniin^. as the watrhiiian of 
Fragile had jiut announced tint itnjionaiit fnct tiiat it had strack four' 
«'clc>ck, I WM rolling, in one of tiiose humble vehicle*, through the Rost- 
tlior, and out upon the Budwcis road, hi conipatiy viilh a goldsmith of 
Prague, an engraver, a forester, a farmer, and a yoimg mother with her 
Uttle boy upon her lap. 

I tnd on excellent 0|>portunity hero of studying the pcculiarltica of the 
Bnhunii an* German dialect, and I was not a little turpnsed at the syiit*!- 
malie and consistent manner in which the good pnopl*- modify "ur graramar 
and pronumnaiion to suit their own views. Sonietinies Slavonian worda 
sn Gannaiilie<l, and soinetimt.'?! German wonls effectuidly ditguisi^d W 
Slarooian termination^ and at othvir times (lie strangest gibberiih tf 
produced by the lca»t cultivated cIomcs, who &ei|uenily mix up tbotr 

* Tho railnnd at pn-jent nukiiiK from ViirnuD to rnjcno, and from Pnow to 
Dresden, ntii) wlilcli will probaliiy be ficii^licil iii \Ui or 1r«. wiDellbct aconiplcto 
n-volutlonu] DobcniiuitmYclliii^. At tho time Mr. Krilil** work was pnbtiitticiC llw 
anantrcniiciits btrtwnii tbcAastiuaaiulSaxougvvcinmvnia, rcluiv«lotluirailn«d, 
had not ym bMo coinplvtcdL^TV. 


German itnd BlnTOtiian in so IiultRcriininute & miinner, u to inkke their 
meaning tinintc^lli^lile to luy ono not funiliur with botb )angiu^;«s. ThctM 
MTTtatlts An not, of course, *pply to the more «Jui7u.t«d cUmm, trho clum 
for themselves the honour of »ji£4ikin^ thr Austrian •German better uid 
more corr»?[l^ titan the Atutriaun tbriniK'lvtis; a similxr cIiudi u set op 
by thr g«intTv of Ilunipirj, CroatlA, ati<) Slavonia, in tlie snme way thwt 
thv Couciaoilen and Livonjaas niaiiitmn. — aoJ uoC vithotit Ruon, — that 
tiny jipeak the North German dialiMt wore ^lurdy and eorrsctly than th« 
NoTib Germans themseire*. 

I qtcHt the whole morning in th« »tu<Iy of the Tariom n'stema of tortiirtt 
tn trhirh my mntlicr-t()n;^ii- woa mihjectcd by the Uoheminii luoutha of niy^ 
fel low- era V pliers. We dined at MUlMbin, and shnrtly nfterwards wo ar- 
imd nt Tabor, tho celebrated strAn^old of thf Hussiivs iii the tiftc«atlt 
Oentury. Miuiy h»vi^ Mi{i|t<)9iil that the lIiiKfitca niLined the town and the 
hiJl 'Ml which il stimds after Mtnint Tiilnir bi I'alesliije, but Tabor is ft 
nniune Slavonian word, that occurs in alt the Slavonian diaJectn, and 
a^pufiea a piece of gn>utitl siu-rauuded by a i>iili»g, -whence- it ia figuratively 
Dieil (or an iitttvnchcd carnj). 

Tlib lutial mad pasM-s not tliruugh Tiibor, but elo«e by the sido of it, so 
that few travellers ever see the iiieido of tijo town ; wo, on our part, how- 
erer, ventured to ilevtatt^ from the ^neml nik, and proceeded tn take & 
nearer iti>iM>etion of so iiit^n^tinf; a locality. 

llie Lu«nitea, a. tributary of thi^ Moldnu, by d<»cribinf^ nearly a circle, 
has isolated an ohloii^ hill froni the surrounding couutrr. On three aides 
this liil] i.i steep, and surrounded by w&ter ; on the fourl ll side art has came 
to the aid of nature, lo dtreiif^ticn the place. (>a this hill, at an curly 
penuU oi titc rclipoiu dulurbnnees, foiao of the Htuulci werv wont t<> 
■ncmblu, and to receive the chnlii-e in Uic commuiuon; but wlu-n tho 
royalists began to raise the cry of " hervtit^ heretic," u^tinst the Bolimiiaus, 
acid to burn all that fvll into their handf, and when Uie Ilu^ttes, by way 
of retaliation, clapped their Gt-nnan priitoners into UrrctI Iteer-barrels, 
and vet (ire to tW'se in tlis public niiuki't-pUcitK ; in a word, when tho 
HuHito wars broke out, the persecuted race ondoavmircd to obtain pu- 
aearian of atroug jilaees ; and as those in royalist band.-i <-oiiUl not always 
be bad for tint n>kiii|T, it lii^canie nec«uary lo build fre»h oiien. Zizka,* 
not th** Ic£« sliarp-ri^htcd for bavinj^ but one e^-c, moh («w how uvll this 
mountain was euited to be the site of a stron;; fortress, which be lost uO 
time in erecting there ; and from llie fortress of Tabor he made his devas- 
tating Bxcursionaaeainstcanvents and ea.«tles, his adber«uts, from iJic pl&co 
of their midouce, Deii)?)C«nernlly callnL Taborites. 

The little city is still most curious to sto, beariiip cvea now tlie most 
oompleti! stamp of the n^ in which it was erM^ted. The gatei nn* iiar> 
row, and the double walLi and baitions, which remain fWmi th*! <lnys at 
Zb^s, pri-tcuk a stnkiiif; contrast to tbe iMMK-tful (..'atholic clodi-wcntcrs 
that now (belter Wliind tliose romiiJabk- work*. Tlit- streets, as in most 
flf tha old Bohemian towns, mdiatc from an open spaco iu tlie centre n bich 
serree as a market) and many houses of an antique cu^tellaltd shape, coa- 
tinne titnudiiig. In front of mm: of tliew, at the comer of xhe market -placo, 
flland^ an antique balcony, wbieh is still cnlled Ziska's pulpit, from wliicfa 

* Tlic name ihmiM l« [ironoiinciMl Khitlika, or rather more softly, the BoIidOiao 
% btiiag a Kxaui like tlia Stitacli j in jardin. 

bo u eud freqaenUj to bsre hannetMKl his warlike teholan. TW town- 
lioute ia the iao«t ancient of ail tbe Miildinf;^. Within it aic still ptvscrred 
Znlta's ihirt of mail, liia aim^ and a quantity of old books, bat we w«rB 
wable t» obtain a sight of thew «uti(MBt)«s, in conseqiietu* of the Biir]i(o- 
■aater, who had cMtse of tbe Iktb, beto^ ^m linme. CoDnon-baUs 
nmy bo iroti iu the walu of many of tlie hauws, but can hardljr belong to 
th» tJRws of thfl relieioiu wars. In front of th« cIiutfIi ib a bust in itoae 
of Zizka, and tho gniii fvstuna of tlu- oul^-«^ed li«ro tu&v Ulcewise be mcq 
on t}ie fa^aflc of n private honse. Z!xl(n wim nf a mi^ldliii^ staturv, rather 
httiky in ihape, witli broad eliooldem, and a lijj^li (<h«it. His head was 
large, round, aud tncliutRE forwards! hi< ben^d black and bushr, bia mootlt 
largo, hia noae tluck, and Im ooutplexicn limwii. 8n itid^Ublj have theoe 
ba^ttras impraswd tliafnaelf«B ujioii tW Unli^niiiinii, llinl ovtm now, after 
an ii»t«r>al of foor hundn^ y^'*^, tb* peopi* df Tabor continno to «it por- 
traitrJ of 7iti}ia. in notxl, a.i LiidIui fur walxin); •sticks. 1. too, bouti^hc one 
of tlieiw '/Atk-x xticka, U[Kiii which the Iliisaiie clmt ii repr«j(>nt«d with a 
plain linlntnt on his ho&il, and a bandagv otiv hi:t rif^he ca'p, whit^h ho had 
lost early in life. Ilia left eye ho loft at thi- siv^ of Rabi cartlc, where^ 
a jaTcliii ftrikio^ a tree Mar lata, a tnlmter fk-w aade and comiiUtelr 
bliudt'd him. Nevi^lM^leM, he rt'tainea his twinniand as ^nerttl, thou;;^ 
be hud to li« led into battle hj a giiidc; and it vnut, iii fnct, after lii* bltnd- 
Dras, llmt he attained the lenitli of his power, when he ^inrd his victory 
orer the people of Prague, who, though lluasitps themselves, hitd gotten 
into a quarrel with the dovajtator of their coinvtrj-. Hereupon, ho ecm- 
chidicd a treaty of friendship and allinnoe with tfiein, anJ their vlectiw 
lung, Ko^^-b^t, and so f^reat wvs at this time tb? power of the blind chief, 
that the kmptror Sigiimund offered Kim the government of the kin^om 
and the eonnnand of it? armj. if he would c«ns«it to reoogiilw the iiaiietml 
authority. IWin^ the iiejrotiutions that followed, Zixka, at tlio beig'ht of 
hie power, died suddenly of the plague. 

tvcry thiti-^ about tliu iiiud, c-ieii from hh liirth, appears to lutvo Iwen 
extraordinary. ]lh ttk.iiIht Wivi •iwitit-uly attacked hy tlie ]«iiiis of eliild- 
bitth while in » formt, atid Zixk* wiut bum «tith no ^luOtvr hut t}i;it of a. 
tree, in his chnmrtor h^ vcu» lUTit)^ and eruo'l, a.i miurh m he wn* valiant 
and «lo«]ut-iit Bohemian writc-n say (hnt the pr eiiliimiies iif hts stylo ore 
aa diilicult to render into German, as are the refinements of Cesar's elo- 
qiteuee. He mae from a romnaratirely linmble station, to supreme power 
IS his native loud, and ifiiincd tliirttrcu pitched battles, serrral of which 
were fought nft«r the Iom of liia second eye. The manner of his death was 
Also remnrkahle, and bo is the memory- preserred of him to ibis dav by his 
conntr^incn. The place of liiit birth t* atill ptnntcd out aa au unblewed 
spot, and the ground when; vtond tlic tent uniU-rwIuch hchn-uthcJ his hut. 
jvmnins uneultivaled to the nment dav. Jurt as the history- of Xaiioleoa 
il known to all Europe, bo is that of ^ixko, i» all its dc^tails, familiar to 
fFftrr Bohemiaii, and tliere 'a Rrorcclv a oastlu or a cttnveiit in the land, 
in whtc^ his iiortrait is not to be (ViitDU. 

Aftcrthe death of /ioka, hi« soldiers enllod themselves his orphan chil- 
dren, (uid divided themsclTea into four parties : the Orphan^ the Taborites, 
the Orehitc=, and the Ptmguen. Bohemia was denominated the Promised 
Land, and the iurroundiu;^ Gcmuiu proviuces were ditclued to he tlio lands 
of tlic Pliilittiooa, the 3Ioabit«s, and thv Idumeaiis. h was at tlua time, 
no doubt, that the Is^ lake near Tabor rcctivcd tlw nnuie of Jordan, and 


tte IbO lieMnd T«bor, that of ITarcL Af Tsbor mtM ibe duef rity oC tlia 
BoMitn, CO it now became t\w *<v^aB of tbioF wont execMCn, wliidi at- 
taiatd U>eir culmiiuliiiff poiut in the wild nttmneaace of tfie Ilusuts 
wet nf the Ailamitcs. At Tolxir too, wborc the HiHnte won bad coin> 
ncaeed, they wnre likewise brought to a do«e, for it wu the lost city thnfe 
•ukaitted to tite Royal StstM. It is »iud, tlui a niiui&at of the Adamite 
Beet still exists in Ikiti«int&, and (hat othrr 1 luuite stcts bare ntAintaiiKKl 
t]Mnn««-lre« iiiMlrr biicIi dcaoiniuMioiw, as tlie " Red Brothen," and iha 
" Brother* of the Lamb." 

From tbelbivgDiiie' it irill be Been, tint we hail turned our.tuae (o fpoA 
aenmut during- our anort stay U Tabor. At the next Maga, dw nanui of 
wtueh I have H^ottea, I had an opjwrtunily to see a BohetniaB pheasant- 
prcMTVC. The rearing <rf jilieasaau in Bohemia ia cairiad on upon aa 
cnocinoas scale, a* im^ be judnd fruin mi advertiMment which I nw, and 
in which a eettaiti Cmmt SniUck otf^-njcl tlirvo thowand {lair of liviD^ 
biids for sals to ooe lot la these preserree the pheasants an dmdod into 
wild and tame; the wild ore liepL m large woods, the tame under roof, or 
t& enchised yards. 

The nif^t was alrtady far sdrsaced wh«n w« ro«clicd Budweis, but ut 
that t^ty, for thi< L-onsolatinn of travellers be it koown, the sun ocrer ccssea 
to shed tns \\g\tt upon the benighted Strang, for the inn so named baa a 
Isrg* lamp burning eonspteuoosly, from evening till morning in &ont of 
tlte chief vn trance. 

The «oiitH«T» pxtpcmity of Bohemia, tliu wwntry round BudwoU, is 

ipdividuaU. Ht-re it woa that foniiiTly dw*«1t the family of the Rotenbmn, 
'« raet so povrciful, lluit MMeral of (ho liolinniian Tnonareha woo»d Uw 
daujiiitcrt for ihi-ir bridw. 'llic l*i>rds of Rosenberg frc^nviiUy contracted 
matniuouiol nlliaiices with tho ■ovt-n'S^ houses of Gcnaany. nnd on ooa 
McanoD we find the name of Rownborg amon); the candidatea for the 
Polish cronn. At prnttiit lliv family b extinct, a virL-u instance that caonot 
hut serioofly hare aiHtcted ChitrleniEg;uc, the Trr^ati horoe^ Noah, and 
RtndiT others of the anceatonj of ho iUuxtriniu a \ia» It is cartaiolr A 
sinpilar coineidcnw, that the branch of llw IWenberg fnmilv which ^ad 
been planted and had takt-n root in Courlnnd, should hiire dit'd nwny muck 
about the same dme m iho faniily-Ir«e ill Butivuua. f^inilar c<>inci- 
doMCa, however, are on r^K-ord r<H]X.-ct me other fiunilies, nf whirh different 
bnnclMH establielied in diMant countnca have all becorao extinct nearly at 
the came time. 

In the cellar of the Senate At Bremen there is a wine that by its gratt 

y> has aoqnirml such an odour (so exquisilv a bouquet u tho comaotMCttrs 
wine expnss it) that ynu need only pour a frw drops upon your poclceli- 
bftodkerehief, and you will luve no oecaslon for oau-de-CoIoyne fiw tevenl 
days afterwarda. Nobility secnu to be like this wine — the oUer it gnw* 
Ih* roon. it is priiwl. and if its origm is h»t in the Jiu-k agva it becomes 
qoile i»Mtimab)i>. The tast of the Bosenberg^ aocorrling !•> all tite tilings 
&al era related of him, Mcuu to h«Te thovglit Ids nobility juct such a jewel 

of priccloM valiis, btit dvar a* it was to tun, he wai imaUe to IxKjuenth it 
to ft roccttMiori fgr oubilit), liWo pMiitu, virtu*, luid I««nuD^, i« no* ta !» 
difpuwd of ill • nun's la«t will and tvttumrat. Unblessvd with lui heii to 
what ha mcMt Mtcemcd, lli« last of the Ro^puWrgs went to hin gr»re, bat 
hie taiilatiarT posvcinoD") hU broad lands and atatdv uut)«a found nu bt»r 
•oon eiioiiftl) in the fiwailj- of thi- Schu-uncuWrjfi, who arc now tho undi*- 
tnitci) Innli of all tliv Unds in wlitcli the Moldau and its tribuianM take 
tlieir ri«r. 

Tbf must iiaporUnt of ttieiT caslico aiid vstAtc* aro colUil Kjunimau 
'Witiiiij^u, aiid Fraucnbciig, and all that I bod heard of the chamu <if 
tho'*' <-ast.le9 fxeitcd too much curiositT in me to allow me to neglect aii 
opportuuily of (mytng them a visit. What 1 saw &7 exceeded what I had 
expfx-tnl to sec. 

) |uiid my tint viMit to thn inw that imsaiMl for the tenst important, and 
drovr witJ) an homitsblp fripnil, a resi<r«nt of Budwoiii, down the rcTdant 
banks cf the Moldau to Schloisi FniiieTiht.'r|;, irhlch stands on a mck hy the 
lirvT side, where it f»nn.i a coiiK|>icuoiu nhjcct to all the (utrouuiling 

U(>()u the said rock tliere stands an old ca«tle, and a -new one •( much 
gt^tter sjdeiidour is rising by the jiide of it. Over the mtrance to the old 
one rfarids tliw inscription, Frvetus fitlfi, nWrnxi^. I bi>H«vc-, to the gift 
vhiidi one of the Aurtnttn cmncrors, FrrJiimnd If., if I am not mid- 
taken, niiulu of this ca^tlo and lorvLtliin, to one of liia 8|)aiiii>h gvncrals, 
Don Bultluuar Mnraiiiw, Count of SaVnto. Fndcr tliw piti'way of llie 
caitJe may etlll be se^n a tnV^lct, on which thit l)<-in Ridttinjtnr \s styled 
Comi-9, I)»mimis in Fraiienberg. Al preaent, however, tbo gateway is 
■urmi^itited liy n Turk'* hfud, fri«n which a raven is jiicklLig out the eyes. 
Thip is thr tT*«t of the Si-hwarwnborgn, who, iikr many Austrian faniilivs, 
eajry Tiultiali eniblcmB and qjoJlB in ihclr shields. Hic view from too 
cajtli' is uii3|)cakahly beautiful. The fields nnd meadows of the Muldnii 
lie at yon' feet, ami farther on bcs a plain, fi'om the niidst of trhicb rlsif the 
steieplfi? of ItudwL'ig. The wh-^du is bounded by braucbeH of the nifuntain 
range of tho Briheniia]i F"ri'«t, iiiid over tho liUidiH'a]i(; lie nc.ittt.Ted a niun.- 
bei- of tillages, alt uf wliicli ln-bnig to the lordnhij) of St'Iiwimn-nlierg. To- 
wardii the ea*t the eje trave!* on t»wan1» U'iitingnu, anotlicr Swarren- 
bcrg Intdsliifi. 

When tlm French Marshal. Beniiulotte, visited the castle In lfi05, (hy 
t}ie by. tile Frendi must have cirrittd away nioro iigrcoiihli? ren-ollectloas 
from tliis southern extremity of Bohemijt, which they riaitcd lei»Tirvlv a* 
visiters, than they did fn>rn the northern pnrt of whieh they obtanied. 
only a few hswty gliiiicr* tlimugh the sulphuions smoke of (I'ulm;) hut 
wlioii the mnrs>tal vixitcd the i-astlo, as I vas saying, and the intendmt 
poiult'd out the nuignificent i»ro.i[>«'t to him. and then iislted hin> what ho 
thought of it, the marshal nnswi-red. " What strikes me a* inost wo»d«t> 
fid if, that your iirinct! xhoidd In^ InnI and master over all I seo." And, in 
fiut, without being a French marehal of thu duy;! of the em^iro, whoso 
fingers would nniiirally be itching at the sight, it » difficult for any one to 
let liis eyes roam frtim rillage to liUngv. nnd from field to field, withiMit 
8onie little sensation of cory, without *oino slight appraximatiuu to a wi»h 
that hr wi-re able to step into the Sehwanenberg'ii plnct". All the wliilo 
I wa* ihin-, I wns iliinkiiig of the old fairy tale of " Fuse in BootK," where, 
u tli» king and Iiia son-in-law ore driving through the country, the cat 


Iteeps Mvin^, " Evny tinag you see belnogs to our lord and fntuUrr the 
princr, your majcrty'B son 'in •law." 

I Ktn Dot aware that the old castli: >s yvt m ho ruinoiu a coadiciou, that 
it tni^ht uot hflTe stnod, sod kept out the wind and n'la for many jeuxa 
longer ; but when a man has 4,0(K),00(> doiim (£400,000) b yeu, u 
Priticc Schwnrxcnbcre' is Mid to hnw, Iiv !• not expected to take as inu^ 
cue of hU pennies ^n niij^lit lieM'^in a tlinfty cobblvr ; and as tlie print.'e is 
poseionately fond of Gotlnc iirchitccttiro, it la very excusable in him to hare 
aet aiidi; .^(Hf.OOO llnriiia to build hlnificlf a new hoiiM^ lu.'cordiiig' to his 
&?ourite fiubiuu. Whea tim uen building u niii«lird. FrauHiibprg -will be 
OD* of tb« handiODcat ewtlei in Bohemia. Thv siuidgtano finr the Gothia 
omamonts coine* aO th» way from Vienna. Wo saw itaudinf; ia the couri- 
Y&rd a quantity of these stones, packed up in chests with u mucit care aa 
iT they had Ixien to niany loav-cs of su^^. 

Frauciibt'r]:; is <*cl(!bmtAil througlumt Bohemia for it* wild-boar huattf, 
which are carried on here, probobly, on a pranJer scale than in any other 
place in Europe, Djid ore, indeed, unique in their kind, like [he Etlerhazy 
atog-huDts on the Flatten Lake in Hungary. The monagari« nr Tkier- 
garUn, in which the wild boan are kept, coven a space of a (Gonuan) 
square mile and a linlf ; and e«vu of late years, as many as 3U0 lioars 
(& kind of game growing erery d&y more scarce in Europe) have been 
killed at ouu of thLsc huutlng-feKlivais. The epurt L^ curried oit with ex- 
traonliiiunr iwnip, and something iifier tin- folbwing fashion ; 

Near the tmrk in which tha aiiimn.l(i itre kept, is a sniill roedv lake^ 
bounded on tnree sides by gently 'rising heights. On the fourth siile th« 
book b low and awntnpy. This lake is the scene of tlie yearly alaugbtcr- 
iiiga. On the t)wani[iy side nf the lake, a high and hollow dike hxt been 
etvctftd, T«tting upon vnult-^ in which ok eotdincci the animal* intended to 
be hunted. By the eidc of tlio dike projectiitg into the water, arc small 
tribunes or balc<»nies, in which tlie lords of ilie chaee take their places. Oa 
the dike, really, if wanted to oiford assistance, stand the foroiitcnt ani) 
kuatAnon of tno prince : all, from the head forester to the whippcn-ln, 
in splendid uniforms. There arc not less tlion twenty of the nriucc's fo^ 
KSters, and 1 30 of his huutsmen present on one of tnese oecosiuns. The 
OBimali are let out of their milled prison about tifty at n timL>, and, driven 
bv a crowd nf pcauinta ('collected for the piiirnosc, they tnuucdiatcly lake to 
tUfl water, to conceal th'tfnm-lve« in the reetb, or to swim towards the Op- 
pe«ite hills, where they hope to find shelter in the foresL On the way 
tliitlkrr they seldom fait to ntid Ui<?ir d«alh from the eoustaot iiru poured ia 
upon theui by the gciitlvnieu «tatioiie<l i[) the balconies. 

I observed to my conijianintiit that this kind of i]H>rt nemed to ma mere 
butchering, and must l>e very imipid and moucftoaous ; but they tusuiwl 
me it wn» full of pleasure and exciteaieiit, on oecouut of the pomp witk 
which the wholo was conducted. In the ocntre of tlut dike there wu 
always a full orcjmtra. and tx-hind it an amphitheatre for f]ieetaeon, of 
wbout number? came irom all parts of the surrounding counlnr. Tlie 
moment, they told me. when the sport was about to begin, when the 
trumpelK sotinclecl, and the gates were opened to set the wild boar<j free^ 
was one of t^at tuspensc. I'licn the situations in wliich the cn»ttum 
presented ihemselvrs to the lire of tlic hunters, were very varied. Some' 
times the game would hide itself among tln' reeds, whence it wnuld have 
to be driven \iy tlwrillet i tMuctimes it would swim as a men black speck 


nra CASTLXS A?n> wtates op «niwASZE!ni£S6. 

vpoo the ■water Now otw wauU svim dineU^ toward ft bokon; filM 
witli ill foes, and often s few woidil gniu the Offoa t e Blunt wxl P^ tlw 
'bMt marknman to the proof to privant tbair «ki^ TleB, an old wt»- 
UbbeJ Uw amotkf; (i«nnaii hantnre iw piiwi i &alt to* cmtum't bead ■bould 
Kiawn uDinjurod. and tlie htiiiten) are ntteo put to it, to avokl tfac pcuoltiea 
vliicli an iofrsf rion of tbit law draws afUrt iL 

In the plain bolov Sehloaa FnuMobaiv, and notliu-froin the lake Ihara 
just described, lioi ux tM castl« (««ctM for tit* vxprui porpow ot btar- 
mituig. Sucli castlet eiiitad (nrmetiy in many parti of Germany, buc 
faave all dinnpearvd now, with ttym oxceiitiouR. The biuldinj^ I am now 
■praking' r>f la an vxtonsivo onit, witli nparttmrnt* bdow for the huntsmen 
am keriinre, with dens (or bears and lieiiBelB for dog^ luid lar^ natmi of 
jiMMB anoTR for the pritioe aiiil hU f^uerta. A balcony, for tlie acoommo- 
datioo of epot^tiitnm, piwjivu infa> the courtjard, which it niRountled fajr 
bigb walla, and in which bcosta of all kinda w«rc formerly baited. Tlio 
lu>t great bear-baiting that took place there, occumd only aixty years 

The pnadpal aalooo of thii coftlc u hnnp; all r<vund wild beautiftd pic- 
tures by the calebrated ammal-tniinter, Hamilton, and I Wlicvc tlte nol- 
Wtioii contains tbc best paiiiliii|^ he ever mode. Hamilton spent the 
Tears 17 10 and 171 1 with a >>cli'>'*r»i:iiWtx, who arranj^wl auodry bear- 
bailin)i8, decr^stalkings, and buar-hiiiits, for tiie piiiiit<n''s «aki:, and tbe 
latter had thus an opportunity, nnder peculiarly favourable circ-unutaiMM, 
of paiating these bcautilul pictarca, which may now be said to waste tlicir 
sweetness on the wilderness bdng' but mrrlr ften by an eye capable of 
«£iimatiiig their worth. The piotvres &tv all of the natural «ii(% and tlie 
•nbjxwtn mostly — a stag oreipowered by dngs, a bear battling it with Ilia 
assailants, wiltl Ixmr? i(nr|)ri)icil in n thicket by liiiritere, and oihor scenes of 
• umilar kind ; and all w full of truth, that « formerly HauiiUoii became 
fcra while a recluse here to study tlio phj-singnomy of tlw? hup^' lieoats of 
the chacUj so a luodt^ra pointer, profitinj; by the labours of hi» prcil«XM*or, 
might shut hi lu^lf up in tlie citstlt! fur a while. BJid pursu« a .liniiliu- coureo 
of »tudy nith iii&iitely more oaae and eouvcniciic^. The tl»f^ in these 
pieturi's arc nil portraits of animal* binoua in their dnv, iukI di^ierving 
cvi-ti ^n^-nttn- fame now that they have been tmnsforred to tliK cnnvaM. 
%'hen the French irere here, in 1742, tlicy ntnild fain have carried awajr 
the whole coUcction, hut for some reason or other contented themselves 
with culling tlm best hood — that of a wild boar — -out of the hctt picture. 
The damage was i«rair«d as well as it could lie, but the scar is evident at 
tlie fir^t glance, ancm is the iiifisrior workmanahtp of the modem artist. 

After Wring Fruucnhci^, our neat visit was to Schloss Grntccu, another 
fnicfus Mli. The bnt.tlc i>f the "White Mountain, which gare Boh*nni» 
back to Ferdintind. anil which lost Frauenberg for the house of SInluwiti, 
dcprired the Protestant Lonlx of Schwiimbci^ of thfir castle of Gratien, 
vhieh tbcy defended tuliantly (>>r a while afrainst the impeno] tronpo. 
Vitli the eastle went also their seven (Gemian) square miles of territniy. 
The confiscated crtnti; wiw conferrtd on n Frvmchmati, Cliark-s Bonaven- 
tun Longuc^'al. Count of Diicqiioi, oiiil Ikirou dc Vuux, whose dt^sccndanta 
•till possess it. The ^ate is entirely unincumbered, ttiid is said to bring 
in an annnal rercnoe of 700,000 flonns, or 70,(XM)/. 

There are tlireo castles at (iralncn. One w the old fortrew tliat was so 
lloutly defended by the old Barou voa Schwamberg, scotber is the sum- 

■wr T«siid«ioe of the Count de Bucquoi, and die tliird M tn(cnd«l for lbs 
arcommotliitiim of the <-autit*a offieera of •tut", in w-boi« hsntb is Uie ad- 

^^BUtratiou of the lordsliip. Tlus central trovcnuncDt of dw estate is 
lied the '' priuocly court chancerir," at the head of wfaacfc an four 
' jRBMly court oounselloiB." These Bohemian noUcs exetoMi in laet m 
BVkitiidie of nj(lit«, whi<^ in other counUiM wo ai« BCCUtofDvd to look 
on ma the oxdusiiT attributes of sorcreignty. Tber CDii£er the dignity of 
court couDBPllon, ^iitprivtk^ea to their cities, and oompOBoooalaararma 

r4er cbem. The ma^iacnucs, £)w«>or, whom tbtjr appoint, tr« oblin^ to 

' ^ throuffa the sainc «tudic4» and submit to t^ aame oiaminatifln M thoM 

' imointM bv tliB itat». 

We fenau the officers of the Buoqnm h«nseha]d payin); Menpliinefita ta 
another at the eotrauoe to a aonctrtTootn. llciv, m od many of tli« 
luee Mtates of mmic-Iuving Bolieniia, a prirate baud U kept, to ffire oo* 
'— onal Moewts, and on the t%tea of the lord or lady of the castJe to ac- 
Donpanjr tbe organ iu the oburdi. SvvctuI pivccs from Nonna and other 
modem operas vrt'Tt pcrfunucil, Hnd wi-rt> exvcuU'il with toleraUebrilUaiie^ 
tbi^ |>vittlmMiii uf tilt! lu<iii»elii)ld w^te! loud in their o{iiplBuse, and t«9oli^ 
tliat tlie coii«Tt should W iv^H-atcd i>u ibt* following Sonday, the btrtbday 
of the youRK Iteir, wbcn tlie money taken at the duotfi vaa to be applied to 
the iflief of tlic poor. 

We mpfwd at tho cwtlc, where the cooTerMtion turned <^iefly on two 
«dgeds, psrtJy on the Ausavliohemtan frontier, and partk on uio gteafe 
.fidnnads, the inoiC lolcnBtiag &Bture in ati econonucal point of view, of 
"the larse plain between Wittingou nod Gmtsen. 

In Northern Genoiiny, we understand under the namo of Austrian every 
ooc wIm) comes &om any part of the ^reat Austrian conglonKTutiim of 
JandB, prorided he BpeaUs German ; but evay well-eduented Bnbemiao, 
fiuQf^ariao, Croatian, or Slovak, speakv our )uii)^a{^' ^ite as veil as do 
the pHrpio of Vteiina or Siyria. Here on tlic moantain border, liowever, 
tbe contrast between the linhcii)iiin and Austrian, and tbeir nuittud anti- 
Itthini wen forced upon my attention. Of 4iyiN[>«ithie9 betirpen nn^b- 
oounii)>; nations there isaeUaiii niucb lu bo mud. In Paris or Berlin ui- 
Aiml. B Bobemiaii and to Austrian nmy 8\-mpatbiso with saeh other, but at 
liunii* tliev know uf no snch feetiog. Not ntorely the common people in 
fiolx-mia, but eveu the liigher dasses, pnrtic.-ipate more or Icsa iu thia 
•fenion t» ihi^ Atutmus, ;um1 even tlie Oeniiaii part of the populntiam 
agree mtlithe Slavonians in tliis, with irhom in other n^peeti they ora 
litUe in the habit of niiigiiiK in uuiaoti. Our eveoin^ party at Gratsen 
consisted alnust entirely of iicilieiniaji-Gemianti, yet 1 okacrrcd upon tha 
oovntonanesH of nil of ihrm a cvrtuiii half-«upf>remMl «arcastie smile, wbm 
I nndcrtiwk tbe defence of the Austnaiis, " Ay, ay," taid one of them aC 
last, '' hunest euou^li tbey are, no canting hvpocrtbes like the Italians, and 
liard working- raou^ too t but ^od God V and here he shook faitt head 
with a tmik ef erMtot satis&etion, " what iinlii.>1(eil cubs they are ! How 
sirfcwud, sttffiid, aiid. bdi^ess ia ererv thing-I In short," added he, " it if 
a perverae and wron^beadad peopla. 

On their port, the Aoctrituu reproach the Bohecnnu with inrinoeritT. 
*' A false Bohemian," is acoinmou oxprcMiou, and tbe Austrian ^neraUjr 
describes the Botiemian as a gloainy, mcbncbolr, nncomfortaUe oreatun* 
1'iie antipathy Celt by tlie Bokwrniau, b»r«T«r, is doeidedly auriud bj aoM 



A fat carp. Mrv«^ iii black touco, comjxMMl McflrHing ia a nnlinniJ 
recipe, of crKtviI giiiywbreail, blond) and odioiij, l«d our coDTCrsation na- 
turuly to cbe gnttt twhpooda of the nei^fbbaurbood. Gnttzen hiu sivty 
poadi^ tli« Uulunloni of Kroiiunau <«vonty, Friiu»i1>crfp oni> hunitr^d And 
ibity-five> and Wliticignii two Iiundml and icvcnty. Amoiij^ these m tlin 
odefarateJ Roootibmrg pond, nhicli occiipiw nearli^ tweUe biindred joke of 
land) ^tn which mid the other Wiitiii^u pondi, na leas than four thoo- 
BBud rwts. of carp arc ycnxly taken, aud aciit cliivtiv to \'i«iitiu. 

I cftiiiiot uiy I eTermade myself bo fnniilinr with the roniplicntpd ij^item 
of mnnngoinfiiit to which the Bohemiau fishponds are iubjei^ted, as 1 did 
TritU the lua-nncr in wluch the fifh yarn usuaJy brought to table^ still, m I 
atn not aware ttiat any of tlic trnvcIlL-rt who hnvc preocd«d me hnv« xpolcen 
■it nit ujMii tile subject, I will enduitvourto give a coDdM wcouiit of what 
I Ic-anivd about tL 

Tlic main point, it Menu, ii to take care that at diflVrent ages nnd at 
differeut seasoiu, the lish be provided wttli tlie depth of water KiiiUiljIe to 
them, and also that the kinda of fish that do not euit each other should not 
be put together in the ^amn fK>Ht]. Mow, as it id >n)]>oesible chat one pond 
can latit^ all then deiiuunlri, the Bohemian Iniidowners liare brought the 
ponds oa their eetatea into a sort of connectod «y«tani, and have ^ven to 
each dan of ponds its separate destination. 

FintJy there are the wood [>onda, {Drvl, or Sati-teichf,) in which the 
youn^ (Ml receiii'C the mdinionu of their education. Hicso ponds an small, 
aad contra but little food, that the rising guncration may not injure 
tlieaueUvs by gluti^iuous indulnrence. In proportion, liowever, as the 
Sony babes tmnriive in tht-, tliey aro removed to tlia Slreck-teiche, or 
atrotchiu^ j>oada, where the intcrMting little ont* ore to begin to stretch, 
tlieinjielve.s. Thence the creatures are remosed into the large reserroiis 
called Hummer or Hanpt-tticfie. lu winter tlte water !s n'aiTnett at tlte 
bottom, \ti suniiiicr at the t<>p; young fish, therefore, who require warmth, 
ntmt often be put into ducfwr ponds in winter. 

It would of coune be as absurd to put old piko and young carp into the 
came pfirnl, as to shut up wolves and lambs in one etidjlc, At'cordinfjiy 
there am eepai-ate ponds for each. ^\lien i\\<» tanj, however, grow old«r 
they are apt to grow laey, and burj- tlieiuseKo.i in llii- mud, whitih prevents 
thi-ir pro[>er developmcnl; and then, by way of gunkiiig tli<:in mort- lively, 
a few young pike are put into the pond, for the purjiosc of keeping tho 
young republic in a stAtc of hoolthfid excitement, Lke oppoaitioa men La a 
representative assembly. 

It may oaiily bi* suppojnd tliat all those PCtnoTftls and minglings nece*- 
■itate a gn:at vnrivty of occupntionE. Usually the work is performed iu 
sjning or autumn, and jfreat care and caution are iieeeiwary. If, for in- 
stance, snow were to fail on a fish, he must nn no .iwount be put back into 
the pond, but must be m>rit to market and. sold for what he will bring. If 
a mndcn frost coven the ponds with ice, great mischief is done to the fish, 
if air>hnies are not immediately oponixl. If this is not done, the fish swarm 
to the furfute, and wen if they nre not sufiocatcd, they " burn" their find 
against the ice. A scarcity of nater, also, in case of a dry summer, cauws 
great dealruclion in the ponds. 

The intcndants of the ponds require, of cour*e, at alt timM, to know 
how much water there may be, and polvd.ntiirkL-d witli feet and iuchen aru 
therefore fixed in each pond. A few inches too much may eanly occasiou 


inundations to Hi« neighbouring ficIcU, ftnd tben the <Lu»&ge uiudt be uudt 
fooA by the ovriier of thu \toud. 

Inuiieiise •waniif ^^C Iwnnu, wild duck*, ftnd otbnr wtttnrfoirl freqoent 
thtt« poniJA, and the consoijuciUK in, that nil th« eurmuudioe p«iUMiutTy 
bacoine practised nurksmen. Tlio birttfl atd particularly watonml fur cho 
time wheo the water it to ba let out of a pooi), on which accftiion Uioy fiul 
not to feiut upon th« fm^ and upon such 6*\i tk* nuiy happon tn hflro r«- 
niUDcd in the mud. TIich?, hon-cvcr, they arc not lei'l in undisturbed 
of, for it is ciutotnary. whcu the onaor of the pond has secured 
tribute by means of nets, to abanflon what ia l*ft to tlic pMl- 
BtaU. The poiid itupcolon ^fire thv aigual fur the scnuublo as soaa u the 
ooble'i boxes vr thou^iit to lit- nuflictciitly fllltxL Tlic sig^n&J is for the in* 
fpwtori to ory out Harzi hurzi ( It bunts, it Ininis) ; whereupon the crowd 
ruah with loud crioi 'vM> the nmd, and dnvc the f^ee^o ana herons iima 
their prey. The peauutts ohiaiti a gnod deal of li>h in thii way, and 
prMVTT* A cixuid«rable (jiiantity for tliu «-iiiter, hy itincpkiiig theoo. 

The geese and herons flr« hy no meiani |}i« nnly pltmderetrs of tliMfr 
ponds, in wluch otters and beavers likewise abound, though len now tfata 

Od tliu following morniti]^ wn fttnrt«d for Kmnimau, the moit bmous 
of all the casdea ia the neighbouring; coiintiy, and certainly onu of the molt 
intercning of all the princely nmnaioiis of the Aurtriaii monarchy, with a 
depondaut lord&hip of tll^eu (icrman Mjuaro niile^ and dfty thatuand in- 
iMUjitanUi. The dulcc-dom of Knimmau is one; of dime hiuf-xovcrcigiiti*^ 
of which tlicrc hare ut nit times been scrcmJ in Bohemia, as the dukedom 
of Friedland, which nas given to Wallerutein : the dukedom of Reichstadt, 
with wKich Napoleon'i 4on waa invested; and the dukedoni of Raudnioc, 
which belongs to the Prince of Iiolikuwitx. 

You enter the lint courtyard by croMitiif a dniwbridge, and paMing 
through a massive Eton« gateway. The casde ditoh vm formerly occupied 
by a nuinber of bean, but tlietie have of Uto years disappeaKO. lu the 
■aeond courtyard ftaiid« the giiard-liouiie of the Scliwantonberg greimdien 
of the body-g^rd, n coqwi of forty iiiuii in splendid uiiifontiF, all iii the 
prioee'e pay, and commanded by an oDicer who holds the rank of ca|)la>u. 
Id thk oourtynni I paid my reqiects tn one of the oflicera of the cattle^ 
tod toh) him I wixhtNl to see aa much at powihle of the plaoit Ha aahod 
me, with a smile, Iww many wpi-lu I int4-nde<l to derota to the inspaeUon, 
and I soon found, panicularly after 1 liad had a glance at the archtrea, 
that tha queilion implied hy no means an exaggeration. From the second 
I pMwd mto a third, a fourth, a fifth, and a niiilb courtyard. 

The casdfl looka ai if no part hod over Ixeii pulk-d down during the 
whole time tlial it has been lucoeadvely held by the Rw^ctiberg*, the Eg- 
pwiibergs, and the Schwaneuberg*. The whole summit of the hiU on 
which it stands is covered by a labyrinth of tumU, walls, and other build- 
tugs, in eveiy imagitinbh* itylc of arehitccture, with noble tiuiten of roonui 
■uch as we are occustomed to look for only in imptriaJ iialacM, and liul* 
nolnog holot, fit only for the rock-built nest to some robber ehicf of ilie 
feudal dmcs. That tlic oldwt MTt of the old iiuildings must be very old 
indeed, may be inferred from tlio simple (act, duit the must iitodcni jmr- 
tion, dtc New Castle as it is called, it m<<ndoned under duit naiiui ia tlio 
archives, as much as three hundred and fifty years ego. 

Our first visit iu die interior was to die ptcture-galtcry, in which arr 




piMerved Uic DumberlfiM poitruU eS th« tuwu aiombefg of th« ttnvj 
noblo hiiulirs to wborni ttic ta»tlf haa Bpenewiyrfy Irakngvd. WlHi ft] 
&niily pnrty tliey woiiUI makr. if tlx^y oouM rH >icp from tlteb- cmraw] 
ud join in b men}- feettral ! Then' would 1h> uniile nxuQ in the eull* * 
CdtuI of them ; but there te only one of tlteiB to wLcm it it etill ^ireu U> 
wander tbrouKli tb« nlil luJk ind oomdon, and tlii^ ts Benha. lou Jtoscn- 
lier^, the oeleDrBted ^Vhitt! Lndy of Keuhaus, uf wboni a portrsit inajr here 
bv neca as large as life 

Tliu Bertha, or Drichta, was marnnl to a Lichtnistnn, a laauij with 
wliicb tlio RoMfibergs, like their successors tlie Schu-aneDbercsi often ap- 
raiiged roatriiaooial aUiancM, even hdbre the bride and briaefT^am had 
heeii fairly cmaocipBtcd &om the craiA& Tlicic arc still Kuch thiiij^ wt 
&niily (j-niijathiea and antifathiM snunig the great hoiuea in Austria, as 
Hiert mre iti tho eariicaC timed of which a T«!ord haa bp«u jiraeerred, sod , 
some of the fiiinily fi-ud.i that tiavv tiiTi-ii irtaiiieJ to the («vM.-ut day triM ' 
tlicir origin to t)ie niiddlr agu. Now tliis Liehtcniibeint tlw husband of 
Sertlia, WHS a mouBk'T, and treated liiji getitlc wife little bottcT thiui Blit<>- 
beard did iiia. Ofieo in the raoming, it is nJd, SertJia's pillow wim fotind 
Boakfd witit her teaia^ aiid tometimea even wilJi hei' LIixmI. Before hur 
marriage A* it aufpoMd to ht-ra bam a* fuiul of the pleacurea nf the world 
as moat yoaofi; tadiefl, but wbea it pl«AMd Jlearan to rclcwo her imm htr 
iyraal, jJte retireil to the c&stle of her brother tlta Lord of RoecubcT^, who 
about the aame tiuie liad loat bis wife, and with whoiu j>lte li^ed theDceforth 
M a fomu -widow and a uotaUi.'! houwlu^iwr. Her cliief delight was t» do 
•cti of kindnees to the poor, whom she waa to the habit of caiUn}; together 
on certain days. Tor the purpose of enteTtainiiij^ them with a sweet diafa 
(dulce nuu it ia exiled in the archive* of tiie citsUe), and which stil) ean- 
tJiiU'Cs to be distributed. Attcm]>ta lutvc more than once be«n made U> 
■llbttitute a money distcibutioQ, but the peti«anls huvc alvkya atoiitly 
XMUttcd such an iimovatioa, which tliey ore a&nid " liertha auglit take 
•Tniss," . 

It is only in mom recmt time* tlmt black hnu Inien a4l[>[>te<1 in Di^emia, 
&am Fraiire aiid GiTiiiaiiy, an a mark (if mininiing. Bi-rtlia, like lill widuwa 
of her linu-, wore wliitr, wh)c]i titie t^iiitiiiucd to wc^ar till dc-ulh, when she 
wan butii-il in l»cr white \vidow'a wocd*. To this she owed her name of 
tile White Ledy, by which she waa knoan diiriug her life, and under which 
ahe is now atmost wonthipped aa a nint. The people of thr- surrowidjik^ 
eouDby linnly beliftre that «he onntinucs to wander through tht eA<tl«s 
then bdonipn}; to the hoow of Roscnbn'^, that site looks about to see 
trhether the faou»ea are kept in good order, and whether the poor reeei«v 
their dulcr imu regularly. In (general, in thi'.w her waiiilerings, aho is 
inTiMble to every vye, but fomctiint^s «bc if srcii, a circumrtmicc always 
Siqipoaod to aonofmce xoine great cnlamity to die family. Ou £ueh occo- 
siooi IJm country -pen pU.< whisper tlmidlv into eaeh ot)H>r's ears — BhcAta 
S* Itpttmberka khotli (Ucrtlu i-ou Rovtnberg 1:1 wauderiiij; about), and a 
deat}i ■□ the family is Uien coiifidmtly liraked for. At Schhns Wil^naiu 
thrni is a pomdor, and at Ni-uhaus atiotlier, whidi Berths is enppoeed to 
have particidai4v m1«cI(^ for Her nocluraal promenade ; and Stfir of Ibe 
ismatea are haray enough to vi^t either of theae haunted piusagee, except 
under good stoort, uhT with ft euffident illaminatioii. To tw sure, by 
dayllj^t, they mort of tbem tpealc of tha whole Btory in a very rational 
instmor, as a popular fable; but I haro my dmibtt whether even tlie hewlsof 

BfTtha ha.* uliowri benelf &f^tn to noital vy&. 

Tiuav an tbrec portruitn uf the White Lotl;-, on« at cacli of ihw three 
raitlfi ef Neultniu, AVittinfTKu, oaA Kniniiiiaii, nud tlii; three pictim« are 
•0 exaetly alike thnt twu of tliem aie evideatlv onnicn, but at each eaatb 
titt people mtuntaii' titai they pouese the on^ual. llur couatowaeo 10 
pale aud mragre, and Wr f«a,tura full of mttlnnithiJy, hut with n. remoric- 
aUv sweet pxprMsiao. Her whole person U privelopml iti n whit*> garmeut. 

my fifnidc yna the captain of the body-f:iiaRl, who, as wo pa^ed from 
■aae auilc of rooiufl to onotlier, apolonied Tor hin iiiii>erf(>ct kiioMrlod}^ oC 
the Errt>nt labmtitli of ui)ui)iir\', hr teTling m* lie Iiwl niilv U-i'ii a jear ia 
the hoiue. The protctit licnd of th« houM of SebwimccsiMTg U a youof 
man,* who h»s Hi)Audoiied all theaeatatd/vhatnbenof abrrone tine^and 
bin had a >et of nMuu fitted up for hini with inodera limplunty aitd com- 
fort, iu a oomBT of tht* gntat hniiM. Tlion wiy, will you say, is not tha 
reet of the pUoe turned to aceount, and niadt^ hahitnhlr (or tlioae, of whom 
tbera are ao many, to whom the belter of a roof would he n hleMiii)^? 
"Why, you we, my gitcA Ui-iid. a lar^ ludeas home is indi^ensablittot^ 
{>ropcr 6'if^ty of a gT<:-at fn-mily, and Aa tmrna of th« entaihoeiit do not 
allow auDe'le corner of the uiaiuion to be sc^cctod. 

If yotj w»h U) have a prnper notion of the imporlanee of the lords of 
the eaMlu in fnnnor days, you muiit f^t and have a look iic the armory, 
vhcre you will tin<l tliv whole rows nf trumpets luid kutUt^-dnuiis that wcro 
mmt to miotic with t)ic family rc«vlry wlu-ii a RoM-nliet^g wAi inairMd. 
There you will see a coUectiou of the coins and medul^ struck at various 
Iddh hy tiie fanuly. Jtly vompauiou adsuied me that the Rosenberg were 
accuitoinMl to keep ready at uU umei anns tor twenty tlioumtul men, and 
that the artax now in the omiory wfwld (ufiee for tho aqn^iBHeS of neatly 
that number, provide the pv^ter part would cootMit thernMlTWirith haf- 
Wn)", partisans, and battle-asett. 

The subterranean dungemw of thf" vmntie havo been imrred out of the 
rode with ao immense oxpomlihiiv «f labour. We desoendtd with torclits 
as if we had been gaior down iota a mine, and cajne U> tbc main idiaiftf 
whirJi was Dotfaing cdw out a deep broad well, cut into the i iiltd rocJc, dom 
iriiteh tb« prisoners ware lei by inoai^ nf ro|)C£. Wa; thnnr atenefl into the 
dail abyae. and beard them eirlke the bottom after a few seoooda. We 
threw down some whiaps of burning; straw : but even by these means, we 
were uiinblc to obtain a eiew of the hottom. There are other dungeotis, 
Im horrible thou the one de*cribe<l, but quite ti(;ly enough iii tJicir way; 
yti one of them served at one time as a lod^nj; to the (jemian etnpcror 
Vemaslaiu. who was locked up there, iu 1402, by Ileniy IV. of Roaea- 
hetg, the lleurvfl of Koienbi-rff teem, indeed, to have been sad feUowa; 
§ar about one hundred yenrs afterwards, anotlier Honry of Rotenbrrg put 
•Am na^ittjatee into one of these dunfjeooa. (or eoming, in tliv name of 
Hbm i^renM tribunal of the onuutn', tn fay claim to a portion of his eatota 
for thv t/i>rd ef Schwombnx. Tliu claim wax fouuded on tlic wiU of 
Henry's tirvdvccssnr ; but Henry denied the ralidity of tliv wjll, and niiute 
tliv nta^ Urates eat tlie doeunients with which they had come aniied, 
£«ery juu-Ude — Koia, .-li^puituiw, and all — were they oUijfed to devour ; 



ood whra th«y haA fiuishcd their mM^, th«y irtn Kt ^I«4^, and, by my of 
accnlrruUD^ tlicir retreat, l}ie do^ irrra let loose upon tlmn. 

Tile castle conlaiiM r theatre, witli a wardrobe sudicient for a dozen 
theative ; A riding-KhAol ; and an affricnltural in«tituUnn, which, every 
thjTV yvan tanu otit about tliirt}' iimctioii] and .'•ciciitilic fonnrrs who ure 
mmrtly apt>aiat«d to offices nbtiut the Schwanfiiberg' esUtrc Then tliere 
are colloctinn! of natural h'xtury, a chemtral [abonilniy, the cnstle church, 
&«. £uj;lit)h cAJitlvj tuav te iui>rv coniTortubli; to live iu ( but llicy hare 
little of tiiv iiitarn'^L that |iiTtain« to one of thvtw aiicieiic Au«trinii pil«^ 
whfrv rptnritir iintiqtiity is kci-ii ('■iiiiu<ii.<t<il ivith mixU'iii tini(>8 l>y an nn- 
inttrniiitcd chiun. At KriininiAn iJ<^iu\ with iti l«^n<l8 and rominid- 
cenccs, a moderately fertile writer uiig^ht find inat«riiJa for twenty ro- 

The rt«p rtwlc on whifh the oMtIp tta^aig u wparatrd hy n deep r«vin» ; 
from the rfniaindcr of the rocky plauou. Over this ravine niiu a corcrfd 
hridfp. at ih* end of which you come nuddenly upon a beautiful j^arden 
terrace, wlience tho view i* raviiihinply bftautiful ; tlio hold position of the 
cadtlv. lis it looks dovrn upon tho lilth- U>-nn of Knimmau at the foot of 
Hk hill, prmlucinff a most peculiar ciTccC. The Moldau fnrma alniost a 
circle in the landscape; nuhing with great raptditv, by the foot of the 
rock, and nearly surrounding the littW town, in which tlie chief building* 
ftll date from the time of the Rosenberg* ; nt whtwc cost tlic churc!n-n iitid 
conveats were erectm}, an welt as un old arsenal and an liutpitnl, and « 
house which served as a retreat for the widow«d lady of th« ca«tle, vrh«a- 
erer a new lord entered into jHWti'iuitiii. 

TowanU wvcninR, after h«viiii; etyniyMl tho Iwautios of the garden, we 
retired into tite estativ U> partake of the hospitality of the civil and ac- 
ci>nimi>datiiigoifici^raoftlteestab]i]i1unent — tho direvtora, f«r«st«re,.iL(! wards, 
&c- To those whf> know how wi-E! th.w geiitl»iiicn live upon the pii.i- 
teiuioiiit of tlK< Aiistniui iioblea, it will Ix! Icm matter of mirprgiw to lu'cu- tif 
the Iiaiidjomc suilea of rooms occupied upon tliiU cattcllatcd rock by sucJl 
functionaries as the director of the castle, or the captain of tlto body- 
guard. There arc no lesa than fifty tnioll gardeus {or deputalgiirlen) 
dependant on the parlc, and under*tood to belong to the officer* of tho 
castle. Thcsi.' Hfc s" niimcToiis, tliat tliey liavip a coffee-house williin tho 
walls for tlieirown acconitnodailon ; indeed, so numerous are the tmp/oi/fi, 
of onp sort or another, on the estate of the Scliwarzenborg, that tho 
printvd list of them fonns a tolerably thick octavo volume. 

A wood ii^'flT Kniiiirtiau, is the only place in Bohemia where bears are 
yet to V' found in the state of nnturt?. They arp pri'sen-ed with some care, 
defended »g^nst poachers, and vccaMou ally fed w^lliliorselleih, though iu 
gr-iii^nl they require no oilier food thiui the ln-rries and I'ooki which tliey 
liml ill iho fiire«. Tlioy are mostly liiinnloso, uinl no one now living n.>- 
tnemben the time wKc^n a human creature or tame autmal was torn to 
pieoee by tbooi. The l.xst lunu in the iieighbourhni^ who had oonie. into 
OoUuion with the War* died lately. He was pasning lhrou)^'li tliK fiu-wt, 
snd Racing a young cub tiiinhling about nn ngniMv glade, ho took it into 
hia head to carry tl»e creature home. Soon, however, ho saw to hii horror 
that the mother hjid w*n him, and wa« coming after him hi full juirauit. 
He act hia ptn»ednivn immediately ; Iwit tho mother, after having amelt niid 
caxeHcd her IttUa one for a few initants, resumed the cbacc. The poor 


JeDow nm for bu Itfe, and wiu jtitt in Unw to mrli the entT&ncv to a 
r ae ig hh ouring fkm, wh^ro h« foil down »cnw)«M ; ami wh«n iiw a^nranU 
He Dvt to lu) lusistancv, it was found ihat lh« angiiuli luid temr of 
rtiMM Feir monienu bad Lt-eu tiutlicuiiit lo wlutcm liu lutr. 


BudiTM ifl enmplittfl^ n GtrmiKii rity tliott^)) in B«>h0niiii, and hu tlio 

■dviata^ of beln^ the bifir^eet point to nbicb any of tbc tributarily of 

the Elbe is navig^e. ^'itliia ttielve Gernian imltts of this point liai 

l.ttiz on the l>uiiibc, niid the approximation of two mcb important navi- 

Lgiblft riven hu at oJI tiau-s caused a vftry active coiniucm to be euritd 

K«o between the two diies. This comincicc has of Intc years bc«o pro- 

^Boteil bv many iniprovcniciits in the aavij^tjoi) of the Moldau ; improve- 

B«ntd for wbi'cb ilic country standa mninty indebted to the exertioni of 

Mr. Laiina. a sliipbuildLT, wliow tiniK-r'yan] ut Budwcis iio stnuigrr utij^ht 

I leave unriaited. it was ho who built thp »iiipFtu>inii-bndg« Ht Prague, 

it it owinj^ to him tlint no leas than seventy i-i^seU so coiistruncd aa 

' nut tkc nttvigatioo of ttic Etbc and Mulduu, arrim uow evtrr^ year at 

Stulweit, and that there is ereci » rcgiiliir riv«r cuinmunicutJDn kupt up 

twcvn tho latter plaw and llaiiibtu;g. 

One ofthecouaoquviK-u uftbu luvuiuable geograi>hical po^tioo of Bud- 
web va.i, tint one morning' tarly, at flru o'clmrli, I repaired to the office of 
the niilroad, with a view of einlnirkiug my jier»on in a train about to 
Mart for Liiis. 

The LJin-Butlweia railmail ix the grandni other of all the ntlLroadK on 
Euit)pean continent ; and, taking tliiii intn cuiuudfratiou, we must not 
deom it mntter of surpriae to Hnd il nnanifc*ting ocwwiuruJIy some eymp- 
toinfl of tlie debility of nld are. It vhoa l]ie coup d'cjiaat of Banm \oa 
Centner, v}io nfterwurdx laia down ruilK in Tttuoin, and died in America. 
Hi> hail ]>TO«t natural diftir-ulti(>« to conttnid with in the mounlainoui 
iwioii over which the road had to be carried. To orercom« thew di£* 
ontw he was obltg«d to malie hia rikilnud tjdce so circuitom a rmite^ that 
thou;^ tbe diatanco betwocn the two town*, in a straij^bt lino is not 
tuore than ten (Gerinaa) milcei the [sIlroBd ha« a Icn^h of seruuteen. 
After iirriTtng at EinK, tbc railmnd ii> farricd ten iiiiti-s further t<i 
GmQuden, fiw the eouveniumco of the government guk-warke at lliat 


The railroad from Oudweix to Linx cost 1,700,000 florins. It eoasuta 
of a lingle pair of rails, with iLrranj^mems at interinc-diale »tal*Oii> to en- 
able two trains to pUM each otiicr. Tho rails are partly of Styiian, but 
cliii-dy of Bohcmiani imn ; partly cn^t and jurtJy wrought. In many 
plattv they seem sadly in want of re|Kiir. Some have been completely 
mm away, others hivd loat their nails, and stand up frriiii the wooden 
alee[ierv to which tbcy vttrv ori^ially fudtuued. Soiuetiniesa very lenMble 
jdll of the carriages nmiitids the piui«en|j<T« of a utrihijig diflcrcncB between 
the re-tpactire altitudes of two eiieeeedin^ rails ; at other times adrag must 
bo piit upon tho whoeU, to prevent the train from mttliiig down the hiU 
st a too rapid pace. My jmiTiiey wait pi-rfonned immediately afWr laiay 
weather, wliich bad made the nul« extremely dirty and nUppen* : and I find, 
from a oiomorandum in my joomal, that otu- wheels occasionally sunk uito 



tfav Hift etrtb. Tt Uevidt-utfrmn «1] this, tluit tlm rulroad DOit hftT« bera 
ipft in ft vciy ne^Wtoil <«i>dili.>i» j biit iU trnpoilimcp to tho eoRuuefvo <rf 
the Danube is m> gieat, tlint tlie gOTemnent will be obliecd, b«faco loDgv 
to «t«p ill, luil l>jr ft timely- treatiiMiit, mdeavnur to sare thii gmdiDodiv 
r&ilroAd frttm ah untinMyly fate. 

Tbe tmiiu on Uui nulrood ara dmvm bj' bnnci^ nnd owbg to the la- 
Mjualilics of tba ground oret which it pimms, thera is little likelihood that 
stoam locomotives can ever b* introuuced ihertt. Oiie hone gooeniUy 
dnvn two or three caniupes ; but vvnivlimn t«o or three borw« an jroktd 
on, in wliich case the train rwniiifts iiT cix, Mvcn, or nrni t-ighl cftmage*. 
On an aFCRiifo, a h(ir»e is« to draw from tereiity to a Iiuiiilrnil cwt., ftt 
a aktw walk ; tbe train* for pAnMSf^en travel nt a unait troL On tbe 
ecnmnnc) nnd, in tliis muuntiuiious duitnct, a ttone caoiiot well draw mora 
than twelve cwt. 

Tlie rich kingdom of Bohenuft haibeen m^Iv nef^tected by Nature with 
miwct tn -Hnlt, mic of the m-cesnrie> of life. Erery {xuticle (Xriuumnl 
within thv kingilom cornea from beyond the Danube ; and tliis salt trade, 
one of 0» chief mpporle oF th« railroad, hu likewise Iwl tn an actJTe axa- 
in«rce in other jfoods, Mer(.-IuwiliM> of various dewTiption* find* itA way 
Croiii Trieste aiij SoutlH*rn ItaJ^to Gmdrkleii, to be forwarded by railroad 
te Boheiiiia. 

Tho t«nninus at Budweia is in the centra of the town close to the im- 
perial salt-ma^axines, luwl to tliMte imigaainee tlie trsvtilterfl nnd the salt-bags 
tnost alike rt^pnir. [t nau, lu I Mid, five nVlock in the morning when I 
mode my nppraronce cher«, and found Mir little on^vhotve trains rvady to 
start, as liicjr did tdmoi^t inniifdiutcl^, at an cnay trot, with hitring- about 
fiftqr J— epgen in chjtr;^. Tbe eoeclunea nt on their bnxnt smutting 
tketr inpea, and the dranght wu evidently so easy, that had tlu< horMe 
been in the habit of indulKinjc; iu the polivnou* vrecd, they too might have 
■muted their leisure by " bloivinj^ a cloud" as they went along. 

On a railroad where tlie trniiis ani ilrawn by horses vou trarel with 
IfiflS noise than you dc> cither on oov where you an; hurrica along* by strata 
enginesi or on u common road. I was, tnerefnrc, soon cngaeed in an 
^giceabk conversation with my fellow- traveMera, and we wsrw Mila to dae- 
cnea undiitttrbed every f>bj«t that i^rcsented it*elf within the reach of mr 
oonstaotlv varying lionson. At Leoixddsrhlafr we readied the hiefaeafc 
level of t»w ixiad, and were there two thousand feet over the sea, tad one 
thooaand qvit the pltun of Budweis. At this point likewise we qnitted 
fiooeinu to enter Auntria, iitid oouii pprvcivt'd nyuiptouid of our bavii^ 
arrived among a iiiort> indiutrimu population thnii that, we had left, thoi^n 
this part of th« iirchduchy of Austria is far from being its most populous 
or belt c^ultirnled dislriet. Dotaclied fiirmhouses beecaoe more nomcfoUL 
and tyiough the c^ttaicji an; itiill Isigv, you see no longn- so striking aad 
pmnful acoiitrul. ax in Roheniia, betwtum tite oittlo of the prinw and the 
peasant's hut. Many of the peoaants, on the contrary, havi- houses noite 
ae eomiortablc aa castira, and most of them have a wcU-to^do look about 

Tlio fsinily of which one hoars «> mneh on tbe Austrian side, oa one 
data of the Roncnbrrgs and Sehwarzen'^erj^ on tho IJohcniioii side of tlie 
lnU% is die fainily of the Stajhembergs who. &otu time immemorial, have 
been men of might on tliu Danube, and, in the middle ag<«, weiv often 
involved in winguiiiary feuda with the Itowubtrgs. At present, three rich 



Steriiembergs dwell dose together, — a prince, a general, and a count, — 
wIioH caitlea we bad on opportunit}' of admiring a8 we passed along. 

Many interesting and picturesque views present themselves on the road, 
ihough upon the whole it is much shut in by woods. Just before reaching 
linz, however, as we were rolling down a zigzag line into the plain, a 
magnificent prospect opened suddenly upon us. The plain of Lmz, the 
picturesque ranks of the Danube, and the distant Alps in the background, 
combined to form a glorious picture, and while we were yet descanting on 
its beauties, we rolled onwards through the gates of Linz to the imperial 
nlt-magaziues, here, fta at Budweis, the terminus of the road. 



Whi^n, in the middle a^^es, an individual presented himself before the 
eyes of his fellow-men, it was known immediately, by the colour and cut of 
bis garments, to what rank he belonged, and what was his vocation ; but 
in our times, when superficially, that is, as far ns the dress is concerned, all 
are more or less equal, — although the real dbdnction of persons, according 
to position, dignity, and wealth, are as sharply defined as ever, — a travetler 
in a umpie brown frock-coat, enteiing a I^z manu&ctory, may be taJcrai 
for, — what may he not be taken for? particularly if his Gennon accent sound 
eomewltat foreign to an Austrian ear. He may be a Dr., a Professor, a 
Privy Councillor, or a military officer of high rank in civil costume— or an 
" Excellency" — or perhaps, what would perhaps not be among the least 
welcome, he may bo a traveller for a great mercantile house, come to make 
large purchases. " Assuredly," thought I, as a crowd of obsequious per- 
sons met me on my entrance into a noted carpet -manufactory, greeted me 
most courteously and expectingly, and hastened to display uieir wares, — 
" assuredly some such fancies are passing through their heads." I held it 
therefore to be my duty to explain to them, that in leaving my home, I had 
left behind neither kingdom, nor nabobahip, nor lands contuning 10,000 
Bouli, nor a capital of 250,000 fr. rentes ; but that I stood there simply a 
cunous traveller, or, if they wonld have it so, a traveller desirous of infor- 
mation, without any design whatever of purchasing, or carrying off any 
thing more than could be conveyed by the eye and ear; whereupon, to my 
admiration, these people seemed to hold it no less their duty not to abate a 
particle of their hospitable Austrian obligingness, but rather to assist me 
the more zealously m viewing their labours and productions. I was the 
more curious about them, as I knew how considerable a part tlie lanz 
febrics play in the Austrian manufactories, and to what importance they 
have lately risen. 

As late as the year 1783 or 4, the Linz woollen-manufactures were 
nearly the only ones of the kind in the Austrian states. They were founded, 
I believe, at tne end of the seventeenth or the beginning of the eighteenth 
century, by a citizen of Linz, and are the oldest in Austria. This citizen 
made them over subsequently to the so-called Oriental Company, which 
hod a privilege for tKe preparation of woollen stufis of aU kinds. 



The bad ecnnomy ivluch mgaei m the afiaira of iTie comniuiy, *od tlw 
profiu« vxpcntlituro in thft erctrtion ot ini;vcrb and tmnf^vi^nrily la'^ build- 
uigs, threaten**! the uudertikiii;; with ruin. To prevent the injury whicb 
the stoppage must; have caused to the many indiriduali interdtlt^l, the 
gorernment took the husioe&i under cbdr own mauagoiii^Hit, n't^rvinj^ to 
ti»ciiiK'Iv«s the privilfgwi huf'Ttf ffraittcd to private porrom. The interval 
betivfm 1 "40 fuid t\u.- fital aWitiwti of these privilcgw, niaj- be eontidered 
to liave been the period uf the gn.'ateft splendour of the establishment : 
there were employed at timea more than aO.OOO workmen, spmner* and 
wearent in Bolbeitiui; aiid In Linz aiojic n-ut Ic-ki thtm 2000. The great 
mind from wliicb nearly ail tht- new lif<^ in the Aii*tri«Ti Ux\y politic emx- 
ntit^t), Jowph, abolished tlie prtvilcp%?s bj* which these I'O.tKK) men profited, 
at the cost uf tiiauy niJUIoiu ; a.nd »ii)UG llut time, tlic worknirn, n-nttLTttd 
over all parts of the nioitarclty, huve foiuided in an u fat-lories in BmnD, 
Vienna, mid other citici, nnd )invR kid U)C foiindaiinn of the now con- 
^(Icrahlc woolkn factorifw of Lower Au*t-ria and Moravia. 

Since then, tho Linz factories have declined, and their greitt barrack- 
Ii][e buildiug«, stand partially empty nnd seem awaiting another deatiiift- 
tifln. Two limnebej alanc of tho noollon man ti factory hare acain stnick 
root and pnoper: llint of carpets, and the printin); of woollen table- cni-ers. 
So much taste is here displayed in these articles, the colours are u> Utelv and 
80 l&titin^, that the productions of the Lini nmuufactorieji have ohtmned 
Maaidcnible a:lehrity in tiiv shop and tliv dmvniig-room. Tliey barn 
varchooies in Leipzig, Pra<nie, Miliiit, Vienna, I'vstlt, &c., aud exports 
have ewii been niadu to Fnitice and England. Their cttraoidinary 
cheapness will no doubt lend ti-i a further demand for tbefe goods. For 
five or six floriii.i' H luoi^t. artidtii-Al mid inii(;iiiliiH-iit bouniiirt. of flowcn 
may be purchued; while one of the (juirklyfAdinfr pniJnctiona of the 
gamen woold cnet double the money. £eCabli»hmont» for woollen prmting 
are still rare in tlie world, antl it is therefore the more cheering to learn that 
tlie art has already been brought to tucli nerfeclioD here. It seenni to me, 
bowever, that tliey have been partly indubu<d for thi.'ir proj^reui to the in- 
fluence of France 1 tlio dciij^utta, at least, arc in part French, and the 
newest drawings are mode from detigna received from I'aris, which city, in 
the invention of new sliades, and in the amn^ment of tasteful wreaths 
and Ki^UF* '^^ flower?, Is ccrtiuidv not to be excelled. Ttiv person, too, at 
the head of tho caqtct printing, ih of French descent. 

The name of ttiis man is Dufnesni?. lie took the trouble to show tne 
OTO* the table-cover department, and, as I riiiit sneh o.stabliabments much 
more oo account of the men tliaii of their productions, Lr bi^anie tu tiie, 
ID a short time, an object of mnch interejt and respect, lie haltod in big 
nit, aiMl in speaking of his inHrm 1imli, related the bLif^iy of bi« life. Hia 
tatlKri a French eiutgraut, had »oiig]it refuge in Viemia, and there endca- 
tchitm] to gain a livirliliuod hy the eiitahh»liineiit uf a nnall cotton -jirintiii^ 
betnr>*. An Aiutrtiui noblemiin, Count X., a great fnuiid to the 
Fretivu, lent Inm a small capital, and a corner of \ui nonse. The biuineai 
tttnitd out well, the fiitber nojied for the re-estalili-shment of his worldly 
prosperity, and tlie ttm, who had been liorn vuhiiD<|uenUy to tlie flight of 

" The Austria* fltwin U equal to nWut two sbillinK* «teTlinp. The Itlienlsh 
Asrin w worth ralliK Ion. Ten Anctnan iioint are equal to ouc pound, or to twdre 
BNnlih floriiw. 


lu> pweati frofu Fnnce, wu deitincd for the militaiy serrice; birt 
BeaTeo willed it oikerwiw ; bis borao fpll nitJi him, liin le^ wm brokviv 
and duttedorwaid hn maie up }iu mind to follow Iim fat}>n-*s purmit. 
Soon aAcnrards hut btber iltMl, !«« wcoltlty than he had hopoa to h&^ 
and ihc son found che buetnns nvccanry ta tne mainteoaitcc of lii» mother. 
He ftudied how to iraprovn it. and hating cmp day nivt with Kimr Eng&h 
woollen prindnff, he oerer rcsttKl til) h«i hnd mM only imitntvd, Ixit sor^ 
psMcd it. Harin^ thiu f^*rii up it) adtvmty, and bein^e; <^owed tnth aa 
actire ifKrit, he had nuuKi tiiiiiMtlt' wlijU he wai when I saw hiui, " Imperii^ 
and Royal luspector of wncdkm printing," with » good nkij. 

The manufactofy which I invpvcted in M- Duneanc'a cem|Mtny wis «x- 
CM^ngly well amuigei^ dean, lirht, and in good order. In the iarj^room 
when tlw colour •eCtera wont btuoed, I read on a board eonapicuouslv olaeed 
tiNM word* writttm in cItnUc: " With Gcd'^ oid." " You ai« anpnied?^ 
ctaci red M. Dufrcsnc. " but you will see this is the cUivf point. Our Mnnoa 
u very labonoiis and difficult, and requirM not only clever and thoo^cliil, 
but also dilij^it and «>nsc>entious icDrffpcople. 'When I give a pattern to 
n cokur scttvr, I eiTC him aUo Nom« direction how to proci-ed. He muat 
listen and ^>ply (nil chcvriiillj, Init he innst also consider well with what 
, cotour it will be best to begin and end, and give to tlivee matters aoal and 
att>.>iition, 84 a painter wovld do ; for I cannot att«nd to the detail, an{[ 
Diu'tt tn»t nnicli lu the oonacwntiou-iaeM of the wnrknxni, who by a sing^ls 
CUCfesa rt^ mipht ncnuioii Jfrrat daniag*. On thvir nide they iinwl haro 
lUl oonlid«n<^ in m^, and appiv to nic in all difficult points. All thi« i« 
he^ obiainnl wlieii a iiion keepe id mind the words you sec written then-. 
It i* »<iid that thn inniiMt mnil of all art is* religion and the fear of God. and 
oiir work iii n Itind '>f art. 1 CaLe ait workman of uhnie cbankcter I am 
net certain ; I ptty far marc bccd to this than (o tlinr skill. And when I 
hate taken one into niv employ I observe him closclv. and note whvtlicr 
he worlu in n pious a^urit. Many a one have I dismissed solely on ac- 
coont of Ilia want of ci>n4cictitIotisn«M, and I believe the chest of the im- 
perial and royal manufactory hnti bct-n the ^ncr by this policy. Wo 
■M>cin !n the moniinu; with n shnrt iirayrr, and thuso words ant nersr 
•naoed from tlie board. I havo a dvsi^ of inscribing on a tablet over the 
^oor* tkoM fine lines bom SchUlcr'a Sung of the B«U: 

* Anil when wUh jjood diaconrfe ntl«n<liij. 
The co-iuwa of labuur dieviful Duws,' ftc." 

and 1 believe money so laid out will yi^Id a good tntcrcst. Now you aeei. 
air, yon know my way of thinking," addrd iM, I^frcsnc, ninlUnp and clap- 
ping nie on the Kli<)uld>^r in a friimdly ninnnc]'. as t applniulcd nhut he had 
said, and he fiirther entreated me to write my name in liia pocket-book at 
a Dii^utriaL 

Tiic mnniimliition of the wool ia one of tho prvtiiett oniTations that can 
be eeen, and I think tliitrt^ tuuit bo nioro plea«nre in workin;^ at carpcta in 
a Tunnuructury animatrd by *o ffnad a spirit thaa in wearing out thtt 
fiiiighrdiiroductinduU company. Tho workman haa the Urgv white n-onlliHa 
fabric spread out bt^fore hiin, and by it the dengn, the oMOurad dntwtng. 
The diOereul tints arts set lingly witk wooden typea, tuid the workman Lu 

* "WcoB gate Bcdcn aje bc^lcitcn. 

So SiMt die Arl>cil uiuut«i furl," &C 

■oon the utufncdon of «Mutg the [lieUtn imfold lUdf with UiImiiIiIs rapi- 
dHj* b«fe<e htm. Th«fo nre nbout t«n fanudrod «nd fottjrdiffiifcnt ilfieignfl 
fijr cQTtn in Uu otablMimcat. Thia aumb«r may at first iipp«ar souilt, 
Iwt the ^ffico]^ of workinj^ a new pattern ta very gnat. A peculia.r |j!an 
. be punniea with ermj one, and of coune for evory cii« a now wt of 
Icii ti-pcs made. Some of tlic colours ar» tct abruptly ono b^ tbe 
otliDT, and Mime nro paitioUj corcml tuti jo^ntlv sliadf.'d into each other. 
In this manner, with ton pots of colnur, twenty or ihirtv tints are prodiui^d 
eo the wool. It i* p«rticii!ary ditlicult to jndg* when the sioglc colouis 
maj be bcit placpd, in order to prc]Mtre uu> wooden tynes accordingly. 
The true life, spirit, tone and sof^nes* are f^^vpn to the eotouts by the hot 
v^Kwr to which the fabrie u afterwards exposed for a time. 


Near the woollen manufaclary, and like it, by tbe side of tlie Danube, 

.stands this edifice, wht<^h was erected long nncc, although thn citr hoa 

' llut twenty-Eve tlino.'xuid inhabitants. 1 wai Bocompootcd by the oblipng 

eveneerof thr tmuM-. which, at the period of my vigit, contained about. 

eighty nmply insane patieata. Among these were some tliat eipedallf 

awakened my aympathy. 

One wan a painrtT, d Tyrolt^sd who liail dtstTiiguished hunaelf m th« war 
tl freedom, and had received, in consetiiience, a small sum of money fraia 
(he gnvemrn«nt. As he had shown from his youth taate and talent for 
drawing, and had aJrendy studied it in aome degree in Vienna, he amnv- 
priat«d this monpy to the pi(pen»ca of a jimmey to Italy. In Rome, how- 
«wr, nn eornporing hinuelf with th* great hnng, and greater dead, nuu- 
tnt, he became annre of tlio little he was likely to acccrmpluh with the 
greateit exertion. His anxioua labours, unsupported as it appeaml by 
. tne ceniun, iudiim>d a d<'gnN- of morbid exciti>mi'iit ; htj efl'orUi could not 
faiin, and the ma:itii'rpiecc9 of art, which he e«w daily b«jbr« lun 
■ ^mwured tn his eyw so nianv reproofs of his own incapacity. He was noi 
I s bad draughbmaii, ami lind he «tuel( to the peneil, lio might have beoiima 
good lotuhematiml or archit«ciunil arti»C IJiifortimaVly h* did not 
poncM ^>c prudence so many wajit. that of contenting himwlf with his 
own mndHt portion of talent, as God had gireii it him, and putting it to 
iimrj in the pr«cribtd direetion. In the exertion to become a dijiingnished 

r'lteTi and n^och a height unnttainablv to him, he destroyed himM-If^ 
d««|iairhe fled Erom Rome, aud n^tnmed to lii< fri«iid»— a madman. 
t'Xk now fancies that oil-colonrs are baneful to him imd full of poison. The 
Kght of aa oil-paiuting catuM hiui Lhu grcutert BufTering, ana every tiiiag 
that lendit to remind him of bnixli or paletlii itinKt tie earefiilly kept out of 
"iwigbt. He takvs a plea«uri> in the itw tiftiiecrAvonnni) lilaektead-[)encil, 
1 MVenJ of the patients have had their purtmits skctch<-il by liim, very 
Ukenesacs, hanging up orer their be<K I found him uccupiod in 
' a prrity little lan<1*cftpe, and lie hiRiM>ir astun^d me, with a friendly 
Fjmile, tiint it wius his pernliar minfortune to jmffftr no mueh from oil-eolottr* 
'that h« should die on the spot if he onlv amcit tliem. Komc, Raphael, 
Correggio he had <]iute forpotten. In madness itself there is a land 
hqi|wioea and ttmti'iiullity ; the condition that precedes it, the stniggla 


between rMtMii find frwin-, nitwt be inGnitely mon; tcrriblr. \^Tiat clinm- 
hon of torture must the »lti(li'» ajiil gnll«nc-i of Rnme have bem for thu 
man I 7^« bwomtnt/ ftiad muft be liki^ on active Muilbifratinn, but tlie 
beiiijf mul must rewtulile th« condition of tlio lnimt-<>iit rditice^ tnore 
fvnrfu), i>ei4iB[M, to the spectator, but (u leas &i(^htAiI to the suflienr 
tluui tlic forrnOT coavuUioa. 

In another roooi m jtoot lunntic wiu biuily rubbing a broia ring. lift 
told ns witli great glee, that it vss becoming brif^hliT luiil bngbtcr, aqcL 
that iht gold would »oon appear. The director told ufi he Imd bmn rab- 
hiag that rinj; fvr w-cvkt bojptrUicr, t^iid i-very day asAerttiig th« same thin^ ; 
B prize in die lottrry had been the ori^^iiul cniw of bl-> cidaiiiity. lie liod 
vuted Ilia tniiDpy in idle Hctrava^ucv, and in a sliurt tiiiii; all wai g^iM 
but a few hundred ll«riu». Ibeso he made use of to ntiTcboxc Hdy mors 
sluirt-s. Tliuy cunie u[i all blauks, nud the ^ulf t'f niiu lie saw yawiiint^ 
bvfon' liiin driiritTcl him of Ids reflwoii. Stiice that time he has oniploycd 
bimM^f in |»oli«hing bnua ring« iii tlto mpcutation of thfiir taming to 

In all the AwtriBn htitatie aaylumts we hear wonders of the Douche or 
cold water cure, ntjd, iu Litix, noconiinj^ly, wo were told of a stnUing cura 
pcrfcrmed by the help of tiiis roniedv in the course of the preoediiijf 
Bumsicr. A man labouring long under (tie dii-pvat inulnitclioly. and a 
my to monomania of all kinds, which ended in periodioal fita of perfect 
mnnr, waa eompletely eunrd in the eouree of tliree weeks by the Douehe, 
and uismiised to his fcUows oa a reiivoniible being'. 

Here also, behind an iron grating, we »*w nonie poor wrctehw whose 
madness bad aJready eost the lives of several fcllow-crontures. Anioii}^ 
tlicm were somv of whom it was doubtful whether their dveds should be 
atoned for on the KCAfTold, iir their cocrrciiou *nuglil for in tlie niadhnii»G. 
The story of uiiu was pnrticularly horrible. Tlii« ihtkoii was a citisen of 
Lin^ noted uutc ten years befuru for au uucooqucrakle dread of $pc«tros 
and ivitL'hcs. Ill every atraiigfc noiwi and e\ery unfiual ap[)earanee, he 
faiu-ied the presence of !iu|jeniatiual infltiencc* ; even liti onn wife, if tlio 
ap])earcd unotjH-'ctfidly before him, wan *nmetim«< tjikon for a sprctre. I lis 
will' WII9 itctustonicd to lauf^li at uid ridicule her hunbaiid for these puerile 
terrors. On one wild and stormy erenin^, when all the vanes and window- 
ahntters ahook and nittled ionriuUy, she said to hiin, "There you fonlinh 
man, some of your witchw will etrtunly come to fetch you to-night." 
The niglit came on, and the uuhnppy miiii became more silent and terror* 
stricketi. At a late hour one of the children awoke, and the mother, un- 
able to still it eried at last, " Slwj) you witch's bn»t, or I'll kill you," 
These tlioughtleu words iwt»ii liku an electriL' spiirk oii the diirk fnueiL-a 
thai lily hroiiding in the trimbW Irain of the miserable, Armed viitii 
ft hntonpf-, ho spmng to the crndlo of the child, crying', " Ves, yes, witch's 
ciiild ! Kill it ! Vv'itcbej ore all around ua and alxtut u.i '. I'll kill yv all." 
His weeping wife ajid shrieking childrwii wrn- all nnmlerfd one after the 
other, and then n poor mnid^ii^rvimt. H« rlien loirrod all the ilitor^ and 
windows to keep out the evil spirits that mi^fht be without, and 
the whole night through, armea with his lialcliet, by the brxlies of tJii^ hujj- 
posed wicches. The sun was standing hii^h in the heavens, when (lv> 
unghbogrv MW him crossinf; the str«vt bearing the cones of hie children^ 
dripping with their gore. IIo called out that they were witches' uliildren^ 

JESUIT SCHOOL. "^^^ff~ 93 

vhom lio wu gnin^ to throw iuto the wat«r. IT« nas immediAtftly M-tied 
SB A fiirioui Mid miscliievmi; m.-iniiu?, and hu been «T«r sinc« confined m 
tb« ^rat«d cell vliert nt Wlii-ld Kiiti crouclung beTorc us in die straw. 


If the object of the Ltniatie Asylum be tho rertontinn of tite cnucd to 
ftuoii, llio Jt-Muit tcliool mAy be h«lil in tome nnjwct* m oho for reudering 
erasy thiiMwIiom nntuirhiw miuic ratiortBl, nt I^ast if we share the opinioni 
of many of llie enli^hteued of our timeo wit,)) rcgarxl tt> the JtMuiti. Liai 
poeaesies one of their schools, mMIv eii(iu|rh iiislallcd in anv (if thiiM ce* 
lebntsd towcn or citatlets whii-li surrcmnd tlii< cir.y with their strong 
girdlf*. T)i« Archdtilto MA-nimilinn, who [>]Anii<il and built tbeee toweni 
gave the Jesuits nne of those firat built, fi>r an espcriniciit, and at hi* own 
coat, on the Freil>er^. The MaximUiiui towon are large, round buildings 
with tiucli w&lin, as great a ]>ort!on of them beinip sunk under prround U 
appears abaro it. I3dow the Icrel of the so\\ thoy contjun several storiet, 
vrbile above it they rite but a few feet, and these are pai'tiy covered witll 
turf, to that from without, by ^ic additional shelter of a (rradually elcirat«d 
vralJ, tlicy arc uvurccly to bii ktd. Tlic balls of the cTivmy must for tho 
most port Bv harmlessly over them, while llieir own, duchar^d from ca.B- 
fion ruinj^ but a few inches from the sod of tho bulwark, aiid hidden be- 
aides in deep hollowa iii the wulU, must buivt quiU- uaex|>ectMlly out of 
the grus. All the- towrrs, to thi; num Wr of scri-iitwn or twenty, stnnd in 
s Mrtain regtOaj* eoiineKion with one another, yet oavh k suK('«|)tilile o£ 
individual defence, if the chain were braken, and could pour its firo on an 
adTancin^ enemy an wi-lE from one side oh the other. Really, if tlie illus- 
trious and dt^ily ex[>eneiJC6d ini'eiitor wenr uot known, one might fancy 
tliix dcrcit«ivo *yst*?m th* invcnition of tho .Jesuits tlu-mw-lvos. 

In theso fortresses the fathers arc now finiily established, after roakin^ 
such chaii]T*>s an thfir own wants and taste dictated. On the ttitck bomb* 
proof f^nniid- Will Is they have ntured two additinnal sUitict ; the interior of 
tltD fortress is laid out chccrfullv, tho exterior washed over with on u;{tco- 
able ted colour ; every door beam the iaitials J. 11. S., and every niche of 
tbe walls, where formerly cannon were lodged, is changed into a steeping 
and littug-rooni for the accommodaUon of tb« pupils or the supcrion, «&- 
tainabli! by cle^nt winding sturcujtcs running round the interior of the 
building. In :idditiou to the towers a garden was bestowed on tlieinr 
which is most diligeotly coleivatcd, and a second piece of ground on tlio 
roroinost {xiitit of thv Freiburg, wlioru they li«vt! built &» elvgant luiall 
church ill the Gothic style 

Tlie most striking piece of furniture in this church is a magnilicent 
(Jiroue-liko scat with u canujiy, buth so bedisc-iied witJi gold, (hat one can 
icarcely Ixdii'vi; it dcRtintnl ftir a tilnce of pmyfr, and for those wlio should 
set a conspicuous oxaniple to tho llock, i^f htmible devotion to God. But so 
it i^ " It is the ihroneof the superior,'' answvred the Jesuit lay-brother, 
who W&1 in the church, and of wnoiu 1 had ini[uirefl if this were dcfttincsl 
for th« «niptiri>r or any other illustrious ju^nton occiLuonally visiting them. 
Tho eliurcn is further d«cAnitcd with Mvornl new jucttires, representing 
ncaes from the Ufo of a newly •canonized Joauit of the name of lltcronyinus) 
one, representing Iilui witli tlie sacnunental chalice in his hand on the sea- 
•hare, and obtaining for Uie Ncsf>olitan fishcimeQ a mirnculiMU draught ; 

94 nemrtcnoGL. 

■aotbcrdgpictncluiii, crowmhHcltcbKikiii^tlwfiancniptioDofVaimiM^ 
lliMe aod odwr pietwec were liglrtcd. Dot brnde mooMt, rat &om the n^ 
■ccordia^ to the new faihiao. Wbeo bdco objeeti fure found coroed wiek 
ivMt in ma ancient half-ruiti«(l cl(n»t«r, 9r in a pictuix-^k-rv, from » looff 
munldi^reil pencil, one finds nodiing aimu Ln it ; but I cannot draj- tlwt it 
miide a moist disagreeable impression on me. to Had theni decorating tbe 
troll* of a moderu temple, and purporUu)!' to le tlie tireuts of our own day* 
1 do oot thmk, lunrevcr, tliat die Jmita hnvr nuule luiy grvu jirograa 
of late in Austria. Complaints ara oertainl v brard tliat tlic uoUgb am too 
laaeh devolod to them, but ttiat they skouM ever nbtAiii thrar former ]Mai' 
lion ia almost inpoaaible. All eiiliulitriied [%r»i>RS, of wIumh tliure nrv un- 
doubtedly many m Amtria, l>ave <iecided agniitft them ; tna tb* lotwr 
duMB male* msIoui afpmtioa. KcvcrthcJMa thm Jeauita hun began to 

g'lB ihair atroog y«t nibtU weta. They are otost nunieroua m mIicu. 
0iingary there are none at all : in the Genoan jimniicei there ara tim» 
** houAeit,'' onn tn Grati, one in Linx, and otie at Imijnuclc. They havo 
■oqtiu«d BMMt infiueocc in the latt(.T dty. Xot along ago the Gynina- 
Bum then wm giTcra up to ^leni, and te&cfaen suppb'ed (rotn tiuax body, 
•nd anee that tine many eomplaints hive been beam, that it ti no lanBer 
tfai ^nlity of the pupilH, but the rank sud credit of tb«r parents wliich 
decide 'dicir advancement. 

Eadi of the "honaea" has a ffupeiior, a "minister," the Buperior'fl de- 
puty and auiatant, leTMal pri««tA (wculan) and some la.j-bratlicrs to ctJ- 
tividc the ganlen, attend to nouwhnld aHainit and to br Bcrviccable in many 
otlier ways. The mperior of the Linx houm waa absent on a "journey 
of business" at the time of my risit. The nioiatw waa in the conjeasionu 
obair, wh«re I saw liun witli nia fva.Uir«s coucealed, lutouiug to a kneeling' 
ppnitent. 1 went xftvrwiLnLi, aocimipaiiird bv a prieRt. nho ubli^ngly 
offured hia Bcrviti?'?, tn sw tbuiiitorinrof Uii-biiiWiiig. We passed throiiglt 
Hw Mhuol-roomd attd others appropriate*! to the pupils of tlit: iustitutJou. 
Tliey livR two and two tn^'tlier, (>u soaie of tlic rooin.-i t1i«re wen; tlin>e,) 
B^^ivonbly t(> tliK principlca of the Jesint*, that no iiUTinber of their onW 
shall be left %Hih(iut th*^ cj^mpany and as«iMance of another. Ko brother 
of the order ever receives pcrmi»ioii to visit the city alone, he must always 
bave another brother. hJa " Soaiis." with him. Accordiiijj to thix re- 
eulntinn no Jcmiit can ever be entangle*! in a dilute or ctnifpfrlo of any 
luiid without bcinf; ourv of help. Uetice, wherever tlicrc in a Jcauit he la 
double-headed and faur>n.nned, iind bvjnnil a duubt this is one of the nio«t 

Eolitic laws in their code. Even tlie lay -lirot hers have alio cnnh of them 
ia " Soctus." They remind u« of tlie .S[»artaji Icgit^u, mluch was so un- 
conqwToblf, priiici]i«lly liecause it confliitixi irhitfly of pairs of fraternal 
fiienda linked togetlutr i4>r lift-- niid death. Two men «i> bound to eaeh 
OtlHn-, yield a mueh greater amntint of pou-rr than two >e|(iirstc indivi- 
duals ; w two cannon-htUifi linked toiCGthcr by a rituii produce a much 
more terribh* affect tliau when fired wngly. .\l preswit there are thirty 
Jesuits in the Litis hoitiii'-. niiii-of whom are pruistt, nine hu'-brethMn, and 
tlic rest noviffS. They are nearly all f 'erinanii. 

"Weare recruited principally from (iiTiiian Bohemia," wiiil my sttend- 
snt priest, as we stcppi^d out on the bniud nnd beautiful platform of the 
tower, to enjoy the ntaenilieent prospect; "tlicuco come the grwiter 
tiumler of our pupllx. We have n.'aflon to fMolce so far. but it ix mrt to 
be uoinporDd wiui our progreas in Belgium. There u not leci than ei^ity- 


yoong, Slid Mv«Ri] elderly men, vntered oar nriar in the mvne of 
laeCyMT. We hav« few or no SUvoaians m ourboiue. In Lituwebave 
lUBile no great progrew, luUnerlo ; itideed vre possesj notliin^ hetc hat diis 
Ikome provMionally. Tlit Flnriaiifi )iav<^ still Uie Gyninuium. Ws ara 
th«tvfnr« Iwtv only provinooiilly, kod ad inlerini, luul educate our pUpiU 
aci inCcriiH," (is there no rog^iery concralod bcliind this ad interim ? tbougliC 
I,) "in the hajw that in time a wider sphere of iiiHuenoe mil tw! opotiMl to 
us. We employ onnt\vt*ad interim -with the soicncci, yet wc tliiiik that if 
ire form useful Hubjccts, they must in time be tniido use of, Tlic hoiacs of our 
order in Austria do nut fomi as jet an or^tiised and indiriduai province, 
but we hope it will loon taie that form. In Vieons we ha^-e not yet re- 
cdvod pvnaisnon to eittablith oumclvM ; tliu csudv may bv tJic old pivjudicca 
a^nit ua, and a lurking' rL-ninnnt of a bi^la-f in tho otaordera sttrimted to 
fMir order : bat wd hope that in the poiistontly increanii^ enUgfatannMOt of 
the tiiiii?!, thvite prejudices will die avniy. I hare read ait the bookl 
which liavc liovti wriiUti for otid agninrt CliD Jesuits ; for (lu; oidi.'r was 
•Iwmys an ol^eicl of great int«r»it to nw ; and arnee 1 haw ravaelf be- 
lenf^ to it, I have bo^n aoaaxed at the unfounded aooa»atioitf aod 
Utter penecutiona tn which it baa Iteeo exposed. God be pnwad, wc ham 
£il]«u on better tsin««, ai>d |)COpk bmv« already U>giin to acrkiiowlod^ 
tii«ir earlier tnjuttiM. When oor ordor wa* dino)v«d, at the c1o»e of the 
Jut ceatwy, toe canoniaatioD of not lees tliAD eighty diattnguiabed JastutS 
dies in proffreM was interrupted, tn later timea, feveo of theae canaaa 
kaMbMBtdcen ap again, and brou^rht to ui end. By the two hat popot 
(tho pfenmt and ua pndaoMtor), kvcq Jcaotta have been easonnM. «r 
pronounced blcswd. Amon^ these wu the criebrktcd Cnnisins, wbow 
•erriecs in Germany have been so ^eot. At thi» niomeat another is 
about to b« proDOUBCod Ueaacd, who mifrered martyrdoTn on hit miaiioa 
to Poland, lie was ilain tbcre bv the barbariana in thr middle of tho 
eighteenth centor^-. The causo lias bc>en loi^ in liaiid ; but as snc^ 
mntttfrs aro procoeScd in with great <.-ircniinapKtion, their progrMi is nece*- 
saitly slow. Tttu dorumtrnta proving' hi» purity of lifv, itnd his ble»M^ 
and wtirt}iy vnA, an- all fbrtheoniing ; but eitact aiid outhefitic iut«Iligenoe 
of the death of his ' Socius,' who neournpantvd bira on hie mtsaiao and 
a a Se r ed with him, are yet woatiag \ ana these, aconrdiar to our laws, 
ace absolntely necMuny to ibe canonixntion «f a JrKiiit. vir kopr, how 
ever, thnt thn*v ^^ipplomontJirY points uiil gnpedily be clowd iiji, when tlM 
Holy F»th«r mav ftiUoir the uupulae of htj bvart, and bestow tiw civwn of 
tDanyrdom upon diia exoelleat maa." 

iUy JMuit friinid had paronomiMd llw> wonl Aiipe, at lenat four nr fii-o 
&BM^ whence 1 nhmild ooodudo that die Jasatits of our dftvn nro ror v full 
of tins af^ccahic fccJin^. Often, however, as the Jeauit n[>pcared, t h^id 
Dofiiult to find with my eonmanion ; but as I lotilced do the turf-roverp^l, 
bomb-proof, and cannon -brittiiiif^ towMV of Line, and eomparwl tbcm with 
the tnuliofi;, docoratod building, in holidaY attiro, of which the Jcsuita havo 
taken pasKuian. I thouglit also bow (|uickly Micb a smootb, fiieadlr. and 
courteous man of p«ace mif^t be iT>etaiBonphaaed into a rude, nostile 
aataconirt in times itf strife and tmuble, and how eortainlv we two friendly 
JBlCBneuton would then find oiirielves npposnl to earh other. 

From our loAy stitiid. we commanded an exiennvci view over the Aoatcia 
>D rich in Itnjmr for the Jvmibf. The cify of Liuc, witli il4 hlaek roofs, lay 
at our fcvt ; and in tho diitaoce, oa the maguiticetit [daina of Lower 

PKOrrifCiAL Mt'SfiCsi. 

Aiutri*, gleuned tiie doUter of St. Florisu. The tubh DumlM flowed ' 
ia iti winding' coane, through thb bcuitiful Uad to Vienoa, stteoded, no" 
doiibt, hy mnuy n liMifptifr li^ TnMn th« JwuiU, waft«d towBnb the ilatftly 
**• lifwidcns." Tow»rJii Uto Muth, th*]>latni iwvllod, bydt yM , into hilui 
and etniiiences, whkli \»y Uk« shadows in the roregnmnd, Mcked by the 
•harply-<l«fin«d imd majeatiG Alpuis cbiin of RhtstiE lad Noricum. 


AnOBgftlwnMll^nntintial nittHCiinio and pnllecttcng of pravinRia) rarities 
nlueh have vuea witljia the lut ten ywut in all parts of the AuitriMO. 
monarchy, in Ptvgue, PntK. Gratx, Lairboch, 8u:., one hiu tokvn mt)t in 
Lins, whow ohj«ct It if tocoUect and ]jrmcrv« in a RvpnrAtA inuseuni all 
that can haT« roGmnt* to the liutory mid tintitrtLl productions of Aitstria. 
Fonntfiy, all such thin^ found in any of the provioces of the wonorchj 
waf0 BHUt without exception to Vienna. The province* comidprvd them- 
Bslvta ai the Liw'ful ^K^aaeaon of inch cunositii», and looktd upon thair 
romoTsl as littlo better tliut robbery. No doubt jealousy of the all-gra«^ 
ioj^ capital caused th« nejflcct of much that might have been collected. In 
fii<>t, objecU of ttiis kind can only bo properly ertimatcd in thn place of 
tlicir DJLtivity. Many have proviuci&l value oud ngnificaoco aloiio, and 
are qtutv worthtei.i and iinriotod lu an cxt4:ni!«t> general tnuaeuin. Few 
dUEens embraci} t)io wholo KtJitu tti their patriotic sympathies ; the Jateiab 
of the gr«at«r part ia limiled to tho narrow circle of their hom«s. 

Hio Utut inuseuni has now nix rooma filled with anlitiuitioi, coin*, p^ 
trif&etions. fossiU, stiifFird animalit, niinnols, booki, and industrial prodno- 
tioud, and in the treatise published «Tery year & light has been thrown oa 
many a dark comtu- of Austrian history, which would probably not liave 
be»n done if the burt-au for the advancement of tuch purpoaM had remuined 
at Vienna. 

None of the mitiquitics I saw hero intctcsKd me mora than the shield oC , 
a lloman warrior, and a Roman brick. The shield wai from the cele> ^^H 
bi'aled shield maimfuctory which the l^nians hod at thi! month of the Ktia^ ^^H 
and from which tlie plater part of the legends on tb« I>anuhc were sup- 
jJied with arni*. 'I'ho Aiulriaiis have at jircwnt for the supply of their 
Danube :uiny, a similar manu£utory in tJie city of Steyer, not far from tho 
£n4, u'hvre pikrt, guii«, end p*tols are the weapons now made in^ttcod of 

3:ifan and aluclds. Tho bnck attracted my Attention fmm the trecca of 
ust and of straw, and the mark of tlie workmunN Jitigers, which were still 
visible on iti surfaee. An act^idental puff of wind probably scattered tlia 
broken straw upon the brick while it was yot soft, the wurkmau knvadod it 
in, and thus the memorial of the nnheedi'd motion of a careless luind lias 
reniatned undostroyed for centurie*. In tho invisible physical laboratory of 
the human work! trifl« are often perpetuated from anulo^us cuunea. 

The Romans had their principal stAtinn lui the DunnW, at l.inE(Ijea- 
tiinn) : and in fact it is a ])oiicion that will cmjtinue to be occupied so long 
a* tho land ia inhabited. Tlu> naniiiw hrm iMues from a uiuti>w mouQ- 
tain-piws, into a rich and beautiful plain, in which roadt hmntih ofl" in every 
directiou, and traverse the bmai! valley of the Traini, joining that of the 
Danube, in tho nclj^hbourhnod of ^ins. The diTision even of the country 
into tbo provinco aboTc> ond that below tho Essr u old and of Roman 


_in. The whole Inro! was called Noricum ripenBe; aU that lay below the 
£iu, the Itomnng o&llcd the tower towns nad castles, and those tbovt, the 
towns and castles of Noricum ripense. 


One morning, in oorapwiy with a new &cquaint»nee, I stepped into ft 
ateilwagcn bouuil for liHielshcr^, a aniall morlici-toiv-n at the niontK of tha 
Ens, A thick morning rapour covered tlie whole valley. Mj' companion 
had jiirtJy cnl(MiJat(^ the tn«veraciit of the fojfay portielea, and said to me 
after a timv, " Vt'v thmQ have a most beautiful any ;" aud la fact, u wo ap- 
proached the more elevated ncighboui Iiood of lE4iebberK> ^f: left ^^e fog 
behind us, and had as he had prophesied, the finest weattier we could have 

These public cturiages {tlfllwayen) have been introduced in Lins within 
the last ten year^ and now mil in evciy direction fraro tltat eitj. Ten 
reara s^, if a person wished to go firom LJnz to Steyer, and waa at all in 
Dastei he nniat have paid five flontis, a»d given abundance of good worda 
beddes. Now he can ga for about forty pence, and the i-^icl« maket th« 
journey twice a dny. 

My object was to visit the renowned convent of St. Florinn. and alto 
tome of Its peasants, so «el] known for their opulence, I left Eht'Isberg', 
tberefbre, on foot, and, Kti-ikiiig into n by-roiid, proceeded deeper iulo the 
eouDtry. A little coHiitrj-man who bml bcu^t n nook of Iniiil from the 
lords spiritual, and )ud thrrefore ^otnc business to settle with tliciii, went 
with me. and we soon came in sight of the stately abbey which stiuiils on 
ft hill. The fields and niendows, iho orchards, and alt around announced 
a system of careful ctilttvatioji. \ rroreboiiso, an ii|iottiecnry'» shop, s 
tavein, and an hospital, all attacli«l io the abbey, lay at the foot of the 
hill. 1 praised the ananf^ement of all these to my peasant companion. 
" Ah,** said he, " yes, yes, the holy fathers, they are clever fellows, they 
look after tlielr aftain, and keep thing* under their own eye." In tm 
villa go stood two waggons with four h<»r»e<^ each laden with six-ttnd -twenty 
calves. TIic poor creatures lay wilh their legrs bound, and their bead* 
han^ng down in a most tninfiil pominn. Some Iiad woiitulcd tlietnselves 
against theiron-nnrkof t.1ie hi^i wheck, by theconKlnntcimiiili^ivetwiteh- 
in^of the moiitli. I :itip])AKe there wa» no society in llie ablw-y for the 
provcnlion of cruelty to animals. I looked from tlie poor calves to tlie 
picture of the Madonna, which hung from ihc comer of tlie nhbey tavern, 
and read beneath these words : " BIciwd is thtt boly and imniaeulate coD- 
ocptioo of the Virpn Mary." 

I had hcird much befon-liand of the grandour of the Austrian al>bey% 
standing like a magnificent chain of palaec:i, mostly <vn tho right side of 
the Danube as (ar as Vienna ; but I mitrt confua that when I trod tbe 
interior courtyards and chambers of St. Florian's cloistered palace, my es- 
peetatiuns wen far exceeded by the reality. The principal part is built in 
a most superb style, from a phui of the time of Charin tlio Sixth, and u 
almott finisbed. To be nimott ^niiknl has been the destiny of almost all 
tlie stntety im-ctioiis of that raler, who died ten years too soon, as (he teal 
for building in the Gothic slyle did by u buudred. However^ in St. 
Florian's abbey, it is hut little that is wanting. 


tns it<niAiirmr or at. flohun. 

PW nuMurclw in E»ro]Mi can boMt of be-iiif^ to gtvaily Ioi]|n4i wbotber 
in re&rence to the form or material of tJidr dwelliof^, u tlie " ngulsr 
Aug;iistiDe cb&ptei of St. Flomn in L'pper Austria." On either cida of 
th« lafty (mtrutoiK, brood mnrblo steps \»id to lh« principle floor, luiil oor- 
ridoi-t above a Imiulrt-ii fci-t m bri-ocllli niii rtmntj the various win^fa of Lbe 
buildings surraund tlialbur qiudranj^ar innn oorarb. Ttie cnmdoRt, 
I m* well u itio outer pawam, and the floor of the great b^U, orn ele^rAtiUy 
pared n'tth LlaiJt uutl white taarUit, and orn-jrwtierv tJic d<:auliiioH ik so 
perfect, tiiat every atooi of duit iniiit bi' rpiiiorMUwalj pimued nitb brush 
«tul broom. As I jwoed thMo oorridora, tlio wuter fjilaohing in the DiidsC 
«f Uw flodrtl^ the rays of the euu pkytug through the couoUum arched 
ntmge*, a/Htag rich lighU ami «)uide« u[)oti th« politlu-d nmrbU- bvutiath, 
I thought if tlia |))aaiufa of & atmigrr in wiuidcriii|r lu-rv was ku gT«at, 
what miut ho that of tha owner*, tb* fathor* of St. FUrian ? la llw imt- 
lidors are the — little doors they sboiili] be, but tliey arc lofty mrtals, kad- 
iiif; to (be mootu' «elU, to iJie a[jartii)eiit« of the pi«lat«, to th* vh^mtot's 
hull, tlio Ubraiy, th» ctirdinal'i choraWn, niul ot)u.T«. 

I iratf flaalty gomewltat entbarraaaed wluch door to attack iirat, for I wm 
efiaid at distniiaiig ioaie peraonage of unportaii€e turn wliillier I would. 
Atlaat, wipini; the dmt con-fully fma my feet. 1 ehoitea cttO at raiuloin, 
and found, in the person of tlic faUicr niid |>r»ftf!><>r {lutz, to celebrated 
tlitouRlHiut Austrin, for hi* leaminff and liictoricid works, the vmr boat 
piide to lead me tliroi^h thi« labyrinth that my good nagel ooula hav* 
ud meto. 

The f^TvtA conrentx nad aUicys id Austria ham been, at all timet, the 
nuivos aod ohctrialiera of i>iL-ieiu« and of art t in evny oue is to bo fuuml a 
tmiutum of natarol hietory, a aoblo library', and, f^ocrally, a picturc-gal- 
kry i and each boaati it* ccJubnitMl munoi, vitlicr uf tliOM whu luive loiij^ 
d<-|iart4il from tlini worM, and liv« only in tlie aflW'liuii and r«speot of 
|Mctttnty. or of tlinev i^tiJl living, and actively en^gc^d iu tlie snrioe of their 
OTdtb Of ih/t latter claw ia the ruvcreud I'atliiT Kurz, a kiud aiid vcua- 
laUe oM maa of arventytvo, who now advimi'^d (o Ritwt tliv intniiiva 
atrui;^r. lie wa« for a loug titnc profcacor of lii^itory in the GymuiiiaaK 
of LioK, and has whtlcn tomv learned work* ou Auntriaa luetorVf At pf 
aLUI, UiriM: down by ymn and feeble health, he hrts retired to Ilia mU 
wlii-n! Le buiMM hiiiiM-lf with lighter literary labours, and th« aifmra of tba 
«i>t]Teiit. J found witli him a couplaof peajuiQt«, n-bo had cotu« torequett 
lit» iidvive reiiH-ctiti^ u kwmiit, aud a yumimal-gitl aekiag him ibr aome 
nii'tUdoe for iH-iiiick mother. 

I ktiitw not wlieilier we North German protestants entrrtain rery jost 
notions r««pectirf^ the iudu<;iM-Ui tbc split'rv of operation, or the busiuos! 
and manner of life nf tht- nir>nk» of the ^-n-nt Austrian Augit$tine nudBa* 
ontietino ooaveota ; nor whptlier our opinion of tbom may nut bo too tin- 
liivourablc ; and I fltall therefore ]>«>rmil m}'iwJf a l«w rcuiorlu ou tiju Gub- 
jecU It wonld be highly uujuA tu coii»idrr tuch establishments, nmply at 
Hi* rttreata of laay monkK, nlioie nolo eniploj-monts are {iraying atid tatiog. 
Od tba «ontiaiy, tba mouifold relatioiu in whk-h suvh a vmwtti ttanda to 
Hie ejitcnud world, and tlwgri'ttt spln'rvof activity couitcctiiig it, with 
Seaily every phstv of Itfi), hn-v* njivned the »iit for tlu! c-areii, tlie husiineat^ 
sud chr> voxatiotw of humauity, iitid paved for them an ea<y entrance to the 
edit of these iDonk» ; tlieae, couMxiacntly, aru biiAy ines a{ tlic world, n- 
thcr than fea»liiig and [>rayi iig aochoritw ; and if th«y are worried aonia- 



wliot ntore at their case ttiMii otlier |ienpli>, they bare tn l>cn<l like oiher 
ClirUliuia under tho i>atniiiou bunWn. It is only ti xmoU niioarity of tlie 
member* »f iu«)i o hotue thM nic cntnmflnly rcndiMit nitliJii \u nalb. 
In Su Ploriau only tweDty-one i>ut of ua ninety-tno latbcrs <lM'eU«n 
there at the time of tay viuL The reet wer« almost coiutantly aWnt on 
^fleront oinjiInyineDU and niiuiani, aomc u parish priests in tnnir rc«po^ 
tivv |iwiabw, kmbo we iiutruoton iu Kbool*, prolman at tliv GyniDasia, or 
aa stewards and OTca«een of iIm lands of the abbey, wliivli must all bo ad- 
miniatered and ororlooked. 

Ai t«acben And prorvMun, Uwy must subnuL to CKatamaliuni like other 
peoplt, aod as agii«ultanst< thc-y uro nut rc$|iuiiiibltf as nthiTs in limtlar 
•ntMaymenU. Those who roiiiain in llio convent are vithfr the old and 
fiwote, or those vrbo h&ve tli«ir vmploymcnts in the nbb<!y it»lf. 0ns U 
master of tlie Kousehnld, and liaA lite kitulieu, the stAbie, &c., iiimIut lus 
diiectioD, another is inastur uf the forest, a ihlrij, lilirarioti 9uul director of 
tlu) ninseum. Some oftliv convents whtdi iiiMRtis nWenratorifH, have also 
tlieir own astioiioinpnt, «ho, as professoFs of astn/uoiuv, tea^h the saeiiue 
in tti« convont. Tlie observatory «f Kremsuiia^tcr lias long been celtt" 
bratiid, and almoat overv ]>unoii bora con tell tihic^b facluir in now at the 
tumd of it. Even tlie old and feeble liod nmcti in tbt-tr <^cUe to interest 
tlieni in the sayinga and doin^^ of the world witliout. Tfiey are tlio fcienils 
anil palroii* of many far mid near, who visit tlitni t'roqucntly to ai^lc CLtiuuel 
fttid iu«iRUnc>c. Tlu- iirolatcM, — to arc styl«d the hoadj of tho arfAtcon- 
vtnts, — tJic prelates, it not prinwa hv birth, liri! likv ptiaceSj aod hunt the 
iistial allouuent of business and inmiencv, cam and crosses, tliat (oil to 
the shara of princos. They liave their bauquet-halls like then), but aUo 
tlioir halls of audiencu aud rooms for bueutess, vrhenoo tliey overhiok and 
diivcC tlie affairs of ilie convent They an; idm fre<iiieiuly members of tti« 
praviodal stiUea, and beuce^ altliougfi monks, arc eittaiigKiit in somo mea- 
sure iu the (iontut of poliUod. The whole range of great abbej-s iu the 
valhry of the Danube may bv looked upon as amniis: Cha most distiiiguishod 
pillant of tlie Austrian stale edifioo ; ami not ouly its su|ijiartinjf pillars, 
but also llie foundation and comer-stones of tiist i:dific«. These rolipoDS 
fuunilations, founded iu tlie eoriieslagos of the AiL<tj-iau eaveraicnty, were 
the verv strongait oleuuNkla in the fnnnalion of the future arcluTuchy. In 
tie middle ages, tbe abbots of thnteenuvonts ofien fiimiihed thu min^tcon* 
auksable rnnlorcenaants to the Auftcian armies, and at a Utoi period, one 
1^ tbam contributed aa large a cum as eighty or n hmidrcd ihouMand florins 
U) thtt acpsoQU of a war. At the conuiicnceiueut of the reign of Marin 
Tbvrcsa, she could obtun from tlie bank of Genoa the dirou niiltiens aba 
nM^uircd, only on conditien (hat the Au«triau alibi-ys would be her eooiri^. 

()n almoiit every liouit!' wall in Austria a !»t. Florian is painted, empty- 
inp: a pail of water over a burning hom«, as its protecting saint ; pious 
verecH ar« soinetiiiies inscribed hontwthi noomnwndiug thi: bouse to his 
ffuardiatuhjp, aud sonietimas rersea aojr tJiing but pious, as tliu fol- 
lowing : 

•• House and home trot I to Fkin&ii'* nuae; 
If he protect It mi. Iiis be tlie •ttanu." 

Butofbue^tlMBignsaiul lokenjoftlio Vicnim and TriiMo Fire Amoranee 
Companies faaiv luade Uieir appeannco by the side of St. Florian, whiMe 
credit a^ieais to sink as thmn lisM. St. Florian was a heathen, aud a 


TtoRi&ti MnUirion in th« time of Olini. Here in the cnnip t>v thi> Hiiiiiibe, 
Mb luiild, bent on serious msttciSt and wiUidnLmi from tlio frirolitn-a of 
Rome, mav Iuitc been duly proparvd for ibfl 8p<m1 of th« Cbrutimi ndi|pnn; 
but hoie it fell, and Iioh it RermiimUHl, the legend eajrs noL Gnongh, 
FIoriAi) became ■ imlota Ciiniliaa, confemed aad preaclied the aovr doc- 
trine, and was in conMixjuciice i-ondemned u » rebiOIiou* and fntntic 
innoTntof, by his gcnenJ, Arjtiilius, umI bMttni to (Ipiitb with club* on the 
sliures of ti)).' l^nubv, IIU body vras thmwn into tlie water, wlierc it ro- 
innitLuit till tlu; iirini'iiss Valenn, ilie daughter of die emperar Diocleniuit 
trithdixiw fnini iJk* cmbnives of the river i)yniph« L)ii- renimni of n saint 
tuuiJwB aa'i honnurvtl nji fariiJi tlit^T^irki^ frontier, and in tlic yr>ar 304,btiri«il 
tiif-m ill tlie place where uovf the abbey et&iids. Ilig lon^ ncf)uaintaitcc 
with the wati?r nymphs of ihe Danube, it may be, which hns rendered him 
io peculiarly fit for a fire «iftnffuiah«r. 

" Tou tnay bdievc wlidt you dIciud of this story" Mud my |^de to m^ 
"but you will find it not only black and white in our old chronicle*, but 
also in bgij*ht cotours in our picture -f^ollcry, where we liavo llic whole 
hidlor)' rcunyjenlcd in a »eriw of twenty paintingu." 

In thf libriirj- uf tlic convent thiTC arc fiirty thou«»wiI Toiumea, The 
liall is ljrgT> and beautiful, a )iall wortliy of tlio muses, as it idwnv» the cnss 
in ihfl Austrian convent-* of the first rank. Except Gottingen, I know no 
Gfrniiui umven>ity wbicli luu 90 npleniliil an &jiartui«tit for tJiis purpose oa 
St. Fiorian's. Witli M!«pcct to Uu- cullwtion itM-lf, it U nalurally some- 
what dirterent. The chief port, of course, is comnosctd of tlutolney. The 
fatlitra arv in full forte, eoinuoftheniiii tJic»pleu(UdParaedltioiii. Otbcr 
braiiclici' of UiuiwIedgK havw not, howe»-er, been neglected. Tbc censor- 
whip of the pn»6 ofiocts thin convent but little. For them there b no for- 
bidden fiuit, and the couvcuti aro exactly the 6ttect af>-lum* I'or wntiiin 
pcr»cciited by tlie censor ; works, wliich in any other librarj-, nr in a book- 
seller's shop, would be seixed by the poUee. are freijueudy to be tixiiul in 
cloislora wlien; fuch unquiet productions are held to bo in the quietest place. 
The tnonkt know tiow to arr>iugt! thvjtc niattcri, only tnkiti^ tlie precautiou 
aonietiuieti of placing' sticli writing! nn tlir MX'Oud row, lictiiriil otliem, or on 
the topmiwt Kiwlvos. Tlw influwiee of thi>80 fino colleeti'uis eiinnot be 
great, u they are the private property of the conveul«, and the books are 
never lent out. Nevertheless, tney are iiilerfslinjr with a view to tJio 
future ! it 13 well to know where iucli liUTiiry niiiteriali! an> to be looked 
for; dauht!c!is, thfl day will come when another Joseph will throw those 
noble hails open to tho public, anil declare their contents the property of 
the state. On this account I was glad to find everywhere a goodly as* 
■cmhiage of our German liistoriaiiB, down to I.udcii, Meniwl, and Pfister. 
The Moiiuinenta Gcrnnuiorum arc alvu not wanting. An hiatorical-geognt- 
phical work on Lower Amtria, in tliirty volunies, put me iu a tnrnUc 
fright, if this work, like Meidinger's Grnminar, sliould arrive at a twcn* 
tietli i-djtioii, one mlgbt cover a good portion oflliothrvc hundred (German) 
squiire mllca of Lower Austria with tlie paper. If wc wero to uae aJI the 
waste paper of this kind in Gvrinany wc might cover the wholo surface of 
tho globe, and perhaps paper up the sun be^idcif. 

The Floritu) conveutown.s not lesi Itian seven hunJrci) and dghty-scren 
house* and fanns, or, us tliov expres* it here, so many " nunilMjin," and yet 
it is only a " three-quarters eloidtcr. The greater numbftr of the convents 
are only " half " or " quortei-," Kiemsniinster U one of ihe few " uiitirt 



di^Un." I n«ver oouM Iwun from what measure these cxpnwiAn* of 
li&lf &Dd whole, ttfc, whicli lur in oonstant uae amcngttir pcoplr. arc tnkcn, 
norcouhl the fathuni ihfiinn'Uwt jjivp mi? Kiiv infonnstioii. Perhaps it 
nay bo a ino"l« nf (^iwih, r('[n(iii)iii»j fmni the tiinw when the conv(>nta wen 
ntMfior militarr contributiuuD j FloniLii must then havii [ntiil Rfty Uiousoncl 
florins, when Kremiiiiiiiairr |iiiiii ctirhcy thntuuuid. In thii*u Utnes. aa 
puehduVc of Austria NniiicltiiioM rc«iidMl u A ^n(«t at St. Floriui's, with 
'four hundred nnd fifty hort<cm«t] and hones; thp present ?iit[>erora come 
much more mndcatl^ attended. The coHvent ia in constant rratlimuM for 
such visitj. Fler«, and in all nther Austriui convents, them ih n fuitc <if 
roonu ealled '* the imperial a|)artincnts." Th<^ uumh^r of illiMtnotis 
guMts tliat linvc riutcd the Augustiuo lordi spirituo], from the emperor 
; Aiuuipb the child, doim«-ard<t, is countleu— amon^ them khs Piinne 
Eugene, tlie liif^^li-lieaneil eon^u^ror of tho Tnrl<d. Ho slept here, during 
bis stay, ou a aplcndid IviUtvad, iit csch ol" whose four comers, a Turltisli 
tfriMlier was chained iii efFi^y. i*i«;tiin-« of the li.-xttles nf Zcntn. Mohftcs, 
taud fietgiade, adorned t!ie walls, and Qvery wax hg^ht in tlie autivhamber, 
L>Wu home by a ligure of n Moor, earved in woixl. All these are pre- 
^Berred as nieiTioriali to the present da;'. Pope Piitf) VI., on his memo- 
rable jiKiniey to Vienna, waji miteiUuno! at St. Florijui's Ahhey, and from 
tlu! balcony of his ehaniber, bestowed hi» hlvteing on not left than thirty 
thousand [leoplc. I 

Eniperoni, priiicHi, and pop«)i, are not the coly visiters: ttavellmg ■ 
StudeiiiK usnully halt here in tlm vnoations ; aome may alunyH be found in 
Uw rnonw below, oppiopriaied to their >crTice. In one of tbem I found 
ttn nugtnatical-lookiiig piece of fiimilure, whose u»c I was at a Ions to di- 
rvine. My conipruiion directed my attention loan inscription on the front 
''irhJcli Jixpluycd tite fvllomn^ .spirituiil reference to a »to*e : "Hoc in 
tmnido bicms nrido, irgtati» osfA consutiiit." 

In almoit all the conventual churches I found multitudes of reilhreosta 
as re^iiinr inhabitantji. In the splendid church of St. Florian, their plea- 
sant chirpiu;;^ were the only praises to timi I heard ihiriiii^ my visit. Tlic 
^diurdi senitor told me tlial, in the hTondinif sea*oii, llietr nuiiibera were 
• proat, that the preacher's x-oice was often overpowered by tlteir foitg. 
' spaiTOWii keep to the outside of the roof; swallows come eomctiiDM 
ribr yenra together, and tlien dtwpjMjar again. 

Carlo Carlone was the ar<.'htl«-t of ihin dnireh. Tiiia man'* ear must 
have been yrvH opened to tlio harmonies that lie in number.', and ^And 
pnmortinna, for ttw licighty breadth, and len^h of the church, the place 
ftnd prr>p(nliotifl of the windows, tho utalls, corridors, and choir, llie arches 
snd pillars, form 3k whole ao exquiritely tiymmetrical, that the musical im- 
BTession. rpivived on entering- the place, is irrcsiatihlo. 'Hie piTiiiei|«d Unci 
r« lliR building tun covvml with the most anlid, rich, and tasteful stuccoM. 
iSlound all the galletiM, cemiees, and eeiltnf^, hundreds of angels ara 
Rthed and grouiwd. Curtnins, executed in tlic most masterly niftiitier 
ni plaster, hang la rich profusion over every door and jmnsage ; and llie 
most beautiful (rarlaodt, wrcatlH of flowers, and arahniiues wind and 
[droop in lavish abundance, and in the mfvt graceful inrmt thvviughout. 
"must confess that f leaml. for the first time, here to know wliat stturco 
and what niif>ht be made of it. 
The chureh hu thiee orfjans ; Uie largest is in the baekgrntrnd, oppo* 
me the high altar, and two smaller ones ate in tlio ohtnr. The larg«st. 


the irmiitrmrwlc of wi Anrtiiui of Uw name of CtirittituutD, bu o230 

Sii])«8, sud the strongvvt of ihfwv aut in t}i« (in«)t Kn^Iiih tin, is thirty-two 
ei't hi^ four feet and k h«lF In cin!»iufor«tkr«, anil wraglM five hunditMl- 
wftielit. Tb« *' orjtiaD-basket," •^h'nh funporM t)w »«ttt of Uw »r)puiUt 
and thn liugen, duplap the most bcnutitul and inimitable irorkinuwhln 
in cHrvml wood. It fau the ligiiro of a giant baiket. or balcony, fnimM 
of th« t]iick»«t bu<h of ■mithiM-lcavM. IMow, tbft woodvetk of t]ua 
hiili-<)iij is iiitcmiin^Icd nith tliftl of tlio itallfl and pfsycr-dnk*. 'llw 
pillitn* of fhitw leata Ki\d their vouopr. conilft paitly of h\»ek frvltml 
wcoAk, bo J partly of Kpccklfd lMH>flt-wood, of wbich ibo maMiTfi blocks are 
in tlKtnsfhw iitriofitice. The nholc raufjic of fiUlU fot tlie chapter ex- 
liLbit tlic tiiiCTit ATchttrrttinil drawing, and tite gmleit mliditv of COD- 
!itru«ti'>n, Ktid yet l)ie miiiutis am ncputed with a tientnoH ana riofpuioa 
«uch lie aro usuaJly bf^luwed only uu box«a destined for the ivcoptiott of 
ladiva' ji-wfi« or gentlmipn'B mull'. Oii a ciooer t!\aiiiinatioui vwry litUe 
knot aiid adgo » found lo he moat BrlisticnJIy aiid laborlvudy |mt tO" 
gether, and «x'|nisiteiy polished. 

In nue word. prcMriit ami.i and ahow honour due to the Austrian monkr, 
all ye who fto nftvii coiiU-inn, wilhout ev«^n knowing them. 1 must ctm- 
ftat, that I docired nothing nn•^T«^ than that Knthur Kun and the olh«r 
gpiitUnien oii^ht accept mv IJii'eivcll |>resgu[« of lh« bund an it wai mewi^ 
ai a. tuktii of tli« most tiiiocn- gXHodnill and entc-em. 


T\k pca.nint3 of Upper and lyowcr Austria havr, witli tlie esceptioB 6f 
fcnav of the pea^anla tif Loinhardy, cerCitiniy irorht'd a hij^lier degree of 
wealth aud li-eodon] Oian any other jieiisantti in llio Auitiinn empira. 
Thowf "^f Ctdivio, Bohemiti, and IIui((j«ry, are, on the nliole, »lil! Mifa ; 
tlic iiiliabiTEutt of lUyrin and the Tyrol Li poor. There are /wrrto, indeed^ 
of all these proiinecs where tin* land is hotter cultivnted, and the pea»anta 
more free and opiiU'iit. Hnima, in Moravia, ii celebrnird f-w this, soil 
Zip, iu Huiii^ary i 8%xonlin)d, in Trnjuylvanin ; Ep^vrthnJ, in iJohemiii | 
and mtuiy rich .-\1pine vaUey*, are abo cemarltahle eiceptioiis. NMlfanr 
oa^ht wt^ to pily nor de^j-ise the peasants of other parts of the monarchy 
M lUere sla-re^, without duly estiwattuj; iiiaiiy alltviatiiig cinruU' 
fltanc«9. To uke ihetu ail in all, liowrver, it is nut le^ cerlatn that the 
pcuauls of the Damibe, in rHonirKw to mental ruhirntinn. eolidliy of 
ehancter, firmno« of position, atid a rerogiiition of their rights a* men, 
■urpasa the iiiajotity of their fellow -gidiject^ no far as thi;y do in agricul* 
turkl knowledge and o[tuleitre. Aimxic; thi* riehmt and liest known uv 
thn«n in thft neighbourhood of Si. Florian'B abbey. S<ini« of thftm, in- 
deed, are so diftinptiihvU, as to liaro hud the honour, ntore tlian onee, of 
receiving their emijcror, and one of chcte is the mnch-talked-of '■ Meier 
in der rann." Aceonipaiiiod by a goide fivMn the abbey, 1 made my 
iray. by a narrow footpath, tlirough beautifui woods, <>tn hutiriant 
Biradows. and throii^rli wfll-nillirated fields and orchards to the fiirma 
of this neaitliy peasant. 

The Ktoriiiii and Austrian ri«aaanti in general, altliough moF« tbow 
above than below the Rns live more fWquenlly in Mtditary liinn- 
hooMi in tlie niidsC of tlwir lauds, than in a vilb^M. Tfiu pe«*»iits hat* 


all a dmibU name ; m the Bnt pla««, ft &nil/ ohtat vliieh i« iiibnitM 
by tliL-ir childn-ii, and »-c«ndiv. one a> powosaor of tho (ftrm, which 
pMiM to Uuiir sooosMon only. Tbeas ofltdal raiOM ve do doobt ei< 
tramfily old, u old pertuipa m the forma th«niMhrH. " Lc)in«r, in 
Folitviilmcli." *' Meier im I«tch UtucJi." " Zehntcr, iwar (iomnwirinjf.'* 
*'M.ieriii<lerT«nii." "TheSchildliubm." " TV Diwli-lhuW." and the 
entire nnme of «ni?h a pPMsnt soundi quite lonj^ and aUtely ; for pmniplo, 
" Jvlin Pbds, Meier iu d«f Tiitui," " Jvicjdi Fimbcrgor, tbe SchiJdhiiW." 
Id ordtnu^ life th« dem^iiaiion fmin tlic liiiid \» niuoh mora aaual tbiui 
the fiunily luiiio. It u tiiorv asxui to sov " ttiu SefaiUliubar «« hvro 
t«-d«v" tnan " JoBcjih Fiml»erger ww bere." Tlie woiiwo ne gsnendly 
callaa by ttio fainilr n&mc, but in a nisnner diflerin^ from ours. A feiiu- 
nme t«rmiiiauon U stbicbod, m Marin Fimberf^n'n, tlie Mtwerifl, in- 
ttend of Fmii Fimbcrjfw, Fran Mowr, a« iw »hould *fiy. " Bfficr in liar 
Taim. fth, bo lias ft house like a caatic," stud crery one to me, and ia 
&rt tbe majority of tJieiie cjeat fannboiuca aro built like nutlei with 
(tmr wings fonninj^ a qicndninifle. The foot-paarangvr enters the dwelliDjDp- 
boow in oaie win;; by & narrow doorway, and th« load«d wng^ODJ enter at 
anoiher thnmfirb ,i wider gate, and drive into the inner court. Tbo staiA'u^t 
earuheds, j^iiarip?. Iwntii, ttc, are in the otlier trin^ The biuldiw 
ba« two st'>ries anil liiu a rtatcly exterior. Tbi; boiuo i$ weU fumifbed 
with pious snitencrs orcr tlic doom, both witliin and nitlinnt, nnd all the 
hooxinald otemils down to the pl&tes, are gamisbod witli n!rM)<( and pauagvi 
from the Bible. At tbe liouM of ** Mgi«r in der Tann," 1 feraid a flnur- 
Mck, ipeakin^' in tliu flrsb pcnon, and vrliere «« loaa poetit-'al North 
Gemiaiu wtmld b;ivi> ulaoed ninpl^ a ttainn, or have contented ouracUes 
with the name, Friti Meier, tJio flour-sack nsid it : 

"Be it Isnoirii tncn-rv nmn 
1 bdmic to Muter ia tbe Tmu.' 

Tiu) prinoipal obamber in tlie hoiiaa ii ealled " MeWii room." Il li 
the usual place of oMerubly of tbe DMmben of tbo family, aikd alio tbtt 
MttBg-rooni i here tbo women Ml at tiidr spiniiioK in tbo winter, or ab 
my other nf tin iiuuordom««tic occupation*. Near it are llie bedchnmben 
of the head« of the Dually and their chililren, aiid oppoidles on Uie otfaor 
lido of tho patHge thow »r the ukaids and tbe men. " 31vivr in der Taua" 
liaa, nion-iniT, hi* privaU' TDom of burinew. 

Oil tbe second atoiy wore tlw bMt roonu Car fi^ueiti, and the rtore* 
XMiiu. In th«M " 9undaT rooroa" many bar* the portniti of their iiro- 
geniton. Thn*e of " Meier in der Tann." were all clotlied froiu head 
to foot in ravLii-blocIc, nnd loolwd HIlo «> inaiiy Venetian noble*. Ilere 
ftro always a number of bods witli inagnitic^nt mouiitainB of featherf 
Uid Kay-colonred qnilt», fur any firiters wlio may bappvu to c«ni«. 
In tiieie " Sunday rooni*," in pTMWi, cbeitii, and diawen. iam bridal (inery* 
tba traaturea of linett, nietid, and the holiday clothca of Uw wife) ft blaok 
•iKmcn-, a binck silk /lillr/ (to diey call tbe M6t gowD% and a pretty capof 
otter-ikin, «itrniounl«] by a utar of pearb, are otimad awav, all tbiuM 
wbii'Ji ill fomi nnd material rtfmind ttt of Ba%-arin, wlwncv IJieie ii Uule 
dvnU (hii< part of Aucttia waa colonised. Then tlivra i> tbe iatfi (room) 
for fnut. in fihich are kept whole oheiU full of drini apples, peoDt ami 
plums ; aud a. hiimeM-rooin, where the abuudance, order, and aimple oma- 
nent, please morv (baa all the brilliant thow and rigid aocuracy of a stute 








of royti ■Cable*. la m»ay peaunts' boom in tluc put of tb« conntry, 
Umw an not leu thin fotty roomi. 

Tha ntaetcebbnted nco of honm in all Llio countiiei betweni Munich 
anil ^'vnIla, tootli of tho Dnoabe, is the I^uigiuirr. Thtrte an large, 
tna^^ifi'^cnt animals, brouf^ht here as eolts, and roarvd on lh« fiiw ntMulom 
of tbe Danube. Tbe^- ore wei awhile for agricultural labours, and cbeo 
Kilt to Vieooa, where llieac huge animak are met with in llio sprvicc of 
the butchera and brew^rt. 

Tliv ttock of homed cattio aa tbe Datiubc i» constantly ruppUed from 
ihe mimntnin jiutnrMi, nliere ttiu fari'cdiat; of cattle ij ofuQ the only poa- 
aible oci-u|>ation. From Piiixgau, I'on^au, and the Stytian Alps, tbo catUa ' 
descend to tho plains to fill up th« f^jn made by death and tbe bntebv, 
unii vilii«h the smaller cattle iirotluction of the plains cannot •uffimently 
tup|)h-. The most rcroarkable of Uiu arningt>inents for ftall*fed aniinab 
■re tJia [jifpititfa. The lodj^n^ for swine in Austria are lof^ gpaees filled 
with hng rows of chcstj. tlmt in on all iultn and li-ft o|>cn at the top. 
Each nf these chests b the dueUiii)>;-|ilat-eof » pig'. In guiirral tliey are 
oude of thick beams, but some nf tha riclic-r fiumers hate tlteni of iolid.-i' 
nnooth liewn blocks of fr&Mtanc. Krprv \yig has his food in his own 
stall. In this manner vacli animal enjnys cnu.itantly fresh air, and yet i* 
closely enough shut un to grow tat at hi* leJ^ure. Thia system of salitanr 
confinement protects them Irom ca«h other, and tho gnMm olaanUnata u 
prnfcnrcd Dinoiif; thcic uiiclciui brutes. Mora perfect swinish accommoda- 
doQs are not. I believe, tn be found in ICurope. Circe could have hail nO 
better for lllyssea and hLi eompaiiions. 

The ci<l«r preMcs in an Austrian familiousD am also worth seeing. The 
vine is not cultivutcd in Upper Austriit. but cider is made on a vi-ry larga^ 
eeale, and an intoxicating ar'mW U prepared from pean as well ns aj>|>lM. 
Tho fruit i* finit crushed under a large stone, put in inotioi) by a horw, and 
is llien {>nt into thepiKtset to conipWi; tbe o^M-ratioii. In a Inrj;;!^ bcHisc 
hold Uiere are fonietimoK tun or twelve «iirb ]>r(->!<e>;. Little as nu etteem 
tlut acid bevarftf;^. It is hero an nhsnbite noc.»?«ity, and " Zehnterim <>om- 
meriiig," or " Meior im Icorcm Buscli" would lose all his men-servants to- 
morrow, if tliey did not get their due portion of *■ apple wine." Further 
up the Danube, in the land of beer-driukiof^ Uavnnati^, the uro of cidar 
declines. Lower down the nvcr the sour Austrian wine copw* into OM^ 
and furtliur nu tbe sweet Iluuj^anan, 

" Mvitir in dor Tnnn," including his children, bos not less than jbr^ 
pei>pIo in his hotise. Ue Tel£itvd to me mnny aiiccdoti'n of the eiupewr 
Fraudd and the artihduke Ma:(imilian, w}io had ofU-n stnpjKxl at liid hooM. 
Hi* wifv ai»l cliiUran, in tho mcaiitinie, were making dumplings for th* 
morrow's Holidny. .Strict order and discijtline were kept in tlie Iijiiim', and 
behind the pictui« of the Sarinur, i>» thi; wall, 1 miw nturk up tlmt educa- 
tional auiihary which we g«!neTni!y hide belnni) the piece of funiitiire that 
repeats tn us ditily and honriy, the most itgreeahle, or disfigrraable, truthsl 

As " Meier in der Tann" accompauied me over liis farm-jard, and 
showf-d me hiji abundance of good liiinfpt, I said to Itiin, " Vou sell this 
rieh pn>du(.-i> in thti eity no doubt?'' " Nay," was bis answer, " why shoold 
I soil it in the city? I can eat it mysvlf; it is better so." I afterwardi 
learnt that this was a usual answer of tbe wealthy Austrian pca«aata to 
inch ijuestions. " I can use it myself, it's better so." 

'Pwo blooming, good>butaoui«d oliildivn aceompooied us, and gave mo 


n friondly " God be vUIi yn>, God Ik with you," wfaca w« rwcboci tlio 
gT«at Irws siiTTouQding Itiv y&rJ (cTi-rr one of tlic yurit, m uEual, nu 
vtuTountlvd witli old tires) ; wlucti I ncknowlMl^d in the same style, and 
Tetimied to Eddfiberg througli all {}io rich lowlands, on wluch the rude^ 
blonk mountain mure cosU down such black Mid c-nvious loolt*. Tho 
lidiifal peiuaiil in Upper Aiwtri* » iupp<»L-d to he Stedingcr. I had 
«OCMUMi to lisit htm alio, mbteqoeutly ; but all Uiese hxna are u like 
•ach other lu so m&nj figg*. 

Tile personal service wtucb tlie peaeanti are held to roitdrr to tbcir 
guperittr lonl, is trifling in real amount. It It, for tliv mmt part, com* 
juubxi for luoiwy. Itut tlin titbcs, which are Ivriod by tba Ionia of th« 
toil, tho l>iLlctine; of K^ldicrt, llio inilitanr conwnptinn, b> wliiob tbfl 
nobln arc n^t suujrct. and the many impcmtl and seigneurial taxes, preai 
Iwavily oil the peasants As the land. Itonever, it, ou tJin wUnle, fvrtile, 
the people tchtr nud dilij^ent, and the law, (liHp)ti> itd AjiprcMiKt ciiact- 
mtntis ic a4la)iu)iti;ivd iu a »pint n> fuvoumblci to die subject, that tlio 
cinpctur Fmiicia someliiucs cnmplniiied h? could not obt^ii jiutic« in hii 
stuts against hia own jiensanls, agriculture, with all itj disadvantages, it 
ill the ilouruihtng coitditiuii I )iav« alwvv dt-scribed. 

An "m!(I law prrTftils in this rliiss— namely, that thcfiimi duccndi to the 
jfOHitgeai son instead of liiv thivxt, on iJic <!(>ntli of (he father. It \» sop- 
po«d that by tiiat tlroe the elder Bons arc otherwise pioftd»d for, whil« 
the youngest may ufu-n iited an itiheiitance. Wit!) us the more rational 
notiiiii jirnviuU that tlir> I'hiint «oit, as, ihe ablest and most uatural guardian 
of the yotinj^ branches, muK first be enabled to supply effectually tl)« 
place ot the parent. 


The irat«r of tlio Danube '\i of the eoloiir of aqua marine; that of the 
Ailing emerald green. Tlio waCora of the Itanubo an» thick, ehn«o of th» 
Bliiiie tian-^iiarvut ; the colour of the fonnor may probably be ofiected by 
tlw sllinu it hnng!) willi it, and which is oF a milky greeu as if a cguauttty 
of eorjH!)iline g|«ue dii^t wort' mingled with the quaitx saiid. Thin iiliin« 
is d('P<<sit«d in tho cold hitth* wliicli are erected alot^f tho hanli.^ of tlio 
river. The waters of the l)anulio seemed to vote much colder than those 
of the other great riven of Germany, and a bath in iM green tvaten is 
Mrtniuly on« of the mott refreshing enjoyments that can be offered to tlie 
wearied body. 

1 had just come out of such a one. and was taking my last walk through 
the streets of LJnx, when I came upon the BibOothoca publica of Uie 
Lyceum, whereon standj^ the beautiful Greek inscriptiou, ^';^^t larpripr^the 
hiivw for the hewing and rpfrwshnient of the soul). What oould be more 
oppr<riuue? I entered ; the tirst name I licanl hfiv, an in nearly erory 

S'ublii; inntJtutton in Auatria, waa that of Joseph the Seoond. 1 \t was the 
ktutidcr of tliiii and many otlicr bbnriea. lie induced or compelled Uie 
weiiltiiy convents to furnish books, and ttuu fonncd ui the prinin|)nl ntiea 
cf the monarchy, eoUections BCC«aeibIo to all, from trea«urc« that had 
before Wn hiddm. 

1 found hen>, lu in all ntlur Austrian libraries, Rotteck's History of the 
World, and the " Sfmpiice Vtrita oppotta aUe nunsojrnf rfi Unrwo 
Jlvilty," a work written by an Italian, in answer to k book published by 

106 THE pictcbe-cjO-leet between likjs and vieswa. 

4l En^ibnun, in condcmnAtioD of U10 Austrisn eystma nf gorminiciit 

In niuiY Attftriou Ebntnci tlic foHnildni Tniit u vnthroeed high tboi9 • 
-the TcUum-Uxtnil ToKimct uf thwIugA- 1 it is pliwrd there ptnpnvh*, test 
tli« grown children tbould OT«r-eat tnemnhrM ; tho lante aimugpinvnt I 
^ntrved b«rc ; ftud mor«ov«r, U16 Iwlder hy which It wna to bo rrnch^d, 
ms ao ■hort, that it wm «t the ri-dc of my life, stanilin;^ on the topnuMk'j 
ilep^ tlut I frur<<o«<il«d in ob4iuuiiig a glanue into th»e region*. Ire* 
Si4rited th«r«s " The Triumph nf PhiliMophr," Mauri "PAtriotic Fan- 
Umttt" fail " Politic*! Truth«, ' and simiUr woriu. A sMciid dire which Z 
-vnttmd uson,plaaecl twavolumiii of BiilTon'* Natural History in my hnniL 
IcouM UkU( oq tliia with tnlombto imtitTcrcnon ; Initio tlie Auitrisustuilentv 
bow costly iDuit appear thi« fottnddcn, and. tlicrvf^rc, doubiy twixt fruit 1 
DonbtleM aa the fincit dipnici on the m-o's topmost branch to the cyva ut 
tba boy who ia onaMe to reach the iimteaily cruwn. 

The mort Tcomrkable port of tb« collectioo, «w a «opy of Lutlwr'tf^ 
M(nfilet«workii,w)dinan'ovrr, the olileit edition. They were rxtrvtiwlydtntf* 
and I aakad lh« attendant wlwtKpr they w«re much uwd. " Ho," said he i 
"in the thirty y«iars 1 hare been here, I hara never taken them down.'* 
Pirfaaps they were procured at a lime when Mmc hopes of refutitt^ Luther'a 
hemlea were ttitl chcrUhetl. ami they ha»e nerer bwii looliwl at amee. 
Pnfiaps tko time may not Iw far dictant, when Atatria will allow tho 
ladder* in ber Ubrariee to W made a little longer, or brin^ tlic ir|nrit*, iioiV 
abandoned to the diut and the njiiden, a little lower down; the library | 
naj than in a loftier mnse than now beeomr> the tfrv^tit hrpt'ia. and the aom 
nuiy then luxuriate here in as re&«4bing a bath, lu thi> body enjoys in tba 
qtiicketiin^ waters of the Danube. In thU, pei-h^M^ approaching epoch, inch 
old Gothiv tawB and pmlubitioni will not be reneweo^ as we now tee oanred 
in (tone, on the 'Towii-hntwc of iJnt. TliU itin;rulnr inscription runs thus eJ 

" Uia Honiau and Imperial Majesty. Kin"- of Huiigrary and Bobemiogl 
ourmoatgnicioiis lordwilU and commandji, that ito i<nei he he who 1m- nia/il 
tnvauma in or before thi^ free land hou^e to curry anits, or to wrxvtle, otl 
figbt, or make ant/ riot whata-tr. Whoever act in any wi» contraiy tsi 
vus prohibition, will Ix; piiniiih(il with all severity in life and limb. Ra» 
newed 1568. 1679, 174r», IWo." 

I thought at (irot that tliU nnjB^lar and har«hly<«ountling pmhlbitua . 
had only been renewed for the sake of it* historical ciiriority; but u niUiV 
of Lini auured me that it wan feriouily meant to tiifutc terror, and 
deemed one of the privilege* and im munition of the Town-hotue. 


The portion of the Dannlw lying belwwn Linn and \nenna, \» C«P« 
tainlr the finest part of the great rircr, for here nature and art hare united 
to adorn \U «hore«, na they Uave done nowhere ol« aloup the whole 
nxiecD liundrcd niilea of its counc. In ono Itairdiy to lee all tlii*M heaa- 
tifnl, great, gisceiful, and intcrevtiitc nt^ectt, witli all their hictoricol mona* 
menta and natural bratilie*, niLi« before one's eyc«, seema an enchanted 
drtUD, and keeps tbe susceptible mind in a conntant alate of iiitexicatJon. 

The Romanj, while they held these lands, ieem, however, to linvc felt 
BO such iatoxioatMU ; to tncm on abode by tlie thorn of the Danube was 


Tire nCTtmr.-oAi.LKitT n ww EBy rrsz kftn vrtntyA, lOT 

Tfttlivr a flwMim of « h^nry nnd npprMsivo kmij, ytt it was exactly tlib 
beautiful part af its banks as far as Vindobmia. ttut whs the iiitr nf tliair 
ninrt important battles nitli tJie ticminns. The left hnnk they eallixl lh» 
foTCh^nri nf (JomiaTiy {Frona Germaniir}, and the cy'>l>i"""i' <rf t'lo Danube 
(^tfttprrdiia Is/hri). TIic vrrinkli'^, fscrr*-cncc«, iajrjTCfl rocks, ami hirrm 
of G«nnan)'s nidc (rnnt, may liav? figured itran^ely in ttw IcUpth tii llicir 
ftwodi in Italy from tlim« cold norllieni bciundaTiM of thrir bcautifiit land. 
Urrc, if aDvnhciv on eartli, the muiabilitr of matin- and the vonrse of 
erpnt)! may W adniirwl. The cyrbrnwa of tlip l>aniib9 are now foioothtNl 
bnieatli uw hatchet and tliv jilntiju^li ; tli9 fields w smilini^ imd«F tlio 
birMt M)d riclie^t euHivation, and of ihe fomta otily *o luucti reniaiiui a^ 
the painter would dnin* to prcwr^'c, in order to enrich and rlcvate the softer 
rmrioii n( tlir inendow and thft cor»(h>1d. Tlti* forehead of Uvrmany 
what wM its *«r*mB frontier, niw nn« tiio wre of a great monajthy ( 
lie rejected stocM is become the foundation and coriipr slMie of tin- liiiild- 
iny, for here liea the Ctadle of llie Auatriaii monarrhv. 

Strenfj<T* from nil land^ now eome to |^nw on the eitiM that hare ariwn 
round the Rnronn cniup-statipn on the now Atnooth Front ficr/nftnue, and 
tlie subdncd hnck of tlie wild Ifther. Years ng<\ the Eiigltah ami S'orlh 

LOennaii!) lieodcd not the inennvcniencet of the Oannbe naviji^liriii ; Init 
fiow, thxt (lir 7!rl«Mi*)im'>tit cf fteuiiibnnts hai increased the facilities ton 
Or twenty fold, the river is riiitrd even by those thnt dwell near it. Monks 

, now wand«r from their ultnstnr oimI ^le on these new wonders. Students 
a^ from all parts, for nnw even their slender jniTsn mfEee for a voya^ 

'down the I}amibe; tmptajflt, wlnwt short Irave of ahtcnre did not for- 
ttmty pmnit unch cxcunribnn, nnw take their planv, with tlipir wire* and 
rfiilien, in tlio handmrip cabin*, wid float np and down the IHiiubo under 
the iirotccliofi of the public at lar^. In these days of steamboats, peopI» 
have found feet who find none hefnre, gome have ^ox apTeo-lcagne Ixwta 
wlu> nraueMed befDre but ordinary ahoea, purse* have become fuller, and 
days longer. 

AtsiioVloek in the morning, on the fifth of Aug^ut. tliebellofthe«teain> 

^boat tite Arekduhe Stephen, summoned lU paaseogcm, aperimetia of all thd 
" are-m*)iiwne<l ela«e» or«ociety, erowded toftether. There w«re Kn^ltih- 
Bcn who ipokc not one word «!' Umnnn, nioitks with nhavcii rrowns Indies 

[with childTen, w)iisker»] llurjrarians, ^'ienna dandi«s with eye-frlaases 
id of ej'es in their heads, Berlin tTiveller^ with Dvnnenretfrr in ifacir 
noutlu. and many othiTs ludcn with eluaka and wraps, bata and bnnd- 
boxon, poraeola anil umlnwlla*. «lk-k>t, pi|ies, eheoU, and tnniks. It wm 
just mich weather m nct^>rdinir to ibn imajj-inallon of the Honiaiix must 
■enertlly hare pr«»6iled in " netml/ttti Gtrmania." A thieic fnjf hune 
Eke an imiienetrflbltr veil over the AI)Hne chain, and hid ihc black and gold 
Bra)H-*r{ue borders of llin towen of t.tnt. From out the fou' distilkNl a ftao 
rein, nbieh gradimlly inerca^ed. till we were ihrttnN'ned with a day tn en- 
eliaiit all tlie snails and ducks in tlie L-ountry. Wc (loor passvnp'r* wlio 
thronged the decks of the Anhdukt Stephen as thickly as the wild ducks 
did the reedy ttih*ta nf thd I>nnuhr, nrept like snaiki in suiHhine under 
(nir ninnttci and umbrellas, while tliosc who could find a plac>e, took shelter 
in the en bins. 

Tho beautiful eltanf^ nf scenerv afforded by tite rity of linx and Its 
envirmna, round whicli the Danube swetpn almort in a somkirvle, iMased 
Bnnoticed by g iiuleedi ae hr as I wm penonally concerned, I could dia- 


Mfit objectf onlj: hi far lut tlut cireiinifi*rcnce of my umbreDk reaehi>d, 
itnn) vhosc cxtrctniU- fell ft Iicit^ sliowcr ot' tirop^, liiid my cuinpiuticiit 
were more kiiuous aooiit the liglit of their ci|:;ars, tluiD the light of tntn-l- 
liDg iufpirBtJoD. Wo wen> all deplorably ttull &ad out of tuiii> ; and fore* 
Mw not whftt wM preptuiiif^ for ui ov-vi)i(.-ai], nor wh&t a dfty wins l>ef«T« iis, 

At lh« very bogiDitiiif of cur joiinii-y, na I stoiilncd fiiiin i)im brid» 
that M to iho viwspI, I had ttie good funiino to p^t *wh a tlinitt iii tb* 
•id« from the trunk of one of the pu<eug«m, that 1 thankrd God in nl«nc« 
tor the eUatic sti«ugth of my riM. 1 say the good fortuocv because tbe 
pnndi mui such a hearty one, that the iitaii wa« iiot cimlent with the usual 
txvuttM or pardon, .VooMuur, witli «*}itch ue u<uaily satisfy ourwtli-M on 
aiwh oocoaioDi. but taaui to me again uhvr li« had ttoncd awuy liii box, 
Kued my hand, besfged my pardon a tboiuoad times, and iiii|uiTrd most 
Aiiiiously whether 1 ws-s hurt. Thus, among so niany straiigei-s. I suddenly 
found a fnend. whom I mi^it not have a^i^uircd for hmin by the obier«ance 
of tiiB i-nuvcutiona] ccn:nK>iii<-3 which cniid«ttiii lu ^o \oag to vUcncc, until 
tome uiicxpet't4-d owoinvtit'o brings hs nearer In each oilier. 

iiy tieir acfiiiaintancc was a man of business ; ht? had fo1ti>ii-od the 
DniiiiW in all iu wiitdiiijp, and had lived from his yootli upoit it4 banks. 
While he »ac by iiic I allownl tbn useful to talte pnnredi^nni of thn beau- 
tiful for a time, and took a Irxeun from him on tlio cwuUtiitioii of tlw bed 
of die DsDubo, and tho enune of traffic on ila w»t«r4, and mi Iniifr a* the 
raiu continues I will share with the reader the infonnation I acquired. 

The Danube, hcmmad iu by luounlaios. Sows by Linx in an unbmlien 
■treaiii. ilelow the eity it boginn to citpand, cnilvaciuji^ nmny large aodj 
amaller i«landii, aitd dividing^ iiit'> many arma, one of which mav bf^ oonsi— <^ 
dered the ninin arteiy. Tliuit it eontinuea til) it reaclie* the celebraled 
whirlpiml iie-tu* Gtt'iu, ubene all iu wnlen, uniting; in one ehaniiel, flow 
on ninjciticaily far fi>rty milcf, till tiicy have worked thoir way ihroug-h tlu) 
mountoias and narrow posses near the city of Kremsn and toniing to Ivvel 
ground again, dirido, forming arnm and islands beyond Vienna. The 
condition of the water in this varying and Miiietinie^ obrtrucled coune^ 
ond iu consequent pncticaliility for trmdc and iiai-igution u very varioua, 
and hence many iteniliar words docriptivc of it liuve bcvn inrcDted, w 
axv not known on other riven. 

Tttc main lereaai, which m»*t offer the prineipa) course of ttavigati' 
b called tho " .Vaw/aArt," and t)>e Kt«crMnen, who must know it accunUely. 
and mme of whom are alwayv on boan] of tli» tteamboats, ane nunietE 
XaufSreh., or A'nti guidra. Toe Nau cluuinel underjgoM Uttle or no change 
in tho OIROV JMwea, but in the iiei)i^hourhood of the itlatidi, the furiuui 
npdi^ of the current changes it very ofben ; aometanet ui onn of the 
atrcam, navigable befiire, will cknn-, and nnothor onca that was formerly 
quito tmpracluable. T1>c Urgi>r l>rdnc)i«« are callca arms, but the smaller 
Doea arv dcnomiiuted '' Hume," and tbey ore dutinguiohed agvn as '.rrv^t 
or little " Jthnze," The Utile ereelu and broader ezp&nwnt, Mhieh arc 
often fbmid ahut in between the sandbanks and tha ishtDd<L, or pcninndai^ 
•re called lakes. Amon*; thcso lakes a conatont change is taking pkuw i 
somctinies they bunt their buundary, tbe stagnant water becomes curreut, 
and U»e lake is ai^in o " Uuuse." Thn tnluiding matter contained in th« 
Danube, is e*ll«i •* Jiath^t," " Utromffrvs," or " i^Atrf/." Tbe cwtd- 
b*nka fonnctl by thit "r/ria" are not called sandbanks, hot "Ifaufm,^ 
or hei^ If these banks are foniMd DOl of tond, Init of rock, aud remain 


lunlcr tlic surrace of tlic water, tliey arc named in the Dxnulw language 
Kuffiiti, or btiUrti, [*rlinpi from tlie rounjed fotni* rf ftll thcM i¥»c!t«. 

If l)tc«c '*J/avf*^»" rittc liigli oul of tli« wnUrr, ukI w OTOt^rowa wiUi 
irood, thr^ art' cidlcd .-Iwc/i, or tiic-itclnwi. Tl^csc meadow*, wnen covered 
with aepciu, lUdere, poplnrt, nisples, willovt, nndsTinibs of ftll kinds, afinrd 
cortT for iiuiuraenibte giunp ; even stags are fuund there, ivli'dv tlie lake* 
and linHse ore thronged with wuterfaw), wild duvks uid gi-esc, facnnu, 
ciane«, plovvn, And espectall}- u bini called " fialier" by tbe poople of the 

Tb^c nieadowH are often inundated m tha courae oFtbe year. When 
the laud hiM nbuuiied tuch n height that itr.-tii bn uibiect«d to rvjriilni'L'ul- 
tivation, lliu foniintion of t)ip l>iniibe isloud im coniiilotod. But all tliew 
ibimatioafi are Eubjvct to coDStaat ctuui^. Now a nndbank la formed 
vhcre before it was deep nator ; now the stT«sm is jawing at a» blaiid it 
shmly raised eoiituriea befnre. Here a hanfe ia raiuid to im " Au" or 
neiulovr, and Avcr^^nn-n with biuli, which, in the eoura« aF tini^, chnng;c« 
to a nrood, tlierc man is turning to profit tlio lint turf, n-liii-h lie hopra will 
one day become arable land. Prouiontorira, poniusulas, and natural dikes 
SIC thrown togetlior by the iravoa on one side, wliile, on the Mher, they aiv 
weariik]^ away aitd d^alroying otbcw, and thus tlw M*ild rivur-ffwl t^MS 
nhoul in hiH procriutean bed, wliidi he finds now tuo narrow, and iiuw too 

Such places, wh«re lh« water a undcrmiQing the shore, are called 
BrvchgfstStir, or brealc-batil(!<, anil here the l>eavera of the Danube have 
tiwtr cn«cial dwelliti^. !]y the Khon- (a/u l-fff), meoni a narrowoi* part 
of the nvOT where tho banks approach, and there is a fiwty. 

The )in«iage duwn tlie Danube is the " Nabf'ahrU" that against tho 
•troain » tho " Naufiihrt.*'* The eipreasions mountain and valley pBs- 
nn wltieh arc in u«e on the Rhine, are not known liere. An Auatrian 
Nilor whom I questioned about it, uiuwn-ed — " Mountain and viUlry pof 
mge ! uay wc know nothing about sucli tlungti here. Hon is that poiwible ! 
How ran we o^t over mouTitaina and tbrou^h ralleys?" 
> For the "Aa^ciAr/" the before-muned Nau ptJota arereavuredi but 
when they an gmng agairut the atretun, tevcnil vcMels ore nsiuuly faateiii-d 
together. We often see two or three large and several iniatler r«Melj so 
ehained together, and «ueh a flotilla, with the necessary team, is called a 
dejfen/uAr, or rouiit^rtoiirfc. Theae c-ountercouMei often require from 
thirty to forty Iioi-m-v. and it'itiietitne« nmrc. On ^eiy hor^e a innii a 
mounted, miu tho wlioli* (ipiiiiinin iii eonimaiided by on nlJ expr^eni^ed out* 
lidcr, ciiUm) the Jf'aghah or Slangcnrritcr (dareilcvil or pole-rider), be- 
cause his balou of office is a lonr jiole, wilIi whieh he niBke<i lignaU, fuiil 
sounds th« rii-er. Tlio other rider* are caller! the " IWrVa," Tbe coin- 
naods issued by tli« pole-ndcr, cr which are iMued to him from tbe ihip^ 
are immediately repented by the whole corpj of " l"wi'fcf,''ioo wildtry. Tiio 
words of commaud are generally sliortened to meTB uitrnjections, oa " fTt I 
Ao r (Halt, halt,) or *• lAiue laf" (Let them go on.) Searoely has the 
pokfridcr, or steersman from tlic ship. Aont the sound slowly through the 
ur. than It is taken up by forty lliroat^ and forty whips, and four times 
forty hoofa. are nxrested or set ui motioo. 

"the honts ridden by the " JWr/s" are generally Fitu^uer bones, bub 


■K dl called Trauti honas mlona this part (>f tLe Duiubc, pn-faum Iiecani* . 
tbc EnHUer numbvr of tli* wtwiac vifioitoU frou Plo^au, 6ni tliur vrftj| 
to (lie UoiiuImi tliroti^i Traun vaJlry. 

TliEi roads uii tlic banks of the Chiniibfl ue oUen very bad; the ^ _ 
meadow 3 aiid unxly blaiidBiire modUy swampv, lunicaftrtinml tnwin(;-{iatlia 
for lliu liuncB »r« very iieueuury. I Iw rt«us are named " L<i»}>fud " by 
tiic lUiiiw, uid Vtn, lb* " 'Ifuffuhlui," or '• Trcpprlwcff." ThcM 
** TVfpfuficvyf" arc noiBtiines on uiip khIv of the river, aud sometiau!)! on 
ifae outer, aoi tben a frequent kaJliuff, aud Bbi[>piDg ov-«r of the horiM 
beeomes unavoidable. Fur the long tracts of pOBMRO vhcro the baaka are 
not pMnbli), or wbore iiut " Nau/aArf" is very distant from tliem, th« 
hornet must p> into tho water, %■)•! it mar th«rcfoT« be easily imagined 
Low danKCTTOiu ascnice tbey aud tbuir " Models" baic to jwrfurm. 

Tbe large veMeU that naviffate Uiit part of tJw Danube, an; calJed " ITo- 
htnouer." They cony two uiouiaiid hundred-weight of goods. Noit to 
tf wiu iu uaportaDci), an tW KMh cimvrs. Tht: HoAt-uavert g9 ouly down tb« 
river, and tlioiwh largor, are wontu built than tin.- KtUHici»urs, wlut-h paM 
but)) lip and down. Tlien a^'m tl»<r« an' tliu (itimxris and fiatten, 
and the ZHI4-H (bi^ftts). 'I'bv lattur, wIi'kU are attaclied u> tlic Im)^ Jleh*- 
iMiier aiitl KfAJAeimer, are cblli-d Nupplx-mitut^ (nr&«N^i)- Aj^a thaas 
naielti luud tu eonvay Hut "Yoddx" mid Hmv bun»s to the other ado^ 
have their peculiar oanae] " SchteemnK^r." 

A coiuplete refonoi at pneent, aw&ita tbe wliolo of the Danube shipping; 
in fatit, it bait already Im^^uq. Tliu iiitiuductiou n( iieani-ve»c.'ls compeU 
all manner of iinnrov«nic4it. I (halt have occasinti, hereafter, tn mentiiin 
how even ibc omioary I'csaela for tbe navigation of Uie rirer bave boguo 
bJ be coiutnii^ted 011 a better pliui than formerly. 

The Daiiubu Ixintmon have a peculiar tcnaiuAJof^ for alt natural ap- 
patranccSi objt-'cts, aud accidoots. A calm u Uic wind't holiday [teiM- 
Jti^). Thi- ship if •* ffewappt," ihcy nay. when the vravM strike tllv sidei 
aad till it with water, if it bo too hvuvily laden, or when it if too stnaigly 
impctlcd by the *' Yodels." Hut a Ixvok >iii};ht bo tilled with tli(»c tiling 
iuiouj^h for the useful ; turu vc now to Uiu a^Teuable. 

Tlu; rain, wbldi, in tha boltomk'a!! di^ptbs of our despair, we had eipocted 
waa about to Bpoil our plea>ure entiit-ly, bad abrady eeaied. On tho 
viugs of riuam, wo were rapidly home tbroiigli ibo renoaoC miu, aud 
caiuc to n part wlierc all lookt^ cliivrful ii;^n. A bright sim descended 
on our dewy QtAAs of oloalif, and drouk up the luoisture ib&t rested on 
th«m and on tlie ringlets of the Udicj, Stoyeregg, tho caitle of eld 
Khuviirioger ; Lichteubere. the Mat of tliv Starlioniberga and 8clinllen> 
bci]g»; 'nUy^urg, the oM fortress bettow^d ou bis vetentn gi>iiera1. Tilly, 
by thii oin|Hrror Fnrdinaiid; and Spielberg, ilie seat of the kuights of Spiel- 
berg, and afterwards of the lonU of WL-iwciiwulf, wiLli uiuuy olhix beauti- 
ful castles and villBK««, were liwt to lu ; only tliui mucti tliu rain tiad 
allowed us to observe, that the uto of many of tliwo waa admirably 
adapted fftr pilln£|ia on the rivar. Spielberg, for Jnataace, hes, like a 
beaver -Tillage, b«liind the buHby uieauow* in tlie middle of the inlands, 
flk«e to tbe iotcrior harUiur of a " Ituiizo," and hud, by ineuis of it, two 
water-passages to tbo D.-uiube, so that niLtiy a eCratagem of t])o lanls of 
Upiclbvriif may luive been suggested by tho position. Tlie Rhine, which 
in thiit purtion of it flowing belwer^n Maihz nnil Bonn, is so often eiim- 
pared to tliis part of tha Danube, bus uethiiig of tliis wild liland-mcadow 


sceuery, Muiy ft^mire Uiv lUuce tlw nooie for thu want ; but, I mut 
COoTea*, tbeir praaencs leal aii additional ohsna to Uw Daunlx! iii my eyea. 
TllMe etttlea, ludden In the rteis — Umm idkiuk, to&ftut*il liv « eoliury 
fiahannui— these ui(I«Iy-ti>rea(iiiig nvor-Twnt, lowng thmattivei s w)iiJ« 
in tliv H-ililcmof, oiitl then a^a eniergiog, bright aail dear, rrom the 
voods, to uaile oooe more witli tlia great itnam (an ialand haj, tn iuel^ 
■onietfiiiiff poetical, ami U ou object that oan leKTCcly bo tvpeat«d too 
olWu) — in a wotif all tliLt rckcnicut motion, and tKo olmoet Riitediluviao 
event* n-cordt-d oftlic Dtuiul>c, oppoied to tbc ncJ] cultiTatlon, th« tiis- 
toricol BMociations, and tl)o ui<!ture«|ue vieva on iu banks, fonn n cnntrut 
wttnlly iraociii^ to tlie Rbiuo. Tlier« th« cultivation u mora' strikuv, 
ainioni tM> ntrilaiig ; on the Danubv, Naturv la wildor — many mil tm^ 
toa wild. 

St- P«ter'a, in Xha ueiuJoK-s, AbeUberg^, and Pulgara, vrere Icct to tu 
In- the rain. At the nwiUb of tt* Eus, on th« Iruiititu- line bvtwccn tlic two 
Areliduehifti, wliere the Une-weadicr racioii began, tli»t pictun?-gaUery 
fiiat biM'ftmo viiiEilo-, tn which the '* NauJinm" of (\w Diuiube reprucnttd 
tfaa oorridor, and the duck of tL» steamboat the rolling duur. 

Tlic firet pi«oc which presented Itself was Mautnanseo, opposite tlw 
ipouth of the Eui. Tlie pmec u extfemdy oU, and lie* cIom to th« shore, 
with ft ruinous, tower-lJM cuU« in iu vicinity. The antique hauMi 
ODwdod toother in a &w oarrow otivctHt gi«o lu double pleasure : firtt, 
•s afTo/diiiff [ueturesque objectfi, and tli«o on account of the plwuaiit m- 
fleclion, that we are not obligied to lire in them. Behind the town riao 
the bills cuntuinm» the odebratud stone-qiuimeoi from wKtcb a beautlAiI 
Itind of granite tuu Le^u luiig obtaia«d, thoqgb at thv cost of tnucli labour, 
for tlie u£e of the cftpital. An old Garman diureh (8l Niebolas'g) reais 
its head in tlie luidst, and 8 fl/iuff brid|f« iu tlte foivgrouod conre^-s pas- 
scngiTi in tliv old, tJOuklefOiDO fa^ioo, over the ouiinated ttnaiii 'Hi* 
boat stoppud just lung t-niHigh to catnh ihuse MUily CMtuma of lh» 
idiofet and to put a bv«uttful Ilvn^fwiaa »ount««<, oad her yiA fairer 
uglit^n into » boa-t, I had been lon£ rejoLnos in tl>c Fuiishiiie oFtbair 
Vpecl. wlii'Ti tlicy tiurubiid with tlie I'iew of Mauthauwn, whoae foregrouDd 
tbey so niuoh enilK-lliehrd. Tluiy were goin^ to pay a nsit of some day! 
at Thurheirti, a.i tliey infomipd nic. 

At tilt! mouth of the Eiiai, opponte >huittiausen. there is not much to be 
•ran, as the strcftm it,£clt' flawii tJirough a low furvland, its own fonnation, 
into tlio Danube, llut tlior« it the uiore bo bo thou^it about ; for, coasi- 
dcred Killier in an hiatoricnJ or frco^^rapliiod poiwl of rivw, it is certainly 
^e mnct important and iutereetiug ^ml l>etweoii Liiiz and Vienna. I ha4 
oiVii rcfli-ctcd mt the importauev of lhi« lu)3-ei»l>i>ucbur«, And »4ked my- 
•clf why thi- AuftrioDs bad mudc tlic-ii' UiMii tu lie oa eitlicr aide of tbe 
,£af, raiiiET tiian on eithiT udo of thv l>jkiiiiU'. With my inap of tlw 
2^uW country Wfore me, 1 pondered ou thv subject, and came to tUa 
con elm ion, 

Thv Danube, titis niiglity uavi^ltU rivex lias lie«ii the great dectlie 
conductor for all those nations whom tlie coarse of events brou^^Ut within 
ita territory, l^ey diuig to it as the aiuQ artery of tboir Ufe, mid spread 
tbanuelves from its shores on either itie. as their vniious relationi per* 
milted. Thui lliingary fnnnc«l ittolf on both sidei of tlu; Danube, so did 
Austria, Bavaria, and !>waliia, like peorJi on one tXnog. Abov« and b*- 
Imt the ttiesiD also, the vunous Iribea settled on its tr^utaries, the Iller, 


^ . ..: il;i:\-!i. tlic Drave, and Save. These rivcr3 

^..■.limaltv livthc Duniitw, into many portions; 

._> .vir k'lHiilaries, and (.'uclosed tlicir territory 

.■.M.iib^'d. Tliiia the lller scpamtcs the statva 

„ ^ '(If l.»vh, Slime of the Swabian nations fn)m 

i.^ivii Biivaria and tlic Areliduchy of Austria ; 

., .v(*tvti Austria and Uungiirj- ; tlie Dnive be- 

1^. .-..*; ih»' ■^'avc betwt'cn 8lavoiiia and Tiirkov. 

„,,. '.Ill' March, there is no considerable incision 

4 l''.-i;i'i mid the Eii.s. The Ens behig near the 

XM. wa--< [inrticularly adapted for a Eiibdivision, 

,, .iHirs*' i* exactly rectangular to the main stream 

v..',\ I ivii I '»'>'>■»' *''"* *''*' Romans recognised the iniport- 

.._*. '■ »*llev!<, *"d therefore iiartitioned their iVonrw;n 

V '.■ vtmi' sii'tions that are now called above and be- 

^ s 'i'.'iith of the Eiia they had their largest settlement 

,,^,1 l.miivaenm afterwanls Lorcli, where a Ic^on had 

" . , Wi\ liiiiitis his abode, and a fleet its harbour. After 

\ M- i:is ■■ti the site of Lorch, aro^c the present Ens, celc- 

\ s :(iii;;^'nli»'«l. and important on account of its commerce. 

^ -.t' Ik-iii;ii;iie extended at Brst only as for as the Ens ; end 

^, ~0l, he had resolved on his great campaign against the 

.vs-i'rtl '">' 'I'" hanks of this river, from which he drove them 

■, „ M ,tiii> «'•''"' '^''""^^ — theRaab. When the Hungarians first 

* ^ ' imU «■(' the Ihinnbe, in the reign of Arnulph the Child, the 

■■ '- ' .\^ ,!„. litiiit of their German kingdom. Tliat a toll was King 

"■ "^' ^\ .j,t,_„„,'ii, near the mouth of the Ens, as if entering a foreign 

"^ " H. .lui'iher result of the peculiar division of the land by the Ens. 

* . -i*!!"!* ll>"* rendered this place the centre of traffic, have also 

' "■ " ' ' '_ j„, iniiiiv utrnggles and battles that have been fought for the 

' ^ '" -t It. 'l'"' >'»'"*'' of tlie Ens has enough of such encounters to 

■III ihi* uniiilei'ruptcd hostilities of tlie Romans, to the last cam- 

' I'lii |iliw'> where even Napoleon saw cause to shudder at the hor- 

',.1 ;>.iifl'' It''!''- 

'.,. »iii\ tii'hN and islands which the Danube forms here, present a 

' '" . ,H.iv»-i'>n "f pictures in the Dutch style, producing most singular 

' ♦iii.'iiir lhi' griuid mountain-landscapes. A fisherman may be seen 

' "■ '. |,.tt Nhmv. ini>ii'd with the repair of a huge net, called in the lan- 

.'. ii (he Miniubc a " tauftel," an enormous drag-net, attached to the 

* Y Y ,1 (n>i> Mink in the river. Here you behold a water-mill in the 

\ ii' 11 viipid Htn-ani, with a low island overgrown with willows .ind 

*" ■'! * j.|„j,, |,v, si> little raised above the level of the water, that nomo of 

■ ^ li''" lift' wuNlwd by the rushing current. A miller is sitting on the 

' ' ..(' II li-nm iiiiiiecting over the water, busied in some repairs. There 

' !' ' V II little liarhom" for the shipment of wood. Now again, the broad 

*'i,'itni in \i-ibh'. Hard by is a Store of wood, felled in the great water- 

1 ■nl>iM«. Siiiiic people are engaged in loading a small vessel with this 

(iinlii'i- I'l'i- Vieima. Around, nothmg is to be seen hut water and solitary 

n,<i<ili'il nii'iidows. 

Anil "II 'l""'"' pietures have the advantage of being well preserved, tho 
.sihiin-t bright and fresh, the varnish incomparable. Even the beaver^ 


»hich have tlirir ilwdlin]^ hen, An tlieiu no injurjr, but, on the contnuy, 
(uld to the eGfoet. Tlmv ndiuterful uiimaLt ai« v«ry niniienius on tne 
xivcr bctw««B I^ns ia6 Vieniiii. It a fuifrnlur enough tliiit t]i« pmgnet 
of eiviHxation ahould not luvs acmd tbom •»»¥, and tlut Ihev Bnuuli] be 
mora nunKTOiM 1irt« tlmn in parts 90 much wilder of tlie middle LhiiuilM> ; 
they (u» oft^lv inireiji-rl, Iwth for iJieir skins niid tiwfir tc4tiflc«; stid the 
worth of tlie whoro bwncr, wlicn the lutttr an: good, ii osunisted at from 
6fky to sixty, and er«ii one hundrcJ fioiina. The Wateni build their 
davllinjjrn nio«lly on the " breaking shores" before nicntioDed, and thonco 
make cKcuruout into the ii-a(«r moadows, where, like the vrood-cutten^ 
they fell the trcos, c^-cially the aspens aiid poplnn. whmo vtood ia not too 
hiufl. and of which the thick, flcshv.lentlien'niid constitutes their favoiuite 
food. 'rho« beaver-houiea are dil^ouJt to find, as the animaU place the 
entrance ainrap undt^r Uik natcr, and burrow upwards, lunl thiii tipfttT part* 
wliich is properly tlieir dwelliiiCi is built with wood. a;id kept dry. Below, 
the door ana foro-t^ourt of tJieir hoiut are rovared with unter, into which 
they iiKuig« ou any aJarai. " One of th« mo^t ititcr^ating ocLuputioiu to 
Iw met with on tlie Danube, is to watdi tliete (-n.'alu[i>s at their nnrk," 
Euid a e«itlBin&n to me, who, as a sportsman and Invcr of natural history, 
had paid great attention to thfm, and kept some beavers ptitoners ou bis 
estate. " Tiiey are as comic \a tiic'iz (gestures as monkeva. and as nctiye and 
adroit at thnir work lu* persons who have not a iiiiimte to liwe. With 
thmr realty formidable teeth thry hew down the treM like skilftil wood- 
men, by a few well-directed iitrokc*, and cut tlicm into blocks. These 
blocks they carry like poodles to their dwellings, where tliey &x them iTith 
clay, which they lay on with tlieir tail«. They go splasbiiig through 
tbc water pusliing Uifi blocks of wood, jostling and thrusting one another 
aadc, us if tlii-y were working i^iunjt oiie another fi)r it wngtr. 1 Imvo 
never seen tlieni driring pilet with their tails n* conie persons assert, nor 
do 1 think so soft an instnimflnt adapted for such work. They are accus- 
tomed, however, to strike the sur&ca of the water with thvir tails, soine- 
tiine-s apjiaretitly out of mere s[)ort anil wantonnejn, but sontetjmes, probably, 
-M'lieti pursued by an enemy, it is done to cover their retreat under water 
by daihing the spray in tht face of the pujyuer. 'Thev are very difficult to 
catch. To dig tnem out like bndgers is inipaosible. from the coiislniction 
of their caves. I'o surjiri&e thein U no eo^ matter, on account of their 
quickucH and forvcigbt. They are generally caught in traps. As, unlike 
carnivorous aiiiimls, they find their food everywhere in noturc, tliese lraj:is 
cannot be eonstrueted nor baited on the usual prinnple : the moat delicate 
twig of poplar would be little attraction to thcro ; it is thcrcfere necessary 
to place n grenl iiuinlwr of Imps in their way, and to be yvry cautious in 
•o doing, OS tliey seeiit iron very readily. I once lud lifteaii traps in the 
mighbonrhood of a beaver village, and was fortunate enoug^i to nitch a 
cuuplt! iif thoughtUtM naiiderera fi-oin the straight iiatb. Tlic next night I 
was uiiiucceufut, and to for ten tui^ccMiircly. No dnuht tlie niiahiip of iheu- 
two comrades hod Ixicnnie known thronghoiit (he colony, and all ke^iC 
themselves within their houses. At last hunger or ennui drove iIm^i out 
once more, and on the clevoDlh night I caught another, evidently much 
rc<diieed by Guting. But that was the but ; the beaver« took my intrusion 
eo much ntnis*, that tliey ahandoa4Hl the colony, itov could I Uani where 
they hnd emigrated to ; — in that ociglibouHtood no bcuTcf bos ciace hecu 

114 TUB rrcnm&^iALLEKr betwebx iakz and ticmta. 

The finMt news oa llio Danube begiu abont six (Genaan) nule* beknr 
lint, It WbUmc : mbA tnilr, I beBm, tk Wait cntltunMtic pvnon in 
tittn weriil ntott bsw feh luinflolf enraptured U Uw >^t of go magnifi- 
pudtncnt < 

voiit>, pdacM, raniltojf vilbfM, inn^ Ininu, bermltaf^ duUuit mnuntAiu^ . 
toNcn, broul nUlryd, Mid oeeu ravliics, sleep precipices, fertile Difndaw% ' 
were the obfacts tliitt pniJuccd thew woDWfful cnecu, iuteMl ct fna«< j 
aMttt* of noM, bctnfi, «pangt&i, and bits of f^rasi. Kvery (trokc of Ok* j 
cUam-eueine wrought a new and yet tnon- bcAutifol dmngr, aa if a iua|;i' ^ 
o&u bad neld the rtiin^ and pullrd them alwa^a at the prrciw moinenl. j 
Somatiniea mount aiiu hemmed tu in on all oAea, and wa MCined cain«4< 
over mnc nwantaiD lake ; anotltrr Utm, and w« ihot aa it wen thnogifrl 
a lonjf rhaiit of lake*. The ■teamor nwltca on as if thrrr wnr no radt'| 
diing aa a rook to be feered anMiud. To a rartaiutv «e ahull etrilce apen ' 
tbftt at tb« GonMT? — uo— a atrong pretsurC from uie liaud of thr c.xp<f 
liciiCfd Iicimsman and wn double tbe rock) a oev oputiia^ ia rvvralcd, wnA ; 
iww K-oiidvn displaj't'd fur and near. In niich Kudarai tiirni of the 
ofini vxMiitod ill a lialf cmle of T«nr diort radios, w» obtain throi^^ ' 
BoUs and njcguig aitd the twelra cabin windows, a ciueaJe «f rieira i 
image*, if f may uae Uw espn^«»iiin, in wh'u-ii all indiridualitj h tort, anA^ 
tliS affietof tiia wbola upon tho mtnd t* yirriVclIv ititnxi<<ati>if^. ApuntCV^ 
of any aufMptibili^ nusti 1 Ihiuli, sonirtimfs stmt hi* c-yc^-, that ho may 
not low all aelf-oonimand, and leap over the fii<le of the vcsmI. 

TlwViikailic iHinvn, wliioh, ui lliit times of Olini, piemed and rplorrarJ 
tba autCam of our cortli, ahot acroM in tho nioi:;hbattrl)ood of Groin fio« 
tlie tiorth, and tfarew up a dajii front tlie UobrmiaD forest to the A}p^« 
wltieh fomted a powerful obalacic in llw waves flowin)^ from the weit. 
At till* dam tho wavea liMig flawed, till at but they made their war 
thniugti. 1'be hike, which hod formed above the dam, flowed otcTi am 
the l>Hiiitbe linnit thrnugli tlie narrow past to a wider field beyond. Hera 
aitd there, by tix aitle uf the cleft, fra^iM-ntx of mck lind femained in uA 
under tho wator, a«d ao was formed tho celcbrotvd whirlpool ealled tlw 
" Strum of Grein." 

Grrinen in Austrian German nraanii much tltQ Eame as wtimm (rryiiag), 
Bud Crtnufnira (or tha eaatlu of tear*, ) Iim cIom by the entFanc* of u*i 
wbiil[>ool, and bean this trafpcal name, in the midst of one of tJie kmjieit' 
pro'pi-ct-i thut vTown the iSuiube. The river ttAreU the featnrM of ^bm 
fair caaLleuid town in friendly j^reetiiif^ liclore it dashes ita watere tinged 
with the melancholy hue of the piuc fiircsls, over tho rock of the '* Strom." 
Thii occur* at laat by (he litllc L^land Wor^i. lying like a fallen ooluraa ' 
of tlie oUl dam in tlie gate of tli« wliirl|>aol. Frcni Uiut raliimn Inw iwugM 
of rock croea the rirer diagonally at both aidca, and join the hijRrh angdar 
rocks of the ahore. Some are already to worn away that ther are now 
nniler water, while otlien ttaitd pointed and jngf^ above. Tlie former 
an< called •' KtigrlH' tlio latter " Koektlt," or " Gthachei.'' The mosi 
of waters which pastes to tbe snutli of tlie ielct Worth, is called the on- 
ttmncu: that which passea to the north !( divided by two lines of cliff into 
IIm- •' Wild cli'ft," the " Wild wntt-r," and the whirlpool properly so called, 
mid tkrou^b tlua the emperor Joseph, b)' the labour id thirtccu ytnetf 


ntoceeded in Km&vii^ the mort tUuig«roiu obetRudoiu, and forming tho 

main pMtage. 

FtWtlT tll« I 

nitlie* : 


! Dtntibe 

U hcArd fmin sfar— then it idunges into the " GefwrAtf," wh«r>o it surge* 
]r«t mora impetuously, aod sDootd along vrtth a, ntfiiditj- btfittiui; Nqituue's 
team of ii«fli<tnieii. Our raj^ne wm jilackeneil ; fur uiv [uirt, I would 
villiugly hnri< lain at nnt^horhuvftwiiilu loi^iijny lh(> niafntitti'i>»t Kpt^rtMl*. 

Th« rock of thv uJct Worth ia hii^KlT pivturv^quc, it lias cvvenj faeev, 
and at the hue, itt the ytry extremity tu toe itlana, ]ies the old excresceaoe 
nf a cantle. (hi tho summit of the rock, u hug;c ctom rean iteelf^ finn at 
&ith ill l)i« midrt of th« «<>rmi of lif#, cUnf^tif; fut tn thn mck. ^cvcraJ 
images nf uiiita arc niched nbout the rock, some ndanjcd with tlie votive 
oRvnngs of pnaaiog boatrncR. C9on to the entrance of the whirlpool, 
httle bonis raw aloiifpiidt' tho Urger veateb, witli pictuTM of uuntA, wludi 
tber o6Eer for lalc nc amulets, but our reprobate atcauvr sliot put tlium 
viih the npred of au arrow, and iircvciilcd tJic |>oor poop]c Iroia ler^iu^ s 
sniall tribute upon tlic luetj or fear of the peMengprs. 

Ovfmit t)iv roclu of Worth auother ataat *lio<ito boldly into the wateTt 
beaniig on ita ftcnt brow tJio ruini of the old auHv nf WerJviutcui. Here 
it ■• nid, Roman dost mtnglM with the Gfrmian of lli« middle Rj^eK. TIm 
dfewhere brond DanuW i« h«re pres^ within such narrow litnttd, liukt a 
bold Tell niij^lit nltnit-it htipi! by a daring leofi to T«u:h Worth. 

Th« rocks '>f NVrrfcrxU^in jtiiu thr atitxig walls and abrupt preoipic^R, of 
whi«h thev aiv oiilv n tiiinll part, fnmiitif; a dark piaui of about hidf n nitln. 
In the midat of tins Tiatcry ravine, which must not he supposed to lie tw 
narrow, the stream doabee along with uncoiitrotled violrncc. Komo of 
these roek* have particular naioea, aa the " bouse stone," the " hare's ear," 
&C-, and olh«n u« erowaod with Tuioi, among others ^th those of the 
rnntlea of Stniden and Sarmin^tcin. For above tho rrom of tliv rock of 
'^Vl)^h, towers tlie chunji of St. Nicholas. tli« {mtron saint of the eailora. 
At the foot of this church, in the market town of the same Dame, is a. 
IWa i i i tal Eoiinded in tlic yrur 1 144, for the relief of miGtcras, of whom the 
Vlld waters llicn fiimished, probably a grvatcr number than in thcw days. 

The beniitiful and roinantio, the singular, thp picturB8aui>, aiid th« in- 
eomparalilc ia this port nf tlie Danube, are eo abundant, that it ia almoet 
aa difficult to te«r onewlf from the devcriptioii a^i from tlie ooii temptation, 
dMmg-h wo are apt to rvgrct at>«rward«, tiio nimiy itanit tliat havit Ituea 
•Met tu a vain ende«Tour to giiv aii idea of the iceuc. A liitio l»>low 
WeTTetiMviii, tht- rfwMJ Struck against a rock ; 1 know not whether from 
a cbuigo in tlte direction of th« Dum«ioiM currents in the " Strudel,"* or 
frnm purs awkvrardncM or careletamM of tJio aUertmaD, or unroaaage- 
aUeoeea of tlie \-es9el ; I tlioi^ht at first, whtn I saw the bowvpril od- 
vmacing nearer and nearer, tlial it was done in the most perfect security 
•ad boldiMM of dftsign, and obcervod to an Eiigliidinian who was stauding 
near me, " Sec bow Httlo danfrer the once so formidable Strudel has fur 
our sidIM and experienced nariKBtors, and with what precUion (liey steer 
in the very face of tlie roek." Scarcdy were the words out of my uKiutli, 
when lb* tosscI struck af>ainft that wr)- rock, and a regular panic sbowod 
itH-lf in the white faces and bloo lips of tlic nunitiroua passengen. The 

* Tti.ii Kiirh cliauirc-i laki- iihn'. U ix^oiid a dutibt; at ctery risin; of the tidtv 
thor&icrabavGadilTcn'iit moliuiiun tlic laatuK. 



• ■:>vx 

- -■: : • 

- ■ ■ " - --'.iiz :be 

.... ---.-Trtl 

■ -r---tts 
~- ■ -■: ;r.# 

. ... -■ ■.-■*..■':. a::i :.::-,^ ..jj- 
■ -: 'vnthiL-. "Sttfi.iii-n 
, ^. . • ^ ■ ^' tirsi fri;-lit was over. 

. ■ ■• t ; o'lipU'. iu the hurry 

. ■ ■. ■."iiii'jt j.air. moi-o iTJib- 

. ■." '.?■■-■-"■ ;"ir*ui' iheirwlJrliiig 

, . , ' 1 ' 1 -■■ '.-'Ukw.-.rili ihn->;i^h the 

, . . ■ •■'■'■-->■:-.!'-■■-■.;.-(:: tho ridaer 

• - ■ ■■..' ' ■■■'■. -w i: r. ■!?;!:!;:■ had 

.... ^ ■ ■■.• i—- -v-T F»nii:..;::j, fj 

.- ■- "' - ■ ^' :i'"'-' (. ;;a7.tvi-.-t^)e 

... ■. ., •■■•--■ U- ■ '.iv: :--:^T:.i:vis:V 

■- . ■".*-■■: ;::■> >hr- 

.. . >. .,-. ■ ■ - --r.;:!;. _rA 

■ , ■■ ■ -■-_., .■..i,-----'. 

■. . ■ ;■■;«: C ' s - ^:. -•.- '■■-.-.. ■■.. ...-■.'■:.- -^ 

. , ;, ,•' ;:io •:'.::■:■: ji;, -..:-:.,■. : --^-i 
.. ■..- :■ ■: .-wLiv::^— a;. :,.v !::r j--.! 
„ .,.■ \ .-: i;,> ■ ..\T--i''.':- :...:. i";".;^ L. ;-.^v 

■ • I: ,•■;.' «:u .; .•.. -'..t. ' : ''..: ;:■..: ^,^ 
. . ; v.- -i'-'AK::-. -V ..;; :. ■ : - -' .- 

,,■ i.iMi'i;' ■iii>: li'.'ii.j-i ,.; ;;^> 1- ■:■,.;■ -:;v ;',r* 


RXM t)>e RtMiner. It follows, Uteri, that it would be better to ^ive up 
(iMcription of Auy kintl, md iMve off mftkinft books unA to it would ; vtcn 
it not tlutt ihr rejulcr bu his own (iiDcics rspcricnccj, ivi-allcclioiLs nod 
w»li» with wliich he supplies all onusions. If the «mlior tjn-aki of a 
CAstIc cTowniuf; the braw ot & rock, ho ia not ntisfied, becHuw; he compare! 
the oiPB^TVuns of llw uxprcsftion with tlie tiiuif^ that a»Miiorr hriiiga bif 
fore hn eyt ; but the reader doea utit hi.T'd it; ut H^ese nords he builds s 
outle for himself, and, nerhap*, a much tinvr one than th(^ rvnlity- And 
it U tb« laiiu! ihin^ with a picture of an u^i^ieonble eiix-U or Txirty, ch« 
reiu)«T feels all that thp aiitlior jn^s or does not mi)', and recilWtioii* or 
nislics «tip|ily i)iv wanUi of Uie twit. 

\V« «at in tlw glem of our imtirin^ ttcnmer, nnd s?aW paused th« ^Uss 
of social coavenc. Lomlon, Paria, and Vienna, had each its deputies in 
our eircle ; but Yieiina, niid 1 thanked lieavcit tlberefore, had tlie gmMtt 
nutnbcr. Th« lirft dcputj iras n youtii^ actn-u, one of th« tnort ditlia- 
pu^lied of tliL- Bur^ theatre. She was ix-tuniiDf;- fn^uk a ptofesioafU tnur, 
and related, with much talent and Tivacitj'. some of her exj>erienee of life 
both before awd behind the curtain. In her joy at Siidiuji^ horwlf one* 
more in her fiur Aurtno, ihc ticyn fftilnl to com-ct my false pronundatioa 
(according to Auslrian rules) of the unmet of the various places vro passed, 
*' Not Miu-bnch, Moaba i ^ tli« name of that pretty tillage we hm e jiut 
paaed ; you must not say Neottadt, but Xeistadcl, aud when you widi 
me joy o» being at home again, jou ahould not pmnouucc the word Ad- 
Moth, we rail it koamat." A* the mhi miia then xhiiiin^ vi>nf brightly, I 
off«ir«d h«r my Austrian lamprtlf, or timliTvIln, and asLrd lier if cite could 
protect beraelf with that, using the Auatiian word protekitrn. This sb« 
found (]uite "delizint," and laughed excessively. " fkUzios" is a vei; 
(aTourite word uith tlie Auitrianii j and whero we lay I laughed (dti (aehia 
ich), they »ay tin Inn ich lac fiend pcwordcn. lliu lost exprotwuii plcotqi 
niu estrcmclv, niid is, ecrtainly. with luany other Austrian phrases <^ tvhe 
of tlw middle a^^ 1 have no inaiiiier of doubt that Gotx Von Uer- 
licJiingea and hu comrade* expre^aed tbemselres just *o — " Ich bin taekead 

Next to ^liss Be — , I bad almost betrayed Iter iiuirie— sat a fair na- 
tive of Vienna, with her husband and a chamiiiic: little daughter. She wna 
jetumin^ fmni Ititly, whttre hur hunbiiiiil liiul tilled duuiv fxiat iti the Aus- 
lrian senrice. Wa naturally siioke n great deid ot Uic fair land ■' whrru 
the orsnge-trem Hoom," and the yomip mother expn'icsrd Imrylf on tho 
•objoct with sreat animalioii. I fuund her, to my erent iMttinishio*iit, by 
DO means inclined to d» justice Lo tlie beautiful »hc>re!i of ilie Danube. In 
lihe Lini tbcatro ghe had ynwned over a ftnv imrtrayin^ fonio of the local 
[abturditic* of Vienna, and which bad made irn- laugh till I crieil again. 
She thou^fht it " all ejccssivciv tiiviul ; euch tiling so (idl of c<iuivo(.|Uv, 
ttooffeusive to all morality, woiJd never have been pennilteJ in Itjy, 
Lvhere in this reapivt, m iti many othi'W, people were iiicompiirably mora 
delicate than in Uermoiiy." llcr liosbtuid was more rvvrrwd in his praiw 
and blame than hts pretty wife. The little girl, n child al)uut four yuan 
.old, was a perfect Italinn. Sbe spoke not a word of Gentian, Init danced 
"ily about the deck, bc«au»c >he should «x»u be "in row nostra." Her 
lier mid tlukt sho undentood Gennaii perfectly nvll, Init woidd n«i-er 
k, and had a dmdeil aiertiion to iL 1 bo^^i hereupon in silence to 
'^•^ myself, whether Austriana^-eres public oCEwn, who remainod a long 


time in Italy — all rvttirn«t1 sucit bod patriotx ? Did evan thit lietutiFn 
Austria look sad afu.>r Italy ? Would th* many aiiil much vsuntod onjoy-^ 
nieuu it olTeradi be l<Mk«d on aa trilling and insisnificaat ? And u it 
peculiar to Qemiati iwuaaaliiy la exchange 80 li;s:^lJ)' the mother-toiigue 
fbr thv mnro iMtu^riil lulimo t <" do Itmlian childnfii, brought up in 
Anatm, imbib* * nmikr profcmice for Gcnaan, and ditinclinstioa tw 


A tiresome Vmdds dandy, wlio Mt •onwn'lurt aside from nt, mii^lad 
iK>w and Own in the ronvcraation, but kept, for the most part, at sntno 
diittaortr, and whiipcrvd to an elderly lady 9»iuclliiti^ myrtcrioiu abonfe 
CouDtan Tliirrc«i, or tlie Princess Anna, or IIh* BaroncM Sopbla. and 
aiade miudi tneaLioii of the IJohtonstein, the StarlwmbFTg. th« Kiirstea- 
ftld, mA other neh universally-lniown pcraom, who, at^conlin;^ to cho 
Vienna gjammar, are U> !>« namnl with tlie dpiinitt; article. (TUaU un 
eommera^ ennaltli pnr /« gmnJs u«ms yii'oii prawm^it. 

AmMi^ the English there was a oouiur, wli» had come froTn Eopland 
to Lins iu bis days. I]« kept looking^ at a book front wbivh a friend was 
deuiliiifr the reinarlcahle <jhjMt4 to he seen on the thorea of the Danube ; 
and ihi'y both mod as diligently ax tf all tboe interatiiip; platmt had iMma 
» h»nJn>d miles off, inctead of lyinff right under thoir no«es. 

We had also an board a Mster and a ttorict; of the ucnly-cetahUafiod 
order of the " German Sifters." Thii order was once uuitetl uitJi tliat oC 
tlin ** Gemuin Brothem" in the eaM, for the tcadinff of itck kiii^hta, bufe 
did not ioog remain then. Lately, in our ovrn time, when tliv Gothio 
atyle of arcnitcctnre came into fashion Of^n, these anliquitic-s wrs aliO 
peviTed. 1'bev looked rinj^ilar ciiougli. in their twelfth ccniur}' coattun% 
amonc (Lvse V iviuui and Pariaiaa toitcta- What 1 thought mo«t i£m* 
gr— able in the brood Bunlifftit was, lliat their course white linen wu not 
only badly washed, but horribly marked by iho tUes into tlie barj^atl). 
They told me that on the i6tJi of July in the pivwnt year, their firtt 
hottpital iu Boieo had been erected, after tlie pufie'ii ncnnistiian had been 
obtuu«<d ID the preceding May. They wore now on ilioirway to eataUUh 
anotlier in Brunn, nnd to rceoive some noi« xlsters, for irhich iiiirpi^se they 
muiplicabed the assistance of Sb Viuceiitius, the patroii-iniuL of tl)l^ir order. 
The eUcr one told me she lud removeil to thin order from tiiat of the Grey 
Sislen, of wham more were to ho admitted, thai the new order m^ht 
profit by th<^r expeiieoee in the eare of the sick. 

In tmth. no manuiiotli's tooth lies eo deeply horied la the dust of Bgei^ 
but our curious, prying age will fvrret it nut— no mummy lies liidilea m 
ebwely in the depth* <^ the ]>yramid, but our aU-seeking cariosi^ will di^ 
it ini-y daylight— no nua is so snugly corored with the inautle of ancient 
and modem timea, hut she will be dialed from oblirion* have new life 
infused into her veint, and bo sent forth a wanderer among the ehildrea of 
thi* j>reM'iit day. If it wore possiUo to give life to t)ie Egyptian mtuB' 
mien, wc slioutd see them among us again. 

I was just about to leave the front deck, wheu, among tlto crowd, I 
obsened two binek figurte, who suggested to mc for the moment, that 
ny last notion rc^wvtiu^ the mummies wns already in the course of fulfil- 
ment. On inquiry, t learnt they were workmen &om the celebrated 
iJumbago minei near Alarboeb, a tittle pidureMjne village we Itad just 
left betund us. Ibcse mines hnre been worked from Trr>- ancient tintes ; 
but of late they Emva aoquind new importance. The Engliili hare liiuiul 


that thit {dtimlHigQ u well adantcl tn fill titdr UaA-peneWs. wm) ibvy tiavfi, of 
Ule, tmport«<) it in f)lcrahlj' Urj^(|UAnlitit.-^ Lnst. v«ar twA Uiotuuiilhun- 
drcd- weight were tent to >]iig;taii(). Sinrr iliwi the jwople of Vienna hare bc- 
Mownd BUttle Rion; tttviitioii on lite nvi»o^ nnditanw new ones hivn hetm 
opmed within the la*! two yenn. A cnmnmr hu been fermcd in \^i>nn« 
for tlie exportation of tKia artide. in which toe Rothsckitib bad a tharc ; 
and ire had a youn^ S&xoa pn>resK>r on board, who hod riaitml the itunca 
by the inritatiun oTtbaw gentlfitnon. It u roinarlcable ibnt the AtKtiiatis 
do not latlirr DMiltc the cwncil* thenuelvct; but tlw English undontand 
thcLie things bottrr, and lure bettor wood for thr purpow. 'I'lipy gvt tlw 
material pulrprixed from Austria, carefully cransoUdate and enclnm it !□ 
cedar-wood, luid then «u]>ply oJl tlie artiats in the irorld. Th*ir own minM 
become daily poorer, while those of Anstna incnsaatit ft! the rich material, 
with which natnra h&f nbuitdaiiUy sopplii^d tliem, becomea lietter known. 
Whilut the 8nxon nrofwscr was oblicinply exjilaintng nil ihU to iw, lh« 
younL' Giiniuui Itiilinn took out hur r^nglifih blacklead- pencil and garu it 
ne, that it mig'ht write lU own hixtory in my note-booh. 

The ammgemcQts on board the Aoftrian iiteamon ore apparently as 
good u those of the Rhine. To judge of the whole of a rcMel, requirei 
s loitt' aajoaintance, as it <1oes to become well acquainted with a man { 
bat the cnbina, &c^ lofk uetinng to be dcaircd. Thei'e were iqiarato nnei 
■ppnpriatod to the nuofcer*, and abundant a«commoda(ion for die ladies. 
Toe busineos of the en^neer, who had his own office, as the captain had, 
wa« promptly exeeuted. and there "was less trouhlo with rexjwcl to tlte 
baggage tlian in the RMne rtearaer). Any erne might ulco oat, or put 
tDi an it plvaitrd liim ; a ticket being given, aiuwi-riuK to thfkt on the 
package. Neither was there any fanlc to bu fnuiid nitJi the fare. It la 
tnu>, tliat our menk w(>n> bo well seasooed by agrecabh) aoeie^', that >oni« 
fiiultD in the cooltery mif^'ht well l»ve beeii torgiveo. 

The lileraliire nf tlw Danube may now compare itself with that of tin 
Rhine. I do not mean in tbo laigir neien^fk wnrkx, or tbo«« beloiigb|f 
t« the Mftv-toVnv, but the local information, wh»cI^ at ovety place, in 
riegant little pamphletai offi^ tli« necexury informatioQ to tlie tnretlcr. 
Th« eogranngt and maps are not inferior to tlte lelter-pifM. Tlir whole 
«oiUM of the Danube ia lo ftdly ami Kitijcfn«torily giren, that it may havq 
nggested to many the oxpedteiicy of sparing themselves the cost of the 
MfaM] jonruey altogetlier. 

The Milon were German*, Tenctian*, and DalmBtlaiii. Many of tli« 
COmsumdert of the Danube steameta arc Itnliant. Then i> a great deal 
of oourtefy shown by these Tcaaeb. When they meet, a aolute is always 
fired, while the buiy JUiine rteamttm paaa each other without notioe : indeed, 
there arc to many of tbcae that there would l>e no end of the cnnnonading', 
if tliey olwcnrod tho same prBctice. I noting, ai»\ tliat the ordinary 
boatmen always took off their hats to each other. The Danube millcra 
•lone, whoM ouge mills adrance far into the strMm, cIom^ to the channel. 
Eve oa •oanewbat boatile terras with the wntennt-n. The hoatmcn are angiy 
that the mills Munetimea niumw their chainicl, and the millcn maintaiQ 
that " God did not make the Danube for the bnntmen alone," and assert 
that, in •tnrms, thotr niilh are often injured. Whenever we pawed one of 
theae milln, wliich the largs vavm we rsued wouM set in motion, wc Treie 
£r«et«d with a jest or a grtmaca. 


or Givftt PfWihUrii 1 liad only a punng glance through tli* etlxn- 
window, u Iioec topourout ftglMiof wiiiefbrMaileruo!MU«B. DoubdMS 
Biibop Baturicb, o( KaxinUya, c\iiiiiintil it ii IUiIk iii»Te»ttentJ'>cly wben ha 
rcceirccl thp ploCR oi a present tram Louis Lh«Gfriiiun, iiitlwjearS.1l. In 
tpiU) of ita \ugli Kouiidiuj^ ajipellation, lh« pldce has i>nlv forty-firft honscs ; 
DCTcrllivluM it ualU itwtlf a luwii, uiid ao old a oae, that it recbotu almott H 
nwny conturin wit )ia« dw«11iug«. IFiidnrdLpnanieof Arelane, t)>c place 
wna Iinami U* tliu Rncntuiv, and in (liv Nibrhttigrfilivd it it cnlloa liet-hclaivn. 
Thane little paluy tawiis uu the Danube play a nxor« iniuortnut port at tlie 
court of ihc River God, aud vaunt of naiiif* mun; widely spread than the 
most important towtit in Oolicinia, whit^li ai« like }^-itt i^piiita And nu>ii of 
uiark I'Mt i" tiut yaoyiaemt. Kvco the villagw nn tin? Danube consider 
liu^tii^lvei arisCocnklic, and in fact ant so. Little I'tichlani, eitiialctl over 
agniuni Great POchlarn. disputei with the latter ita claim to the Rotnaa 
DAm« of .\rc-Upc, and to tlws epitlict praeclura bestowed on one of thmn 
by tlio sunc peoplv. 

At *vM-y liea]th we drank at our table d'hote we nuliiid hy on* or otlier 
Drthe>>e old Danube cajtU-d ; first, pa^tle Weit«necli, then ca«ttr UiI)crG(!lc, 
aud at Ia»t »oiue oae cried out, " therv ii Mulk, ^lulk, th« Bn««t al^lw^V in 
all tW Uuiy Rinnan roniiw," and we nil nuhod up the caLin-staira to look 
St it. 

The heautiful tithvy of Slolk, or n^wr, to ipoak mor« correctly, the 
magiiiSceiit palace and cailicdml of tliiii stately old episcopal ecali sita 
proudly «!ntlin)iHtl U[M>tL lU ^rauitn foiindiitioii, the luLrcnie prumontory of 
an arm of tho .\lpi, wlio*r pictarotquo eid^ dcclioA towardM the L>aQube. 
Oa every side of the hill, a rivi-r pours iw water into a niig^bly »l«aiu ; 
on the one the Molk. on tlie otJier the BUach, and tlieir nalleys lie iti mea- 
dow- and arable land at thi.' foot of tint Innlly nbboy. 1 did not eco tliv iu« 
t«rior. My intention wn» to have remained hen- one Jay, and to pursno my 
jownicy in the xtcamboat tlic day folIoHing. Biit when we h.ivi- projiowd 
to ourwlvcs to see tfie whcle, even so splendid au indlTidunt objiLXTt ii* Molk 
ranisho^liko a point in the bewildering enjoyment. And then, hone*tly 
E|)uaking, I fcU luiwiliin;^ In lea>e an agreeable viri^le in the eteomeTt 
which 1 might not haie niet with nnciihor day. Tn short, I Allowed the 
abbey to pass by, and retimini'd willt ilu: ^axin|tr majority, itkIciuI of join- 
ing the minority, uoiuisiiu;; of a Bcucdictine canon, and a younj^ pcuMutt 
vno got into & boat and left us here. 

1 ttiotig'lit at first to earn gival praiw fnmi my fair tnvvellin;^ compa- 
niona, wIiOji I told llu-m that I had rciuaJned on boai-d for tiu- pkii»ure ot 
dinr company. Quitf tliu contrary. I heard uathiRg but rcpnuichea. 
"Thvrawasa Uttl* laxlnetis iu the ctue," laid they; "people like to sit 
still after dinner, and it ta pleaaantcr to rcmmn quietly here than to scram- 
hle up and down hills and HCequ." 1 hid ray embnrrassineigt behind the 
jnendly trhmd of my cig;Lr, but my reprover coatiiiued, " How, sir. yoii, an 
sntliukiust for hiitoricjil rcuoUections, can puiui the nicut remarkablo point 
OD ti« whol* Danube with »o much indiUcrcnce, to drink coAcl- auJ siiiokc 
dgars! tl»s famous Namare of the Romans, tlnit miglity ^Tellitiuni, the 
chief seat of the jiowerful Ilungamn priuee Gpi«a, tlie original n-uitli.'nce 
of the renowned lUbenbcrg nilcn, and where still the moiiumeuts of thc^C 
Ulnsttious lords arc to be scon ! the birthplace of Leopold, the patron 
iftint of Austria?" " I esteem all these reeoUevtiona, niueli," said 1, " but 


ESSX. 121 

I can itidol^ them at Inut a.t Kf^nrvably ia j'oiir society M in tbnt of tbe 
wvetviid ciuKiii tlm«; and aCtar alt, tlie living bre&tlung world is beyond 
uty otiwr in aiy «atimAtion." 

" Anil vrlint tlicrii U your mi^ity ^iii in this bmtthu^ vnM? A feiv 
silly. wliJU'-flicrd, K""''!''"!? womw. ili:it i* ftH." »a«il the Amtrinii. " And 
now list*!! to mt, I will irnd in you from my Gtiido wlint yoa hnve Irtst. 
In tlie lint jiLu-i-. a luajniificvi^t cburvli Irvusurr. witli the coctlicst veat- 
mviitM. Biiil H I'lulice iiixdc of gpM found iit t)i« sands af tlie DaiiulM>." 

"Ay, my rti-tu- itvulain, these ii|)l«mlnurs at least I cuiinnt Ngict ; I 
-would much lathcr ailmirv the vniamcnta you nrc now wcnrin^ on your 
neck and fingen, than ail the jewels nkbot ever norc; and tliis fiiU glass 
ia inaro to my taste tlian the «mi>tv chalice of Danube goW 

"F>nlh«r;Ml» pictures of all the Aimrian nilers, painted by (irabner, 
nod many rsccllcnt oil nnd frcMO potntiiic;* by tjcan^oni, Lticns of Leyden, 
Schiiiiiagcl Quprfiut, and a crowd of tiiikiionu nmstors, who, na L-Tery body 
knows, hare many more eharms than tho linoim ir>n«s." 

" 1 have told you nlreotly tlii.i morning, llmt I hnve here ik picture-gal- 
lefytlmt inlnvst^i mn far more tliaa all lliat Lurnit of Ijej-dvn, ur Scliln- 
aagol of PtJditarn vvvr paiiitod." 

" Th«D tiw collectiona of coins, of natural historj-, tlie im[>enal cliam 
hers, and many other fine stranfrera' npaitmenta, in one of which, uo doubt, 
you inij^t havf! lodf^ younel£ Whnt do you say to thai?" 

" Am for tho ehambcr^ I have only to say, that they ore Kmily atlach«d 
to the rock. A stationary impctioJ diombcr will not so easily nliure me 
from a nionn^ oue." 

" And last of all, listen now. A splendid libmry of twenty thousand 
ToluiiUM : and busidea tb«M, wventeeii butidrvd rare titan ^scripts ajid incu- 
u&butw: Now, «ir, do noc llif-se twenty thouKond volutnet fiill like twenty 
Uinuutnd hnlKcattnilgi'ti, nnd these incuualiil» IJka to many boDiba on 
your Jtliunbcriog coneci«ice?" 

" A most ener^tic attack indeed ! But, unfortunately, I must confeas, 
I have wandered unmoved through libraries that could reclcim liuiidreda of 
thoujandi. Give me but the short qiiintMwneie of all tlwK bnoki in v^nr 
society, and I will leave the seventeen hundred incuoabubc of Jdolk williuut 
renorse, to sluuiber in their duMy cradlea." 

The rcoitcT will, at all evenU, ha*e gathered Irom this conversation— 
and it WHS wjxirtcd with that view^hi»w wtll n vi»it to tlie Abbey of Molk 
would Ik: rewanl«.-d, and he will thi; sooner make it himself, if he do not 
]ia|>pt>ii to come u[>oii it, as 1 did, white on a rapid journev to Ilniifpin-. 

Ut^ltiw yioWi lie the ruins of Durrcnitetn, of all the castles of the Ilanuhe 
the iiifut fajiHHl in son^. !>hnTtlv before it reaches this jtoiut, tlio river 
makes a Middeti Itend, and a titilu further on, another, lo tluiL tJie castlti 
pTMonta itaclf suddenly tlvonod on tli« frowning rock, and as it ia elosed 
in behind o^un by rugged mountain walls, it looks isolated in its rocky 
deMTt, although itandSng on the bank of the land-uniting stream. King 
JRichard may nave fufTt'ivd nil th« niore dtuing his imprisonment here, for, 
if hij apartment lay on tbo eastern lida, aluiouKh he niif^bt enjoy sork 
distant view, it was a view into tbe heart of AusLrin, vrhivh he inual hare 
detested, whereas, on the ud« towaida England, whither bis longbg wisbei 
must hare tended mfut, tli<: prospect is most liniiied. 

1 sliould like to know more precisely what wvrc the empJoymcnta of tho 
fion-bearled king in this stem rocky nest ; how far lie was at liberty to go, 


who spoke with him, &n«l whether he leamt some words of Aostmn Ger- 
Dwn? Without historical record I can easily belieTe the noble warrior to 
liBve been kind and gracious to hb attendants, the servants of Hadmar dra 
Khueoringer, and that in the moming when they brought him — not his 
cofiee — but hia porridge, perhaps he would have answered their greeting 
with a " Gruts di Gott SeppC 

It ia a pity, however, that we cannot be sure of these things, and bow 
thoughtless it was of Blondel not to keep a journal ; no doubt his royal 
friend gave him an exact account of all that had happened when he was 
once more at hberty. What a precious, what an inestimable book would 
be " Blondel's Memoirs of the Fifteen Months' Imprisonment of Kine 
Richard Cccur de Lion." How seldom it has happened that such a rovM 
prey, a lion, bom for the most unbounded freedom, has fallen into such a 
trnp. And how widely difiFiued is the story of this captivity, how for 
nearly seven hundred years it has been related and re-re)ated by all 
European and American grandfathers to all European and American 
children! And yet, in how few words the whole tradition is contuned ! 
How much remains to be filled up by every narrator, according to his own 
fashion ! Every one has his own image of Arehduke Leopold, the conning 
wolf, of the valiant, unsuspicious Richard, the sufTering lion, and the gentle, 
timefu) Blonde?, his futhful friend! The tradition, like every thing really 
beautiful, is so fine and touching in all its parts, that in defiance of tha 
scanty data, it will remain as long as the rocks remain that echo it. As 
yet the story is in a measure new, and all the travellers thronged to the 
side of the steamboat to look at the ruins of castle Durrenstein, as if it 
related to some occurrence of recent date. The loophole, behind which 
the king was said to have sat, was sought iat with glasses, and the broken 
column and wall of the knightly hall, where the hero n-olked with Khnen- 
ringer, and the ftngmeats of punting in the ruined chapel, the cellars 
and the vaults. The castle will not last much longer; a couple of centuries 
at the most. Fragments of the wall will then be sought for on the moun- 
tain side, and the morsels will be enveloped in paper, on which may be 
inscribed, "a stone from the former castle of Durrenstein, where King 
Richard the Lion Heart was imprisoned," &c. And then the stone may 
vanish, and some thousands of years afterwards, perhaps, the vacant plaro 
may be pointed out, and strange tongues may speak of an un authenticated 
story of some imprisoned king, in whom fewer and fewer persons are in- 
terested ; until at last the lion-hearted king will be confounded with a real 
lion, and the story may run thus : — " In times of remote antiquity, when 
the people called Germans still inhabited this country, the last Uon was 
caught in the wildeiTiess, but afterwards escaped," &c. By the time Africa 
is cleared of its lions such a version of the story is by no means improbable. 

As we passed Durrenstein, one of the Germans began to hum the ur : 

" Richard, O mon roi, 
L'imlvers t'abandonne." 

I remarked that the words were strikingly correct, for the castle looks so 
solitary, that Richard must have really felt as if forsaken by all the world. 
"Yes," said the singer, "his spirit must have sufFwed the tortures of an 
impaled criminal, and that for fifteen months long! It ia fearful, and al- 
most moves me to tears." In fact the locality so seizes upon the imagination, 
that even I, thou^ by -do means sentimental, (the reader will permit this 

«4AfiM^on,) felt bcerUin cntopin^ »*n*Ation cnmine over me. Strange ! 
Hod ve not all beard tbis atory a faundn^ Umes oeforo, read of !;, «m1 
related it agaiii irithout any pamcular emotioo ; U not the wliole nn ide^ 
aa iinoj^atkm ! What vm it thoo thftt to powpriuU}* oflectcd un in pusitig 
the place itself? 

1 used iunnerly, when I heard tli« rtory of Richard's imprisonment, to 
feel mortified that it sho*Jd be a (^rman prince who played the ij^noblo 
parti mad now it souadi^ atrangc]^ vtioui^h tu livar a GmiLaa Hiu^n^ in 
iJie Frencb laiwuge iht praises of an Kiigliilt Vmg ; but I might almnct 
Bkj. I was ehoelced to hnir an En^lijliruaii, nf w-honi I incpiiiwT the next 
Tcne of the kk^. answer drily, u he settled hjs cntvat, " J< n'ai pat 
ritifvmii detoute cHlr rAosr." 

Behind DiuTenBtvin, as we round tliocnmvr Inwards Mnutfrn, is the last 
iiDo ni«tur«in thia unequalled gallery, throng'h which wo had beeitrunniufrt 
B ^aUery so iin'xhnuatiUe in beautiea, that the hundred eyi-a of Argui would 
be wanted to ditcxrur tliein all Mauteru. sitd the opjxiiilH Tillagi> of 
Steiu, form a hmdwape in tlio ii(y1« of Claudo Lnrmine, and SMm placed 
bcrc purpowly to soothe the troubled spirit after the wild and Aaragv Dur- 
reniletn. T(t the right and left lie the pretty Utile town* of S'triii, Mmitvrn, 
and KreiiiH, nil nlnc^j; tiling in the Nibelungenlied, and heraeolteetKd in ilio 
|>n>j)yiicum of tne Danube temple. The rirrr is crpsfcd here by a bridj^ 
of unats. the fine between this place and Linz ; both the bridge snd tna 
town are interailinf^ objecta tiom their geographical position on the boun- 
doFf, between the mountain territory of the Danube and its piMU. la 
tli« foreground, from the window of a hutise ndrancing Hom nprni tho 
river, two monks wi>re looking oat on the uncjtiiet rteambost ; a teiraoe^ 
bdonipn^ to the house nrojeeting OT«r the rtresm, was 6Ued with flowers. 
In the hack^Toniid <>f tlie picture, on a rock seven hundred feet in height, 
risca a stately edifice thr Atibcv of Ciottweiti, iW thinl in rank of the ec* 
clesiaitical foundatioiis on tlu> DHnubo. It i.i»Ti.*n t)ii< whole ti>lerabty limad 
haek of tJi« mountain, wbieb stands in on extensive and beautiful plain. 
The hills rising at the nde« of the little towni, arv crowned witli vinevatds ; 
and vej«e]c ani iuciviii;j; tiuckwiirds and forwardii nii ihv winding nver ill 
front. What follows ia coniparatirely insignificant and uninteresting, 
jiortly from negligence, as I cannot bub think, that with proper trealineut 
■od some pains, all theiw bnuMosarablo water-meadowt, iiioraMni, and 
mstcs, might be changed into nlenang pictur^o, were they only in titp st^'lo 
of the rich morth lands of Holland, dammed up by dykes, and spotted 
witli a few comfortable Irauscs, and some well-fira enttle. But instead of 
that, these water-mradows tin bore and desolate amAng tho many arms of 
the Datiuhc, pmcnting a most miplca«ng contrast to thoec bctorv nes* 
tiooed bctwcm the hills. 

Tho henutTful Ahb^ of Gottwcih, which dn^w many a sigli from tlw 
nrisnnen in the atswnboat, oUme rcmwncd long visible, a last consolotioB 
for all we had lost. Beyond the willnwgruwn meadows and iolandi of 
Bollwnburg, wo still caught sight of its distant buildings, till at Inst they 
vanitlMd like a elond in the gi^y horison. Then, wf^rid oat with the 
OTJoyment of the ilar, we coiitd rmiiie on the elegant dironsof llie Arch- 
duke Stvphen, and li«u>n to him who rvlattd thn pleasing story of tba 
foui>didii>n of Gotlweih. It is thoa r^Utcd by Bishop Altmann, of riiuwil, 
who lived in the elcreoth oeutuiy. 



*' In my ynuUit vrlieo I yit.* Mill n tmrulliii}; Rtudvnt, >uii) wliui the dc 
ceased majesu*. tlie pm^x^ror Cunnd rulxl, I came into tlte oKut rotnota 
port of my new diocete, thp ronntty that we Germani took from tiie Uum 
luid Aran.*^ under our eaip«ror Cbarlenia)^«, »( blessed metuory. I wu 
tn coinjiHiiv ^*it)i loy ■}'*'>■' 1'r"t'>*'i^ Biid friuiidi Adnllirrt, lituhup of H'ltn* 
biiT^, »itd 'Gpbliftnit, bt«fau» of Saltxburg. Tlivv vrvn lli«ii, lilco mviicir, 
tniix-Uitig si^olan. W« tbrM pUMd tmny a cnr«rful xad {>iotis (tolid&y 
together ; hat U tiniu wo sliorvd nothing but lalxMir, aiid waut, aiul 
troublv ; yttt w« went oa our way diligviitJY. prarrd uiil nan^, ttiidicc), 
atid K<TO follftwfrw of UimI'ji •Kcrd. In tJuit land, t)n>n, w*- catnt! onof on a 
higli hill, ill tlic mi^Ut uf fruitful plaiua, but »ar little Inbotirrd in, eiLticr in 
A flptritoal or moy other wn^, on (tic banks p( llic broad Dauube : and ii'c 
JKK» •dholnrs sat oupjcKm down and looked npoii the PDiiiitr^' round nbnut. 
As «-c tlin.-e j>oor uiid iiigif^iliciinl ))coplc »t there od the ■unuiiit uf tJic 
hiU. iu ttic muLtt of fnx* uultirc, tbt-rc cami- upou uf all tbrc« a ^vbtrmenC 
wish to bo stroniger and more proGtable sertrauti of God. We prayed to 
him that b« would give \u It^hcr placv in hi^ ««mc-v, aiid mnd« a iK>nipa«t> 
encli daspiue the othw^a hiuitl, llmt lu ull tlic rood'* aiid bywoyi of lifr, 
that we trod in tht> name of God, tn> would lattJifully atand by and help 
one aiiotbor, and that wp would noith«r halt nor rett, till «a<-h li^d th« 
bUbop's CTOuer iu hii liand. aud a flock U> piuitiira in thn iinnie of the 
Lard. Well! w^ hinv k<>pt our bond truly, and our llin>ci l>i«]iopricK bur* 
dcr on orio anot)i<>r. And I, for mine own behoof, matlf n vnvr on that 
mountUD, that if I b«cauie the bisltop of PaMau I would build a monas- 
tenr on tliat same mntuitniu, tlint the eiiliivation of the land and nf the 
■ouu of (he dweller* mtj^ht be adtancod ilit^reby- I am now lil«hoji of 
ttMMa, and the convout by the Danube boa ooea long roofed in, a&d 
named by mc. Gottni^li, because I have dedicated it to tlie I.ord and Crea- 
tor of tlie world. And lliere my coffin Li already nailed ti>f^ther, and my 
vault built, for I would lain be buried in the place of my fur^t yi^uthful 
recollections." Here tnay bo addixJ, that lliis wiuh alio was fuliilled, and 
the traveller may yet stand aud cotiteinplate llie grava of tlie poor scholar, 

The word meadow (Au) liai in German a pnrtictdarly frimdly !>ound. 
TiiP poet of^en makes use of it, and seldom wiiliout a loving' predicate— 
tlie " chamunjf," Uic "lored," or " lovely" meadown. lint w» have only 
to f;o from St«in to Vienna to b« heartily tick of tlio name and tbc thing'. 
I Mw- OH tills passn;^ so many unlovely meadows, that I have tliK word 
regularly rw dcjiil, and was not a little rejoiced when we atmi- iu sight of 
Leopo^d't mountain, and Kalilenberg, and when wo pnsunl Klosterueu- 
herp, and heard at Nu»dorf, " Halt — 8t;»p tJie on;rine." Nuasdorf U 
tile iiarbour of Vienna: ic lic^s at the moutli of that arm of the Danube 
that branches off here, aud tlowe throu^^li the imperial city. Here the 
greater number of the vcmoU navigatiui; that rit-cr, land titeir pa»onget^ 
and hi-Tf, in cniincqui'iic^, is a ncver-eiicUng turmoil and confnsioii of boat^ 
men, and coiiveyanct-s, to ^ne(lunter wbioli, one has to arm nneself be- 
fnrrhand with tmlience and vatehfulnoss, in order not to be ingulfed in 
a vortex alike dangerous to parse, per&on, and baggage. 



Ann in thii tnsancr rrc rracliod tho p«at city of BeUclt, » name highly 
valued iJirouffUout tht cast, ttiougli vroiiderftillv liltlit known m Kuif>|M.*. 

Tho dty of JioWcli hai four DundnHl thttunand inhnbit*nt«, and is tha 
resideace of a ptmvit'ul Siiuh, v-lio rules a land nioro extensive than Be- 
loochiKtan and A%h»wijta», called N^cuintiuin. Tliii land of Nyeoues* 
tan coDtaJQS a numbt-r of kingdoms and pnocii>a)ities, over all of wfatoli 
iitv aboTc-nanied Shah ifl tna4t«T and l(»d. Tht- j{r««t«at of tlied« subor- 
dinate kin>^unM ts Trandebng-, Ij-in? tovranis the north. Its inhahitants, 
the Trancl(<bogiaii:i, amount, in oiiiiibor, to niilhoiis. 

The laneuago opnlcftn in Dot«ch u a very singular mixture. It neither 
nacnablcd the Turkish nor the I'enian, but ii aaid to have some adinity Co 

The Turks, the Hungarians, and nil tho nationi* beyond, far into Asia, 
call that Befatult which wc climtvn Vienna, and ei^iify by Nyemmtau, 
t}»- whole nf our German fatlicrlond, of whirh they suppoisc hia iii^ptty 
of AuHtria to be •overeigii lord. It iit tnu>, that the euipumr Fmnei« ro- 
noiinced tHis title, anil tho g^^y "( the (it^inttn cMptrti Itn^ Innj; «ineo 
paowd away ; hnt it is long before the settinff of a «tar is ohservcd iu dis- 
tant n>gii>n«, as iti rnya. onc« tnuumitced, still cnnjitro np its im^e before 
US. Brandenburg u corrupted by the Turk* into FmndciMg. lietsch or 
Vienna \s, to thoin, next to Trieste, tbe moat distin^ished place of tmfEo 
in Germany. 

Two great water-roads connect Germany with the east : tlic Adriatio 'i 
8ca and the Danube. At the bend of thv onv lies Trieate, and of the other | 
Vienna ; and iram tliese ta-o placet brandies out tliv whole commerce of 
the eaAt to the interior "f Germany, a^ it develops ttwlf from CoojiULnti- 
aoplo tu Trcl^Qnd and Smyrna. Vienna is tbc last weatorly point before 
whieh a Hostile Turkisli anny encampcdt and llie most weatcm seat of sa 
eastei-n comniereinl colony or factory. 

The \ir»\i\v who arc tile RTent ag«ait« of this commeneo, throu^b their i 
own trade ami dic^r river navij^cioii, *n the Serviana— tho Itasctans, aa 
they are called in Vienna and Uuiiganr. I could never discover, eitlier 
front books «x verbal iuquiry, whence this ap{>cUation fiw the Servians was 

126 TIENMA., 

derired.* la Hungari&n Latin, they are called Rssci, their counby ' 
Baacio, and the King of Hungary is entitled " Rex RasoK." 

The Rascians have their colonies in Pesth, Vienna, and other cities OD 
the Danube, where they are mingled with the other inhabitants, as the A^ 
menians, Buchanans, and Greeks, are in southern and western Russia, and 
as the Jews are in other countries ; and are the principal masters of \'eS8eb 
on the middle and lower Danube. They are to oe met with their wires ia 
all the public places in Vienna, habited m a strange mixture of European 
and Oriental costume. After the Rascians, the Turco-Spanish Jews play tim 
principal part in the commercial world of Vienna. Tim remarkable branch 
of a remarkable nation, was scattered over the whole Turkbh empire after 
ihe most catholic kings of Spain had driven them from their dominiong. 
They have commercial establishments in all the Turkish states of Africa and 
in Asia ; and, as agents between the east and west, they have also fixed 
themselves at Vienna, where their houses are very considerable. Like the 
Servians, though in fewer numbers, they have extended their branches as 
far as Pesth, Semlin, Belgrade, and are more en>ecially important in the 
relations of the Danube countries with Thessalomca. 

These Spanish or Turkish Jews have adopted the eastern costume, pro- 
hably because it was a tine qua non of their admisuon into the Turkish 
donuniona, but they retain the Spanish language. Thev converse and 
correspond with ea<»i other &om Bdgrade to Salonica, and from Neusatz 
to Vienna in Spanish ; probably it is found convenient here as a langoaga 
TOj little known. They enjoy many privileges in Vienna, among others, 
that of being reckoned Turkish subjects, although established in Austiia, 
and are consequently, under the protection of the Turkish ambassador, aa 
independent of the native authorities as the Franks are under that of their 
oonsuU in the Turicish dominions. 

Besides the above-named foreigners, there are many Greek and Armenian 
merchants settled in Vienna. The principal banker, Sina, is & Greek. ' 
Since the late improvements in the navigation of the Danube, which have 
made it possible to travel from Vienna to Trebisond within fourteen days, 
and to reach the interior of Persia in three weeks, traders from Asia Minor, 
and the Persian pointed c^w, have made their appearance in the nei^- 
bonrhood of St Stephen's church, but they are only visitors in the city, and 
not residents. 

The whole number of Orientals in Vienna, is generally reckoned at i 
about a thousand souls. In what degree their numbers have increased 
with the still increasing intercourse with the east, I learnt in the office of 
the Vienna Foreign Police, where I had an opportunity of looking at the 
roister of foreign residents. From 1822 to 1831 (in nine years), alarge 
folio volume had been filled with the names and residences of Turkish 
BubjectA ; from 1831 to 1836 (that is in five years), another as large, and 
in the following four years, a third was filled. 

The rcgist«r for the year 1840, g^ves the numbers of Turkish subjects 
trading en gro*, whose firms are established in Vienna. 

1st. Of the Greek reli^on (the fewest of these being of the Greek 
nation) fifty -two. 

2dly. Israelite Turkish merchants (the greater number bearing Spanish 

* There u a small river in Servia bearing a similar name, &om wliich it maj be 



funily names, as Soow^c^ Mi^o, Abcuen, Beotuio, Hajor, Sobetay, tkc), 
ftirt J -t-iiflit. 

And 3(ily. Aimouui utt«baat*, qiMl 

The mvter part of iJmwc oficnul inhaliatanU Grc io Uic nciglibourbood I 
of the olid mest marliet Thpiv U>oy ara to be mot tritli, uigtave as atork^ 
■lovrly paciiif^ tbroux'i the biutle of a EtinM>e«n street, or, reeliiiinj^ ou tbo 
liwidvoinu rvil cuJumu wiih \fhaidi tltv vriudows of a Viliaoa linuac are 
generaDr provided, tlxT nuiy bo te*!! 1oal:mg tluwu upon the titnnoil, aad 
tratiqiiiUy smolcin^. Hi-ro also arv tlie two (.■of!'e»-boiiBra most frequeotdcl 
by tl)i;ni, tlio "Grcciau," and tlui "City of LondoD." In tbe fint, thvrc 
is ft conittaiit iufliii. and efliu. of easteni mercfaants, mingled with Gre«k^ 
Jeirg, And Italian*. T1m> NOood, boa been Hpecially HiwetMd m thfl soene 
of iheir sonal aniu««mctits, — ctDnkuti;^ aiMi mltiiij* *tii!, — by the youo^ 
Tuiliuh Students and the (iffic«ra oi' llie Porte, whti of lite have b«:ii ac- 
eiuloiii«d to make the ntlgriiiinge from t!ie Beaphona to the nuil of ait 
and «nli)^eninent on tiif liaulu iif tht Danube. They k-ara GvrrnRa of 
COUI9C, atid their pranunciatioa accnicd tu mt ut (general soft, harmonious, 
aud agreeable. It sounded, faoverer. comical enough to liear these 
foreienen take all imaginable paiu^ to acquire the Austrian prorincinlismf, 
whtcu they most cotufdvDtiotuJy aouf^ht to iuilate. ' 

Surprise has be«n eiprewed (and witli ivawni). tlmt lliose of the Vienna 
eoffce-noiue keepers who eal) their artahliebmenta oriental, take >o littlo 
trouble to fumiah them iu tho eostem taste. They have not »o mudi as 
the bmnd dirau alwap found in TurhLJi roflee-hauw*. Now, when wu 
bethink onndvM, tow muvh eTcii ve Mtufitel Fraiika valoe a eomfbrtable 
teal, of which many of our provfrhial «xpr««*ir>ns offer a ptwof, as " siltinr 
in (J over," "sitting upon llionu," &e.i when kq reflect that even with 
our iiiconveiuent ntting nuchinei, it is so euy to nocurtom onsMlf toon* 
kind, tlut another bKoroea disafjrveablc, ( 1 know a Gcnnan lady, who 
told mc. that b«ng usod to tittiD^ on cane ehajir, «lie oould not endure 
cushioned ones, whereby I suppressed, iiut Bttherigfitii[ne.aplu)oiiop)iieal 
TViUBik that eame into my head, vii., that eertfliu v*Ty distant p:ulji of our 
physical orj^auixation niiut be capiiblc of cotitnictiiig- habits, wIucIl. nben 
oppuscd, excited disagnmildc seiuatiun*,) when we consider these tilings, I 
My. we cannot feel otherwise than great earn iiossion for tbe poor orientals 
in Metioa, mounted on our narrow, long-le|;i;;cd, niwteody, tittin]^ accom- 
modationx, their hearts a prey to hoine-Aivkne^ and tlu-ir le|^, tbe ono 
tucked under them aftur tbe f»hii>n of Otvir fatherland, while in foroiken 
Wotfaei dangles aohtaiy and stick •hke in cold empty space '. 


3Iy best friend in Vienna was named Stephen, and when I Iieard he i 
had becomo n widower lately, 1 went to pay hita my vifiC of eondolraee> 
At linl I did nut rcry vrell uodentaiid th« cspreMion " become a widower,* 
aa, to the best of my kDOwledgt% my frimd Sic[>)>eti. who vr&s above four 
hundred feet high, umI fire hundred years oU (being ao othor tfaan tba re- 
nowned rteeple dedicated to the abovenanied taint) had never heeo married, 
•Idiough he lud matiT hruthen, as the double steeple in Rheima, the aster 
steeples ill Muiiidh, Luliock, and ntbttr places. I asknl, tberofure^ with 
eome Ntson, " bow be could hare become u widow«r," and was answered 




hn« p1uj«d the Imto «nd Uw ttnfiMy polite, to relseTO tiim 

his froM," So tnii was a piece of Vi«ntui wit, which will tu>t he Utkeo 
anus bv aiiv tu&rried lodv in the world, I thiuk, for ihe coniiiliin«nt iiu[»lictl 
i»f»t gn-xivt Hisin the diiicoiirlefv at &ni apiiarent. If it tw iiiaiiitaintd 
that fwvry married lunii hfum hia wifo eiiiiintiiod in hnDour fue xliove 
hinuclf, na Stvplicn'a Tower Iwrv hia croo», it oiiut be admjiud Uint the 
matrimnniol burden cannot hut be a light one to so great and portly a 
geutlnntan. This crots was aim united with a double eagla, ^ptfm^ng iu i 
iordlv pinion* cv«t the Tower, even m married ladici •omcliines extend * 
anotncr iirctty little iitrtrunH-uC untlioritntivdv over the heads of chmr 
veddod lords, or weddml lurvants as iiwy should rather be called. 

Stephen, AS he is sometiinee laconical^ atylcd in \'ienua, is in j^neral i 
fiuuccl t>y tlw piniona of more peaceful uirda, or by the l)unnlcs», tliouf^h, 
from itt gnat hmg;ht, tometiiiie* outrageoui god of wind; but nearly 
every hundred yun tliiit tower has had visitors of another deisorip- 
tiou, lowering, hl&cl, bsrd -headed fellows, who care tittle liow 
they rulHed his carefully arrnuged toilet. Between the difFcri'iit bom- 
builments, which Vienna mid SL Stepheu'it Tower, in jmrljcuhu-, Imvu 
nifi«red from tho llung«nftiii, Turks, — a Mcond time fram the Turks, 
•nd lastly fcom the Fitiich; exactly 8 hundred years haie eath tiine 
eUpsed. SiiiiCfi the taut shooting iimtcb, forty years haie nearly flown away; 
fram what dir««tion the lw»mb* of 1907 or 1909 are to whittle, it i« not 
diliicult to guess ; (or every tmvcllvr who mits Austria must ask himself 
trhy ail the tvindows sjid loopholes, looking to the north-cast, nn> not a little 
better fastened up. Ferhapa Stephen may weather the bombardment of 1 907, 
and, perhaps, a sixth or a Hcvonlli, but at last his courage may aiuk under 
these repeated attacks, till one day the r)ld, criMy, usclutts Stephun, out of 
regnrd to tlie heads of the worthy citizens, will ht> ordered to be removed 
altogBlher. God be thanked, the hands by which, and the heads for whodw 
sake thi^ will hare to 1h' doiit-, lie Htill in the darknesa of the future. At • 
present the givxl [>e<iple nf Viimna are buHied in removing tlit' old woni> \ 
out bonf«, and «ul»titut.iiig new rtncj. 1 exnmiiiod tlin work closoly. The . 
pertiiitiiion is obtuncd in tho office of the thurch -niostor, where a printed | 
plis-<p'>rt for this little Journey to the clouds is issued. 

1'he oh ureh- master's office has its seat in the neighbourhnod, aiid in in 
iteolf a litllfl curiowty, fur it is u questimi whether any (rtlwr cathedral can 
boast so numerous » mMrt, The vciierablr iStcplicn briiiKu his middle age 
ciiatomit and iMagtv iiitn niodt'ni titntfs, mid has hi* iivni peculiar sources of 
reruimi% which iiri> tis difficult to Administer, as the Gothic c&prioes of build- 
ing are to bi-ing within aiehicM^tunJ ru]t\->. The stt-callcil giant door, one 
of lis live entrances, al>onnd!iig in idl kiinlit of invxplicftblc dpcuntlions, is 
never opened on ordinary iweiwiuiis, utid secins to be ijHite rusty for want 
of use. It co»I« a considcmblo sum when, nt the desire of some relative 
of an illustrious deceased, this diior opens to admit the corae. The iiu* 
merous death-bells hare tlieir difi'erejit prit^-n, and if it Ik- dfj^in^d that 
•' Stephen" shall set his whole concert of bc!!« in motion in honnur of the 
departed, uo iDcon!iid(.iubK- ('a]?itul niuat be expended. There are not less 
than twenty-one pereoiis eniidoycd in the church- master's office : a. chnrrh 
provost, a conirollor, four secretaries, a sexton, two upper vergcpt, twn Uiwcr 
verger*, four a»iatB4it ytrevn, fi>ur >riudt>», tw^o reckonws. It must be ob- 
served tliat tliese form oitlv one hram-h of tlie cathedral authorities, its 
poliL'o as it were. The catnedral dignitnriet ore many more, and tliea 


there tre tho fcmtilc aU«adttaU or bouwaiuda, to say nothing of the 
watcltinen oa tlie Coircr, Sec 

fiol far from the door, tbrotigli which you ascend llw toircr, ninunjf the 
mnny mcmumBntt on ihc wnlU, thtre i* onr old stouc with ttiis iii«cripiioa, 
" fortitcr DC BUttvit*r." I traiiilatej iheso words for chebeiieiilof a pretty 
little Sertisn, nho, witli a train of bri>then and klndrei], wu ptoparing to 
luocntl along witli top, anil wo took iheno worrU iw a Ttnttnim on o«r wbj-. 
Till- yonuj; Orivutal had tlic snnic dvtvstab!? hmd-dniaa as the r^t of her 
country- women in \'i(.n)t)ii,— n uloth, lioiiiiil Sitt notl li^httv round her head, 
witli a bouquet of flaring Rnwen^ like tlic fL'atlier in a soldier'i iihaku. Slio 
wa3 >i,TV |)retty, honx-vei', iu »i>it« of lier livikd-f^'cai'. 

Hi. Sicphtti* Tiiwcr is iiiluJjiti.vl from tup (o bottom by very different 
kinds of nii>n and onimaJit. At the liottcnu, *trai]g«ri are under the |^d- 
ane* of two young eccltsiiwtic*. Furlher up, U far as tho roof, tJtf cburcb 
B^nniits hc-or sway; wo then cuter the territory' of tliv bcll-rinji^ors, and at 
thn wry top of tit* tow«r vnitcltinen ketip wucch and ward. All, according 
to th«ir own foehion, do the honours of tho plaoe, and ]&vy a coiitiibutiou 
on tra^'etJers. On all eidee one u called upon to look and admire; here is 
the hole through which, some y«tu% ago, a itiati, uvary of Iifu, dung his 
lint down into Uio elitirch, and then fluni; hinwlf ut^r it — then* arc tlie 
bclU, cast Ly order of tlic Einporor Jost-pli 1., from the captitred Turkish 
cannon — here ii the great crescent, wliicn tlie Vienna people fanteued to 
their tower to induct- the Turks to ^pare the aplendid editice — there ore the 
twfiUc engines ajid thirty cintfrtiii fur the protection of the building ngniartt 
fire. Ill March they are filled with water Ktrongiy impregiiaUd nitli »alt, 
which is tlius preserved thmugbout the iiiinnier. Admirauon 'im also chal- 
lenged for the grcAt ugly douote eagle lying with outspread pinions oti tlio 
rooft probably the lorgeat figure of a bird in the world. If it could rbo 
into thn air it might pas* for tfa« oflVpring of llie far^faiood rue ; from tlis 
(<KtrvNitty ofoue wing to that of tho other tlie tneasuremtnit isouo buu(Ir«(l 
and eighty feet. £^ach eye is formed of four gilded tiles, and «avh b«ak 
contAiiui not less than tlurty such acaJes. 

I'eoplc who Hit] fond of taking oxeeptions against nindvm times, may 
find abuodauce of opportunity on the roof ef vm cntliedral. Iu IbSO it 
was found necessary to remir a portion ; the new tiles were sliaptxl and 
coloured af^r Uio mod«1 of the old : but after the lapiie of only tun yvtira 
they are wrrn out. Th« glasing and colour a worn ntf the greater part, 
the white glaze turning quite red, and diiiplayini; the nnlivc liuo of tho clay, 
while the old tiles, the work of the middle -igei, retain atl their original 
tints and fredincx*. It U fenred that the r«iof itself may auflVr from tho 
badness of the tiling, and a renewal of tlir work U already talked of. 

Nu l(ua than 700 steps must bo mountttl to rmcli the tower where (he 
watchers hate their dwelling and place of abode. The nrraugeinenla mad* 
for ascertaining the exact locality of a lire ftru very peculiar aud interMt- 
ing. Un the parapets of the four windows, looking t-att, went, north, and 
south, are four telescoiies. Each ghus <*'', as tliey c-idl the whole appara- 
tus here, CTery " topowcop," ennimands a fourth of Uw whole cireulur «* of 
bouMa, stretcmng on every nde of the cliurcli. Each cjuadrant u diriilcd, 
by circles and radii into s»rtioDH, and by tho aid of the gla^u tlie sei^tion in 
which the burning house Ilea is easily ascertained. The individual hnu«! is 
duixivcrcd wi Ji tho aume owe. By every " topoakop" thcro Uea « thick book 



emtniDin; ibe names of all tbe house nwocn iu eacli section : md thns 
tlip linuM ran lie not only luoertained, but nained. ^Vlle^ the name ii 
Ibund it i> wntt«ti on a dip «( pA]Mv, which ia enrloswl in & bws IaU. 
This ball u tlirown down b pipe, and it ptuaei npidlvi like a wiagxHl inca> 
Hittvr of evil tidings, dowu to tlie dwelling of the (vitiin, where it is picked 
iqt fcy a watchmaa coniUDtly in attendauce tliere luid ramtid to the city 
ADlhocities. Here it i* opened, aitd tlw name of th>e unfortunate bouse idww 
known to those whom it may roaccm. In thn deacrifAioii, this optnlaoa 
ufftmn aoRiewluit long, but it is psrfWnwl with tolemblu rapidity and 
certainty, and th« " toposlop" can h» oapd sa w«ll by ni^hl as by day. In 
the more nrmolr niirt.i f>f the iitbiirb, tli« poinl is of cniiree mora diffionlC 
to uoertaiii, a* tw angles of vikiun ami podtioa become aniallrr in ths 
** topoikop." Sufh an aprar«tiis ean only b« nwd with advant«|*t trtm 
tow«ra MS lofly sa St. Stepncu's. 

The length of the piece latterly removed from the towvr. IVodi appre- 
Iwnsion of inaocurity, is abo^ elpvon Enthomi ; that is, lu the vholit tower 
ooiitnina aboat sercnty-two fathoms m.'orly a lixth of th« nholc. Thb 
nicv-ir hnil lon|r Kwavcd from tlie n)^)it line, in conMtjupDcc of en earth-* 
Aunke, it was K«d, but at first with an inclination of only throe feet fnini 
Vie higbest point of the entt. At last, honwer, it voa of^crled Utat tho 
lugiiett point was a whole fathom out of ttii; jicqiendivnlsr. Mnay smaUer 
|>arl« had also be«n much injured, partly by time and natural ceuuw, 
MitJv I>y the different bomhordmE-nts. For example, the croniis of many 
liiil« side towers had bven split from Lo]i In bottom, and huavy fnijpn<>nt8 
of ktiHiB Imnjf tlirvatening^ly over tlie alnw bplow twanniiij^ witii life. The 
fnrmrr re^paira had b«en eKceedinirly defective ; round many of these 
Bmalltn- towum only thick iron baiid^ oad been pawed, which Ecatvely held 
tile Wwo stoiuM togothrr. Otiient had merely iron slaves and crnnip irons 
to Icepp the rutinway frngTnentGin thvirplnoaa. In 1809, afinr thi> French 
Kii ilMirdinent, a great deal of money had be«n lavished on theise cramps 
aiid hfildfuita ; but in 1H38 the real rcpwr now in progicai was began. 
Fioin thi> main or round oorridor, the tower is Rurrounded by cightosa 
j|rnllrrie« form4>d of sfcrong beams eonnected by ladders, ritdng above each 
other to the top of tliic cross. The work was begun on the twenty-fourth 
of Septcmbtr. 1838; it was hoped that in three years it would hai-e been 
finiihod, but it will certninly recjuiie three tnoreto re*torc the noblo build- 
ing to iti (bnni^ ma^ificcnce nnd perfection. Wliat a day of joy will 
tliat be for the people of \'iennn ! 

The verv snhd mnnner in whirh the eeattoldin^ are erected, must Inve 
oflV'red no imall dilBculty; fr«ni below, all this joinery cannot be loolted at 
witliout n eligfit Kcn-iation of fenr, lv?4 nomc tnuncndous hurncane mi^htin 
itfi sport scatter tUvni? beatn^ like matehes, and hurl tliem donii upon tho 
iot.'f< and hcfld^i bolow. Wli«iievt<r tho wind is ver^' hij^h, thl^ \t'oi-k orast 
be r1i«runtinu(-il, and the vrorkmea retire. Hitherto n.11 Hrcid«ntji have been 
avoided, but one of the men told m« Uint the nii»cliietroiu jf)<diw Itad nnce 
^ayed Urn a trick, more d»tif>iTnns than agncab)*, in whirling him aloft 
and seating Iiim astride upon a balusbrsde ; fortunately, bofore the socood 
gnat came, Ke had clung (iut to a beam, and, creeping down on tlie inner 
■ids, sawd his life. 

The difficulties experienced in the execution of the building may be esti* 
stated 6mai this oue circumstance, that half a day is required to raise the 

TBtf SO 8r. BTErnES'6 TOW£X. 


ftones the skhw JiMsaRo wIik-Ii the Gn'-viniyantmg bnllet traTPntes in » 
mumeat. The Btotic* are kll toWablj l^rgc, and elerea vorknea ve 
Bearedy >ble to rmiw two in a day. 

]b ordn* that the atiw wtaaet luod in tht rcpaira nay not be too con* 
■picaOBS bj tbe tide of tbo old. they Iiofc invrotcd a new colour, where- 
with to stain thom. but tbe ri|rht shade has iHit been catrght, and the 
plaoi^)i repaiied arc eiuit^ rc^cognia^lle from below. We potntml thtg out 
to the people about, but Lhey anurvd lu, that afW many nttnnpt* no 
lietur colour coald be foand. It struck ns at fint u tttv exti'aoTdniary' 
that it ihoold be to very ttilTiciilt to bit the colour of a mass of oM grey 
■tonea, and began to examine them more mmutcly. We fonnd irudi ft 
mie^ of dndca on cvrr^- lulo and ervry ftonc, that it vnu clearly im- 
poMible that ouc and the same colour ihoiUd suffice to blend old and new 
liannoaUMttly together. The tints, monorer, depend partly on the Tef[e4ation, 
— tba moMM which cover nearly the whoic surface of the toner. In toane 
phoes tbcae moawa aiv withered and licenced; the itooM ore then corered 
with a dftilc grey oontit^ tliat can be robbed to durt between the fingvn. 
2]erc mud there oecur patches of young ihom, producing a i^-yislt green 
tint; ilivn cunic wbitiaii grcym btuiih and yellnwiah enluurin^ To giro 
the right eS«et it woiibl be nevE^ary to lay on all thpMi ^iita and blend 
them softly together; and even this would f&mvly snKcti, as the appear- 
aooe of ilie whole c^astgea with the weatb<>r. In laiu and damp it-eather 
not only llie ban stonm cluinge their enliHir, but nlno il»nte covered with 
anoss. The moarae attract the niav(Cnri>, and manr that Innk withcrrd in 
dry weatJter seem to gmn naw life after min. In a wet »-ason (lie verdnra 
cf (he ton'er on one side becoVMS eitrrmely lind, and it is impoisible to 
follow nil theic changes with any arlitie'uj colour. It is a <|Destion whether 
it would not have been better t<> lea^v tbv new stooea of their natnnl 
colour, trusting to time to assimilate tiiem. Be this as it amy, it is certohi 
that tlie i-'hosen colour is much too paJpofaly blue, and ought to hare been 
blended to a yellowish grey. 

The Soni of St. Stephen's lowi^ is moct) more nniform duin tliat of tho 
catliedral of Cologne, where a hundred different plaottt grow in Heh luvu- 
riaoeo. All the north tide is eorered with moflses. The tooth has little or 
no regulation. The fntma of tlic calheiinU is vnrKins enough. Of tho 
biunafi part we spoke bc&irei. Tbe crows, jack>daws, hawks. &c., it has in 
eommon with all the church steeples in Uermasv: owU are very rare, the 
gnardiaua of the pincc said tlivre were none, wnidi wotild be remarkable 
•nough, bnt the bats are lo n»nierou<i, that I wns told on a Inte eenrch for 
tlieir hiding places not less than lifiv hod been di^^nrcred and ki)l<>d. be- 
cause the uij^it patrol* eouid no longer pntti-et their bknterus or tlieir (actt 
from the asaaults of theao gnblina. A worse plain'p ()>an tlir-.«r arc tba 
goUe, tlia BtUo long-kgrad stinging insects of which all tratellera and 
boatmen along the Danube cotuplain so iii>icb- I alwold hkc to know 
what the swamp-brrd Bnimalrubr ran think of sivking in thne giant tonen^ 
wher* iu Slimmer time they iwnrai in such munbera that the people em- 
ployed there are obliged to sleep with damp el'»tli» upon their faces. 
Cfaamlier fliiM are found alto, but in nu gmit iiunibert. Jilira there are 
none. Spider* we found in prodi^iMH niunhen; they and the jra'so hare 
bftcn carrying on the war liertt rhese four Imndred yean, and dovbtleii 
mneh to inlen-st the natnralist has occurred, nit«nwhile, in the world of 
, ipidw a. Iu fact, a naturalist might take up his abode here for a time, with 



gVMt adraotlig* to iBivnee- Of tlie stonn*, the people txy that nevljr 
ftll eoRic from the coith. So noon lu tlu> wcathoToncka iu sumiucr tuni 
suddenly to tho touth, a storm inav he cxpcctrd. Oac of the youiigvr of 
the tratduneii. who had lately b«ni placed in this exalted posltinn, told lUt 
th«t the weather up hcrA wu utinctuiwa inful. At hi* fnvt watch th* 
IbarAiI ba»d of wind inatnmicuts, whistling ukd liowlu^ in the nuaber- 
leat dcfb, holn, and conkL-re. the rDcklui; and cracking of the tower plo- 
naclei, the wildly driviti)^ ghost-Uke clouds, with Uie glvaminf; flf iho 
lij^htniiiff, and Iho trtuntiinr kvttlv-drumt of lli« Uiutid«r, filled liim with 
such tcmir, lliai lie t)i»uglit he miut hnvc jtiiii|x-d init of the first cao- 
venient apitiiiii}^ to tliu dvmlts Iwlow. Thviv must bo lii>n> tihuiidaut field 
for obsemtioii on acousticf. la Mcending, we remorkod that th« wind 
whietlnl through every opeuiog iu a dtS'itf«nt tone. 

Proni the wood^ii gklleriM erected for the rvpnin, the nanonma of 
the city of Vienna ran now be enjojred marc coni-ciiienily tlisn evw. I 
wished to look on this spectacle from the Buinmlt nf one of the side towers. 
Thii lumiiut u formed like the leaves of a ro«c flalK'ued at the top, and 
aflfonliug just niaetf enough for two Inuiuui fin-t. ^V<* aitcctidixl nccnrd- 
tnply an(t perched like equirrola ou tho topmoet branch of a tTc«. The 
beautiful cUj of ^'ieuna. lay at our feeu It was a most beautiful, calm, 
dear dav- Wo heard and saw all that wan pusiua in the eity; even the 
toagt or the canary biiiU in the window* of fomc nouacs tAcendtd to ut, 
■Da wo could see llie butterflies (luttciing over the house-tops in Kcatvh of 
some fpven Kpot in this (for tliem) drear}- waste. ^Vf• could have Intd a 
gentleman wo taw walking below, where the brother was of whom he waa 
in search j for we saw hini at the Hsnic time driving at Ilia leisure on the 
glacis. This glacis, which suiTounds the inmost core of the city, with its 
Broad green ring, lends tlie panorotna ita principal ornament; it ofluscs 
the whole picture to fall into picturesque parts, and pcmtitit tlic fine rows 
of houaos in tlie suburbs to lie sern to full advaiita^o. They Ue round 
tlie outer rdgw of t)ii> glavis like while flowers in u nrcuth of green leaves. 
Tho tnwer k««]>er named to us all thu nutik^ I- places, titrvvU, houMa, and 
palaces v>c siiw IxMieuth, thowed wt the. Danidic, the first range of tlia 
Cajpatliian nioiiDtaiuJt, Lite Slyrian AIp^ and tlit- roads that led to Ger- 
nrninr, Motavia, Itobcmin, mid Italy, and " that is," added be, " the high 
zoad to Uun^ary." Here wns matter for a prophetic homily, but [ did not 
preach it. for It would have been a voice calling in tlitf dwert. The little 
&?rviao desired to see the mad to Hungary, which also led to her natiro 
land. I oSvrt^l my hand, and she placed her little foot boldly on tho edge 
of the stone Huwcr-cromi, nud gared on the fields of Hungary ; nud so 
we stood awhile, motiunli?S8, like two fftatuet on a pediMtal, neither felC 
ill the least giddy, but I must not forget to say, that the place was firndy 
boanlod up aixniiid us, tm that Uio pleasure we enjoyed was unaccomiinniea 
by danger. Wlicn we, that is, my Servian and t, had >]ttlifii-d ounelvoa 
with the spectacle, wu turned witli equal oouvenienoc to anotlicr, the ma- 
ntcuvru of Um Austrian troops, which wo contemplated <tuite at our ease 
from the altitude of the soveti hundred steps above menUoued. 


Tliat man should sometimes demean himself sensibly cnn be no especial 
wonder, since everybody knows tbs.t man is neither nvore nor less tuan a 



Rftble CTcatiirr. Dot that tlic poor dini-visionccl brute shoalil da so, 
'!■ a Btsndin^ ntarvt-l and luvcUrv of nnturp. Man has in hit amil a clear 
light to liguteu hh [inth oxtenmlly nnd int«maJlv ; tl* Pjjclic of Uie 
bmie » & small, feelilv-^'Iinunenii^ lamp, .'sluniii^ (limljr through manifnld 
Tintii fmiii H lU-pCh nf H^irUticm neniling fnrtli unly occasional |»lean». The 
£^ptiaiu worahippcd bnit<4 as the mnrvcts of tifLtiiT«; with as Kuropciuis, 
hey haTG rallcn somewhat into contAiopt ; yvt amongst bnitcs aiid plnola, 
whteb appear tn owe fa Utile to theiniwlveft, aixl tn liarv rpceited all 
etly from Gorf, we *t«tn often to be nearer to tho divinity that) amongst 

For mjr own part, I can never look into the eve< of a diix^ n-ithout 
Icelioff ilrangtf wciisatii'^tiit in bebolding tiiin VQiicd mvxtciy of tb« ^reat 
foul oiF th« uaivwrw. The reader wU!, therefore, not be aurprUmi that I 
and mj campaniaa, Ramn K . iii iv short time aftt^r mv iirrii'a] in 
Vienna, were to be found has frequently amaof^ iho dnndir^. oAic^r*, 
hdlM of iubiod, murkct f'dk^ tiih-women, or by whatever other name the 
bsJoaD duTtale* mav bo cnJlcd, than at Schonbrunn among iha bvan, i 
apes, tigers, ewtw, bona, and odier disgoiMe of the brute Psyclio, having I 
their abod« in Uut jgrarden. 

Wo drove there one day in oiw; of tlio iimiiy Inmdrcd public carriages, 
ready at all tuan of the day to ffo to all end* «f tlia world with anybody 
»nd any baf^ngo. One of our travelling coinpaniona waji a unartly- 
dreu«d old citiscn of Vienna, whu, when hr Iieud vrc were going to 
S*'liOnbnimi, related to us upropos, that he had once n>fii»«<d a request of 
tlie Emperor Napoleon when at thft very lummh of his power. He (tho 
citinni) had a moat incompamljle homo, i^f Ilungaiiftii race, and Nugiulevii 
had 9(.-en it when the ownor, as captain of the biirKher jiTuan], hnd defied 
befuro liiin at the head of his company. The emperor had ofTcn'd hini 50OO 
flnriiH for the animnl on the rOot, but neither the f^ld nor th« entreatiei 
of lilt: liinl ofKitrnperould induce him topait with hi« adnitrahle steedi and, 
ax U-fore )sid, ht had r»fiiM-<t \n* horse to tliii mighty potentate at n time 
when tho Emperor of Austna liad not dared to refune the hand of his 

The menagerie of Schonhnmn incloses a part of the imperial garden, 
ooar whteli there passes a miserable, acantilyBlted ditch, that in tnmmer 
smrlls aboiiiinnbly, and which it is amazing to mo docs not appear the 
frightful "hiect it in, to iho thousands of Vicnun people who daily resort 
thither. 1 he meiiagorie oceiitiies a largo circular {neee of eround, in tho i 
cealro of which, on a little eleTution, stands a many -windowed snintnoT | 
hoHsiT, the abode of the gaily-plumaged parrot kind. If I were a eoiirticr 
J should tue all my Lnfluence to got these birds removed from w con- 
epicuotia a place, lest it should occur to some to draw odious eompariions 
beiwi^i) tlieii) atkd tlie court circle. 

From this parrot centre the whole cnrcle is exit by radii into nnmemiH sce- 
lions. /Vll tliwo secuons are divided by walls and Iwlgi-s, and broad 
w^«. Each section contains tlic stalls batlw, pond", pMlurages, and 
^eBCura*grounds of a partieuLar speciw, aiid since the present emperor has 
filled up the places that had become raeant, there is a tolerable number 
vS interesting furred and Eeathorcd ereotum, to whom Asia, Afnea, or i 
America has furnished paws or claws, hoofs, horns or antlers, the appetite ■ 
for bread or for Uood. 

Tlie bears, tigers, and other ainiii»orovis animal*, arc d«ly in view of the 


public; tb* dHmiu of th« other* must be eaoecially opmed totbe 
The browa bMn oat, UIm poor boggant ui their ita», and reoav«d tfaank- 
Saiiy a monel of brad. If it nan tlirmni on th« (iif\ tbey i-Uml>H] op 
tbi> irun gntiag aiul ihnift tlioir pam tliKHi^h b> rr-acb it. Uoc iif tbetn, 
nben wo took out waae nun bread, aot up ou hu biiwl quarters and uioved 
Ilia fare paws up ami down like a uedtinncr till lie gui a pieca A tiger or 
n bolt wuuld nevsr teani to do Uiih. The nalnni of the bear Kcma to 
pSitakA nf tba aiankcy ii« «cll u of tbo dog. Tb« old bean in Si^iOD- 
Lruim am the i^andchildreD of bean likewise bom in captirih', and bare, 
in their turn, Jeacendanta. tlio fourth gen era Lion, therefore, of ■ tamed 
net* It would he int<-.rMting to Icam, if in biti-r f;«a«rationi the cha- 
lactor of tbc auiiuiJ will undet^ »ny coandcrabki alteration. But, m- 
fi]rtiinat«Iy, tbe ptodm here keep no exact amount of their obarges, which 
nui^t be ujiefiil to tlie stndcnt of iiatutal hitt^ry. 

It wjia a hot <luy, uad tbc p:>lar bcnn, tho bloodtfainty aiuinali. wbo 
wear on their bod^' the colour of hitioccncc, and cotvt their necks with the 
wltttt looks of v«tioraU« a^, when aU t)ie while they hav« not an honest 
luir on th« whole body, were (plaahiag about in the water all the time w« 
■tajrciL Tliey art ilie only nntmab who do not mpure tlic-ir ftvrelliniE; to 
bf nurnied ill lli» winter. Like t)u?ir fir nmn< aniinblv bn^tbrt-ti, tlif hniwn 
brATt, thry arc fi»d only on bread And ntilk, which, it ia Skid, enables them 
to bear their impiuonnteiit better. 

The be&utiful ruyai tij^ we found lying on one Bide with all tiii legf 
atrvtchad out, but to that bi« htnd ]»gi ro«ted b»twecQ thv two fom ooM. 
The beeper Mid thii was hte ordiuary position when at rvst. Wo dunt 
uot dikturh him, iu he take* it ^vry muoh amiu ev«u if j>eople only tou«h 
his d*ii, jfTowU fearfully, nnd t* long bofore be ran be appenaed. Uia 
lady it of a oiachj^ntlor character. The cages of the tiger, lions, uid other 
irild eata, an divisible into two ports by ro»Lns of alidiDg partitions, that 
lite ■niinals may be driven into one wIiUij tlie other ia cleaned. A third 
dtvinati prtjficU like a boleony, in wtn^ii tbi-y cut enjoy thi' »uu«hiae and 
open air, luid ahow tlioiiisclTcs io thv public. The brjtrs have tho'ir botlw 
ill addition. 

Tha itory we beard in the next lection concerning mnster Jack was dla- 
tnMmg to a &iend of liuinauity. Ma»tiir Jack wna an rxrecdin^^lv well- 
jia|)osed and veil-bred youth, living iiuietly and respectnbly in tii« apgioiTited 
|4*rall>>V- l^B "lu on tb» bwtt footing with all his acquaintance, and ]iar> 
tieuUrly aeta«hMl to liis friend and servant, M.. Ucuri, who had long boea 
bis conipAiiion and tutor in all tlie ailK of life, whprviu maxCer Jat-k MUiwed 
great addrais, succee^ling in all h«i uiidt^rtouk. lie could tako the cork 
out of a rum-bnttle without tlw aid of a corkicrew ; hv&t a drum like the 
DUMt espcricucnl dnunmer, and blow a truinpi-t thitt, lil«; tlie siimnioiu to 
the Ia*t judgnnfiit, jiierced to the very marrow. Il' ii lady visiting him 
let fall her glove or ber handkerchief, master Jti^k dropped on nnu knee 
like a coiirlK>us knight, and prrticutod It to her u^nin. But who con 
QDumeralo all the virtues and aci-oinplUhnieiiU of this well-luslructi^J young 
gentbinaii? It may be boldly a^^ertod that miuuit Jack vha the lirttt gen- 
tmnan of tho hou court of SeliJknbruuo, and curpaucd «vvn thv pomcly 
BOlidling bcurt in grace nnil de«t<-rity. 

An uneipeut«d ooaurrence, or mtlicr tlie coiuequcnces of a bcid colcu- 
iation, suddenly uroduL-ed a melint-lioly change in (lie whole being of tho 
gifted Jack. Toia uouuircuco wa» his acquaintance with Miaa Djook, 



: tn irhinh viciuasl^ disponed ladv, be had been nnadvuedW (]uiu^ 
terad. Jack, vho, rceeiving; lo many tiuU dkil^, nrif^ht bo auti to lito in 
tfke ^at worlds bad beoomv acquitiiitcd with many a ^'oun^ lady without 
obowit^ farther ciTilt^ tliao any caialicr mi^t offer in pure ntorteiiy 
to any Mdy. But tlib puiimlar lady, who tout op her abode ia bU very 
faoUM as it wCTC', [iroducud a a)n£icnl cflirct iipott biin. Mcr vjts, cbe 
mtj vS h(T U'fth. aiM) thr unsix-iucablc cliarm uf her m:\ c\vxV, excited 
in bun th« livelUMt dosiic to call her \wi omi. To tba iDdeccrilmble vexa- 
tion of hi* tutor he foivot all hit learning, all his accompliabnienti. Hu 
eaotleOMB vaa duuigiil to fury, bis uniremi |ibila»L)iri>py to ih« most 
notdk ftrfiag nipiiii«t all tbe world. In fbort. Iris iiiSihI n)ii(.<h before 
nmnUsd a mll-cultivatml field, novr became like a giirdirit laid wasta. 
Abt Vtw, to what a cwiidilinu didot tlioa not reduoD clus thy poor rictitn t 

His faithful frioiid, M. Henri, dares no longer Ycoture near him, fnr if 
he docs, Jeeic iiiiRiitiiintely dmwa bis nmnl, that ia hu elub, which b« 
whirU aloft in the air, tJirsAtttitaj^ to crush to piece) all tliat luiproRcb biio. 
I faiind M. Henri perfectly tneonsolable. When I asbed bun why tbo 
female eleidiant bacf bcoii jilantd so directly bvforo her admirer's «y«s, hu 
burst out into invcctivv* agiunst certain [ier«oii«, &om whicit I f^thor^dt 
that either tbere was oo other place fnc the Dewly-purchaseil liidy, or that 
tbpy were In hopes of founding a race of UjeclU and Jacki from a mar- 
riage between the pair. Packed up in hli fioj^r-thick hide, master Jnek 
waa movtni; his enormoiia maaa of botw tro and do«m Ute balcouy of bis 
houn, throwing bis weigbt now on tba rignt. now on th« btft leg. Occa- 
sonallf ba tossed bis trunk about aa a man might bito hts lips in cup- 
pi a w ej «Dg«r. His littlv eytt looked t]uit« nban, tboogb Ilia keepar as- 
anred w tb ocaturc wo.h full pf fiitnie and fui^-. He aeemed to take b» 
notiee of niy thing, but that nan. as w» neire asonrd, beeuu^ caged wtthia 
liiji bars, he »aw he could do no mischief. Any object, living or dead, that 
came vithtn the reach of his trunk or liis fept, would be daUied or trampled 
lo psoei tmmwfiata^. On tba bread we iluvnr to him, lie naver deigned 
to bestow tb« most superficial noti««, while Miw f>jeck directly oponoa bar 
hA flasliy month and snajipcd up every morsel of the rolL 

At noon the ladr was let nut to taVe ihe air in the meadow. Behind 
ibe thiek beams and trunks of trem forming tlw palitade irv- enuld watch 
her proceedings. She walked grarely down tlic path Icndini; lo the 
meadow, alM> suniigly fenced, tbRii turned to the leli and stood awhile 
before ihn puwif^ blading to Jack's apartjncnt, an if tn say, good morning, 
but M \k ibd not appear, she went to take h?r promruade on tbi.' turf and 
fiiilfb hor toilet, vrnereiQ she was assislcd by a fnub breeze. It blew % 
tliick cloud of duit and *tfawt over her bmwl aiiiei. Jack, wc were told, 
tliey dunt not let out if they would not expose both trees and walU to tbe 
grrntrsl danger. 

Tlie larger species of animals have for the most part tbor Mparale sec- 
tions of the garden, but of tlic feline races many speotmans an lodged in 
<Mie bouse. Amoag them is n lion, a bom rrpuobciui, for be is a natlv* 
of Hambui]g, not vary imposing in size, but with a very fine expreeaiitt 

There is oertunlr dcapty noted in tbe human sou] a pecidiar ploasur* 
in the enjoyment of what is dang«Ytui, and that with the timid as well as 
tba coorageoiu, with this differenee. tliat tho former love danger only 
vbcD they 9K certain it will not affnl them pcisoDolly. Our eumpenian 


in Sciioubnmii wlio. if nil sipis docnTod not, wdd »n nmuit pohrooo, wouU 

Etviic. ill sjiilo of iho intr«Htii:-s and {<ro)ii bilious nf the kMnxin, in teaniriff 
na and tigsn witb hi* ndiiiff whip till they got up and ihow*d llinr 
teetli. Wc on our ade couU not with.itBiid tliv Iccnptatioi) of cmaping' 
into one of the ci^ea to examine iu iutemal tnTangpitu-iLt.->. It wm a leo- 
pard hoiue ; the walla were carefully phled with iron nttil [i!ttiite<l lij^ht 
btue. The nTTanf^nicDt* tot carrjbig »wny all dirt, and tie division into 
fixjiic nnd back dens, nppcnird to us to bt' n-ry jm!ic'i'»iis. The Irnpards. 
it must be observed, for vrlinai thesp apartttietitu liud bi-rii prepared, bad 
Dot yet taken poeMnion of them. 

7«uiiv of the animnU aMembled Here have iiicmKed so much as tbe 
Srsiilinii lian-Ji. A fi'w yt*m a^v, » ni)gl» jmir wiu linni^lit hcrr, and 
ther* iiw tinw lliirtv. and mniiy have hten giroii nwny. The widest and 
most timid of all are the Sardiniiiii moiiHioiu. Th<?y keep at ihr farlhest 
*?nd nf ihfigTCHiiiiiaUotu^l ihcni: nnd ivedarod not icvnde it. as t1ii;kfr[)ara 
ibtKurcil us, that nii thi^ npproftch af any panon or thiii^ iitran^e to tliinn, 
thcv would diLsli thcmBclieit in tlicir blind terror af^itist Uk> ti«e< and 
v-iills Even thoir youn;; display thii cxlremo shynoa the day afU-r birth, 
and (ly with such rapidity from all who approBCli, that it is unpofsihlv W 
catch thorn, while th« yoiii^f? beta* and lion* will allow themselves to bs 
taken in the iirrns like children. 

Amon^ the eamcls, who ocree no better here than iti Arabia, b»t livo ui 
a ttate of eontiniial irarfnre, bitinj^ and strikinf^ each other with their fia*- 
fcot, tlieru no9 one so imbcarahlv liciuiu tlint he wiw obliged to he kept 
chained in his stall. His bonv hpure, rupged and rrninrkably bare hide, 
faded yellowish j^^y colour, tne flabbv and diseased bump hiinpin^ ilowo 
fin oiiv >idc of bis back, his npitvful and reiioriioud spittiii)^ luid liis^in^ when 
anv thiii^ luiniun drew near hiin, aiid bis self-ritiiiciilcd niminaiin^ when 
he vra« loft Blone> niado him a nio^t oU'entiive iiiini>>t of tlie inleiwcst i*;rrtliiim, 
all tlu) more disj;vitinf>', that he woe withal cxc««!>ivcly dry and nic«Kr«. 
But oren the fnt and well-fed of tlie <.'amel kind look \try litlJo hiindaonier. 
Tile hair is seldom or never in j>wod order, or sulHeient to cover them en- 
tirely, so that the speekled parts of t)!e body of ii bluiKli eolonr (how very 
disa^reeablv tbrou;^]i tbe leathern skiji. There was one such fat camel 
here, whtc'b bad been brought from E^pt. Of all tamed animals the 
CHJHiii iM ]iiTihii[M tbe most malicious. The 8ebus, — tame, gentle eowf, 
JTom tho KoHt Indies, — have a pond in common with the ctunels, which 
divi<lea th«r territory an tliu Iiidiiui Ocean docj the lands of their birth. 

There are soiue reinni-knhly heaiitifnl lebras iu Sehbnbmnn. One was 
■with yoiinj*. Another had alretidv brought into the wf rid a little one, that 
closely I'cspmblcd its sire, a (ieritian nas. A few Ktripes on tbe li-gs only 
betrayed its waienial descent. 

Tiie birdi are lodged and provided for in a eimtlar way, and there is s 
fiEb-pond for the waterfowl. Corp arcfutlened for tlie spoon-billed geese, 
who wiil Foinetimcs jwallow & tish woiyhingf tbreci jwunds, and iiu'asuriu? 
a foot in lenffth. without betrftyiii|r the leiut iiiironvenistiee. If th* lion^ 
captaeitv for twidhiwrnir were of tbe same rclalive sixe, be could dispoM at 
owcc of n whole lamb. It nni.-'t Iw an enchanting sight to see the ofttrich 
run iu hi* native deeerts ; IVir even thi- few li^ht spiingm he tiihe* in 
his poor tields in London, Pirns, or Schitnbrunn, whi^n the keepers allow 
him to eecA[ie from lin narrow cage, aitbrd a pleasing s]>eeta«le, in which 
the lig^litly fiuCleriiig phimagre of hia back plays a principal part. They 



ltavr> Ixkra niucb paius at Sclibnlirunn to dIksiq young from the ostricb, 
but bnvo M yrt (^ nothing bi^wmd tho *>f^. Ax thr pnrents thi>RiaclT«< 
do nrit niidf-rstaDd hiitcliiii^, and ttic Gcrniau fiun bos not the life-giviiig 
pou-er nf the African, they ]>ut ihe t*pgs nt fint under a Tiirhey hen, who 
sat i>n th«m, but had not wanuth euough to i^all forth web jjiant broods 
bom the yvlk«. llic litnt of thv oven Traa (hvii tiicJ, but with no better 
Buccnt. The parrots h&\-c laid c^gs, but could never be iaduced to hxtch 

Of nil the i.ra|>rtM>D«d an'nnftld none make so niclaiicholv an impresooa 
M tbo cables oud vulturca. Tht^v );rcnt, hi^i-xonriii]^, liu->circting lofda of 
tiw air, ou^ht at k>ast to hav« liod Ow'ir })ri»nn*house nrranfr«d ia somo 
measntv atiwrdiog to their natural jiropensitics. A n-oodon cap*, with 
irwn ^ratingt i* n litti-r den liir n lion or a tiger tliaii for the rock- throned 
Mgltt'i n«st. Ttt tin* narrow duii^eoit they cnnnnt even stretch their 
pinioni, and yet thit motion it no doubt M inttch n neir»ssiiy to thetn as it 
a to a man to alrctch hii> aniift and li^^ after loii^ cimliniiaiicc in n Kitting 
or tying- posture : indeed it \» vvideni, fram the (^u«tnin nil inipriBoiied birds 
hftTA of fipDwIiiij; tltcir wings slowly and yawnin^ly from lime to time. 
The t*f;\e and vulture eit upon thoir nerches as motionless as if tiiey w«ie 
mere stones. One whoin I was watening licld his head on on* lioe and 
his ey(«i iinnioveiibly fixc^ mi the tkica; another ntti^ml a mstancholy 
sound at interval*, and li(Wd his useless ^^g- Some of thom are ex- 
tremely old. I was told that one had been nny years a prisoner. In 
6ft:y yeisrs, if we aiiiume that one way or another an eaele can fly thirty 
miJcs a day, ho mip-ht have travewed 500.000 niilifs ; that is, he mi|:;fat 
have ciicninponed the ciirtit a liuudred times, (lood God '. whnt a fearful 
drstiny to feel this power withiu. and hv condemned for ever to one nar- 
row dirty itinkin"^ hole ! As the eagles are neither cheerful here, nor dis- 
play Iheir natural pL-culiarities !n any way, they coJi yivid neither pleaiuro 
to ilie loviT of nature, nor profit to Uic infiuiu'r into her mvitcrie^ ; and 
people would do much bvtt<fr, I am idiiiOdt im'lined to think, to free thnn 
at onee from the burden of life, and pla(« them atulTed in a museum. A 
procesi to which the eag^leii, iiatTots, and some otlier birdj nn^ tnihject ti> in 
tlieir poiiliiieineiit, is that nt woHhing with an infusion nf toluKvo to five 
tlium from vermin. Their ffathers ar« rubbed with it against the grain. 
They mSer lunre from rermin in captivity than in freedom, because they 
cannot guard themselves aeoinst tlieni bo actively. 

ThiF piumi,.hou»e, to wTticli, as to a eentro, all the ii«elioiis tend, is 
adorned with the portraits of many aiiunals. The birds themaclves are as 
thick here as in some primeval fiireat of South America ; iliey are two- 
legged and feathered monkeys, for they an- iM|unlly re^tleai, teachable, 
imitative, and comic. To the st«m iiiotionlees en^^lc thvy offer the 
stronffrat [Knftuble eontrastv bearing captivity apparently with perfect con- 
tentment. Thev are in cteirial motion, and *cem to observe every thing 
with their ever-watelifu! I'yc, to meditate awhile upon it, and shnek and 
duittcr without inlcmiiHion. 8ometimc!i the whole army of them would 
be siuldenly as itill aa mice, and tlien break out all together into one feaHul 
discord, OS if they vere put on a spit — an honour never y«t aocorded to 
their black tasteless flesh. The gardens of !>chuubruim are yet more dis- i 
tinguishc«) for their plantations and th^ir botanical collrctions tlian for the I 
animals lliey coiit^ii. Not tliat the looc avenues of beautiful, Isrge, but 
moft cmoUy mutilated Umo tt«es, are eubtJed to much tdountion. 7'bere 


U <«iteinl}' ft method of altcnne the nuuni ;*ro«rt>i and Rgnre oF tfuM to 
tlie advonta^ of gwrdeii dcconUian. £vra tlic Fn-mli nyit of gwdHuag', 
as it ii called, has ita vstlwtic audi pOBtical nde, (or tbe tr«ei^ tnbed Into 
firramidi, gatei, arebed paaragM, columns, and otiwr Hrchitactofml dMorm* 
tuxM^ ara UMkds to jmduM aouve striluiit; iUuaioiis, and a* art baa «iitirciy 
cltai^^ tbe appearaooe of tlie trees, ami Irft notliinj^ natural about thrall 
Tte ibrf^t the origuial furui, aiwl wttlingty giva ounelva up to ibeipoctin 

In Scliunbrunn, liowever, l*jr cuttm|; oae jide n( the trees and Icai-iti^ 
the otlier in tlu-ir natural im'^^ularity, tlii^y haw iinxlucMl ooiliing but dft> 
JOTBiitJe*. RaeuiMitig hi^li flat walk on oiio ade, >uid wild firuit (JMiiiena 
oa tlic utbcr. Tlie^ are not cren clijipod nf au caunl bcif^lit. but shoot up 
here more, tlicre U«t, bo that tlie iniA^ of the wall 'm ikii. kept up, and no- 
dung ifl to be sc«n but tlic mulUatt^ tiv«. IF any uae ibould turn culumna 
out uf marble statue* to form u p(>rti«) nith then), be wouid be cried out 
upoa for bii barbariBin, but if he outy half cut liia gtatuL's, and thLii iiiaila 
toMD do lertice at walU, wc should tliiiiik him still leu for hi.i painii. TIw]^ 
take a great deal of trouble, hunvrcr, ti> bring thcK- trovn iuto onliT, and 
liuve, acnong odier machines, quo tilty or lixtv' fert blt^h, conMStiiig OC 
mcnl stages, aod rolled, nbout oa castors to euuble tho gsrdenen to reach 
&» braochcs the bcitvr with t)it.-ir »bean and nxi-^ 

But we ought not in ganWiw like tin»c of Schtjiibniiin, wht'r<' Uiere b aa 
much that is admirable, to waste much time iu finding fault with tUcM lima 
tnu. 'Wo williugly abandooed ourselves to the guidanee nf thp ol>li^ng 
Bttcodants of the gnrdeiK, and followed thi-m throiieb their vr|;;ntahle titut- 
eury, and if unable to give a satisfaelorj' account i>f iu wtnltli, we will at 
kait attempt some description of the more dictingiiiflied objiwu. 

Then nro naair pUutfi llvn^ not iu tlie greonbousea but in tbe open 
gatden, which we sboulil wvV. flwrwlienj in vain. One of the mort splen- 
did Bpecimena is thn Sopttora Jtifumirn, % large cnagnifieeot tree, with 
•xoeewvely fiiio feathery leaves. It HtjKidd on a boaubAil lawn, and the 
inndjiijrs of itj bini^bs, and tlie wbnle tigure t)f tbe tree, are so pictumquB, 
that it UBS bi;>eii rt'|)catiHUy [>aiiili>d, and hitu it> porlntit in l}v: emperor's 
CoUcetJan of picturn« of the pljmt^ nm) tree* of ScriAnbninn. 

Aitista are almost conftantiy cniploj'rd in these j^^rderiHt iu drawini; cither 
for the emperor, or with scientific onjecU in view. The ii^en and hoi-bousee 
are all hsudsome and icpadous, nod a new temple of the Drj'ads in right 
imperial style is now in pfo^rcfs of erection. Whenever a bnuicli is ^^J 
broken by the wind, the vegetable surgeon is dirvetly st hajid to asaiafe'^^H 
with iron linga, ropes, and bandages. By the rout of tlie orebidaee« w» ^^^ 
saw a potatoe laid for lIiom trorms to creep into, wluch would ntbcrwoo 
iMtack tJio plant iticlf. For several trees standing In the open air, sepa- 
rate huta an erected in the winter, for example, thu Aeauearia excdsat 
and this must be elevated «»-ery jtar, as the tree grows rtipidly. Erery 
pliuit produeea* or attraolSi sonw particular species of insect, and every 
where we ciiw tlut most judicious arran^^cmeiiU for their destraotioo. 
Fiom the Bnuilian £eui palm long threads dcptnil, mid every one of these 
threads ia a pauegyric «m the rigiiance of tlic Sclionbrmin (pirdcnt-rs* 
for lliey are preserved in their entire length, neither torn nor in any way 
injunol, aa we so often find them in other grcen-hnuses. The palms, ta 
wtuch this garden i* richer than either the .lanltn ilu.i Pliuitos at l^nria, or 
Kew Gardens, near London, bare wiy lung, very fragile roote, which to* 



' 1^^^ greatest can in pUntinf*-. and that that eve i« her* beatowad Uw 

faaa ft bcaubrul blogaoiB, which bos iho ^pearance of being fcrnud fmta 
jtilovt vrax, and ia vary *aaiy hraiLea off. Tn avmd thia, snarj bloasom ii 
pTOyiJ«i wirh a [irop compoted of the ttcodcmt upliiiUra i many other 
pUnts bad tlw lilctt, with ibe addition, wbcrr thr plant was vcn- tender, cf 
• RuIb cutUoo of some wft material betwwn the pinp and tL«' flower. I 
£d not am a an^e nni»l(<cbi>d ot neUy-loakin|^ pliint. 

Amon^ the Taiitics shown an aln some JJrnHrofiiuM PieranH. whidi 
n^uire iwi voil for their growth, bnt are kept lilw biids in wire cages, and 
bung Dp ut windows, wlicrn it \i only neoetaaiy to ^irinlile them at timaa 
—'■h water; the climbing VaoilU grows abo in tlw air, uotwitUt«ndiDg 
tlucLDHS of its leaves, and may be mupendttl by tlirmds in a rxkd : 
S^fopalm, (Qrcof anmalis,) whou yesHv gn>wth, cvni in a Scbonbrnnn 
fiiwiiig house, ia fix or aavcn cIU ; a ncl> collection of £ncu from the 
Gif* : and, lastly, a Cactus cerrrus PerwUttius, eighty yv&n old, ind 
wnofa has thereforv psmed m^itrly a rvnltirj' of it« baiv, fraitlaas life, rivclad 
like I'roincthenii to tli« desoUte rock. 



The moat celebrated of all the womeii of Vlemm ia, beynnd doubt, 
"u» TTjereea, but the most noted arc the to-called " Fratschelwciber." 

Ice Uieir nstcRi in llie cabbogv -market of Ki>i>i^beig, and tlio Hallvt of 
Farift, tLtnr are distiaginched for thmr eloquence, their presence of utind, 
vid their inexhaustible wit. It is mid lliat die Emperor Joseph went ohm 
inco^iitii among ihem, and puiposely oteitumed a bucket of eggi^ ia 
order to liave a ^ledmen of tbeir oratorical powersL Their chief seat is 
in the " Hof," one of the hmct aquarea of the city, where they deal in 
rrgptAbks, fniiti cheetc, and other article* of food. 

AVhat I saw and heard of tliese interesting |)enonj gave toe more 
•nuMOMiat than T can Xxctfn ta ^to tho rvndi-r by n. duwcriptjon, for when 
ibe naive originality of the Vienna dialect comes ioto print,* it j^vm do 
tnoro idea of it as spoken, than the printed notes do of the sound of a 
|Neco of iiiuniu. 

1 must confess, that often wlteo I rotiirued from llie " Fratwhel" 
market [ uted to feel as if I bod been lu a iQadhoiue, «> inccasaut and 
clapper-tike luul l>eeu the iJialtcr about every thing ia aud about tlie woHd 
— about tlift " Germntuitin" which they were r*e<ira mending to Uecr 
Vim NacliligBll, an old hsirdrcswr, wboie po>-crty shone out froui every 
ode of hie worn and rent nether gannenta but on wliom tlicy bestowed 
i1m *< uon" neverthelcaa bccaaae be neld a few kreowra iu hand : about th* 
butcher, " the stiugT bound, iv1k> liod sold them tucli a miMroble little bit 
of meat to-day." TItey spared neitlit-r tlie emperor, the |>ope, nor their 
nuniiten, aud, least of all, the people of rank and fiuliion. wlii)iii they taw 
driviuf^ about, I was oiic d*y witiicw of the litllo cerentony n»Nl with 
tlw luttor. AtthccnmLToftho "UoF," a careJoscoachniiuiiauovor aboy. 
Ju on iustaot a crowd of vomea and mea wen in Adl pursuit of the dying 

■ KoBttcmplbMbeeiinikdeWtnuiaMeUie Aa*t>»saiiTftVtadaldBleet,(irwlitcIl 
■amoTMU fpcdnena eeeur in lU« iiatt oC U. KoU*< vock.— 7>. 

veliicle, in vhich ml ft lodv and ecntlcmAn of t1ic hij^hcr class. But tlie 
Fnitcchclwdber paid not toe miuillest heed to llii-ir hi^h iiobilily. " Cntrh 
'om chcrc, htinff 'em Ixuk, the qualitv cuidlc-iuuften ! bnnff *«m back! 
the scum of a (liui^li'ill ! To nta over ihe poor bor !" wure titc complimcnu 
that raa from mouth to mouth, m tlit^ mob ran Itawliag after the gcntlog, 
who urotilcl probably h«r» fared ill enougl), if they had fallen into Ui« 
bonds of the irntittM nibble. Thit cluss of |)«i»>na in Vieuna arc by no 
DieaD) the patient, rcipcclfuli tiniUl herd to be met; with in uthn- rapitab 
of monarchical itates; for example, in St. Petersburg', Moscow, Fraf7u<>, 
&c. The cliUd, whose cause iras so eii«rf;«tieallv &do|>t«d by tlie FraUchel 
womrn, nas nnt v\xn a countryman, but a little Croat, Rich OS are met 
vitli in &1I part* of X'ieniin, «f Iliiifr nuiishet and odious. Bcyoiid a bmiae 
or two, l»e had sualained tio injury ; tiideed, he had r&tber bcvn kuockod 
clown Uinn run ov«r. The nomeii pnt ou hiii bnwd-bniiuned Cr^mtian 
hat afr^iiii. wip«-d eantfully hi* wide mantle of tliiok wlut* wik>!, in which he 
looked like n dtmlnutivo Orlando in a gianl'^ armour, and b!nif;tit some of 
hi.H radishes to console liiin. The cliiKl, who undcrsiood not a w-ord of tlio 
Fmtsi'Iiol j.iriron, lookt'il riiiitid hini in a. scared muin/tr, and then rt'-fiitned 
his moil rttii nous crj-, "An g»lr» ratri, ratli," (good nulishrf), tlie only 1 
GemiaQ ba knew. These Croata are very numeroua in Vienna, and form ' 
no inrotividerable portion of lite [M>pulacp there. As they sell uotlilttg ' 
but onions and rftdishcti, the Fratsrhel ladies ara perauadod thiit Croatia 
must be a poor country and produce nothing else. In the suburbs, theroi 
arv, in tbr jmhlic-hinuo^ of tliv lowest elaw, great dormitories for themi 
whieh t)]e>- call Croat quarters. There wlieu tiie rnvona return from tlie 
£eldj lo ^tt'pliaa's tower, the' poor Croats Kuddle toother ittlcr the (a- 
tigucs of tho day, and sleep in the same tliick cloaks that have Ahetttred 
tham from tho heat during tliB duy. *■ They live like so many cattle," said i 
one of the Fmi?chel women to me, " thev haven't oven a bedstead, let 
alone a inatliB.s<i. Tliuy lie o'ai^liU and iiolidays on their bellies, luid are ' 
St for nothing but to iimII onimi*," 

How lon^ thff pecnlifLT bnbitE and arrtingpTocnts of a town will maintain 
them^clvtrs, and more frequently in small thin^ than in great, 'u !een in 
the lish-n lands of \ncnna, which, in passing through Looiioldstadc. are <lis- 
ooverwl to the right of Ferdinand 'a -bridge. Althnuifli Ineife stands ore to 
easily moved, conaitftJng merely of ilicdj upon Boats, that look as if they wetc 
ancliored hy the rivcr-sidc only for n time, yet they liave made good thair 
claim t" the place for centuries, and as long a* [leople have consumed finli in 
Vienna, sri long has it been cusl(jmiiry to offer it for sale at that part of the 
DiHiube-caiiaJ. The ct^iorotion of fishmoiigers belong, in many <icnnan 
cities built on rivere, to ine oldest and most privib-giMl bodies, from a very 
simple eause, namely, that they carry on o biisiiic*^ which aatucally waa 
tlio first to arise in the imuiediitte neighbourhood of a river, and one that 
often iM'iA.'ioned tlic foundalion of a town there. In \'ienna they enjoy 
great privileges, which Imvo been ratified by all their (niipetors ; yet, in 
motlem times no trade, witli the e.iceplion of thut of wig-molcurs, ntu de- 
dined so much from its fanner spletid<iur. The refonnation, atid tlip pre- 
iwnt moro blx obwFvaneo of tbefattj', even inestlioliceoimtries, havo greatly 
reduced the conaumptioa of lish ; and great are the complaiute in this iv- 
apect in Vienna. 

" In fnrmnr times," mid nn old dealer in finh to nir, " there often ciuno 
Bftocn or tixtcen waggons laden with tisb to Vienna, and now they caU 


pismroNQEns and i>saleb9 nr qahe. 

out as if it were a wondrr If unlv two or three come in oti« aAcr the other, 
Jly lad- father, who lived iit tln' good tiroes, us*d to bring three or four 
hiiiiilml iiit^Asures uf sprats at micv to market, und 1, bis ton aad tmceamr, 
tiiiiik itivicirvxlmiivly Itickv if I c-nn get rid of thirty, so mucb are tha 
times ebuignl. FomiHv, 1 mean about tony nr fifty yean aj^o, p«opl0 
had BOow recard for ruligioii aud fiut-days, aud 1 kiiow some gmt notuei 
where nil FriJayH not bd much meat was allowed as would go cm Uif point 
of a knifv:. And t)i«ti tbo cotinmts in Vienna, what a consumption «f iiah 
was there ! There wore tJie CarmellCefl, the Aaputiiies, tha Miiioi-ites, 
the Barbaritet, and all the mat of thrin ! I recollert tliore wax imt con- 
vent wht-re the luonlu uwxl to fast tlie whole ywiu tlirouch, and wlicre we 
u«ed to carry the mo«t delicate hinda of lish l>y eart-loadk But that's all 
OTcr now. The Kreat people don't trouble themselvei about faittiiig and 
Mting fi«h, aud even the monks ant grown more tnipiiiui. Nohiuly, iiow- 
a-dit;,'«, kiiowa what a 6iic liih it ; my ftithftr u«c<i to tell mc that in Maria 
Theresa's ttme u mucb as ttm aud tlircc hundred weight Ktifokaach would 
he mid at a time. Now when a great man buvj a fokascb, it's euily car- 
ried home iu a Dspkin, and they seem all to liare made a row to eat no- 
thinR but fleali. 

" And tht-n niimy changes in horuckoepang hare done a great deal of 
mischief to us tish-tlealers. Fonneriy in most great houwa the scrvanta 
used to Ul- fed by tltcir miuttorti, uid then it wiu more with fUh than with 
meat, which wiii ilrun-r. Now the dunmlics have bccutnc more iude- 
pcntleut, thoy have more wages aod feed tbeinselres. and like better to 
cat flesh thau 'Sth. Formerly, a coiinMllor's lady wotdd go herself to the 
market to buy finli ; now she leaves all that to the cook, who b become a 
greater Iiuly tliaii tho cotirt cuumnlhirrsii, and |)eo[)!« choiwe rather to 
buy from th» gamr-nmrket than from uj. Then folks arc all mor» dis- 
oraerly and extiuva^ant tlion they ufed to be. Ooco even poor folks 
wmild leave so mueh behind them llial their ehildren might at Icaot have 
their di«i) of iiili at the funernl — now ihey Inavc niitlung but debts, with 
which the dcril himself could buy no fish. la old times at ovciy dinner 
some rhoico fish u as always amongst tbo cliief dishes — it is not so now. 
Th<- I.irliteiiilein seldom gives a dinner, tlio Kollowrat only onco n mouth. 
But Mich ii(iblcnu.-ti ai old Ziehy ((tml blcts hiii ntetnory), he used {ilenty 
of lish — liked 'A well, and knew when it was good — there are no such men 
now — At least not iu Vienna, and it seems almost as if people thought God 
had put the ti^ iu tho water for nothing." 

Up to tbo last point my worthy trader might be in the right, hut there 
is after alt, plenty of Ash still eaten in Vienax and even distant watera are 
laid under contribution. The Flatten See in ilungary iumishes in great 
abundiiucu the diiUcate fi>ka«cli. 

Ill winter, msien, loWen mid tTnb< are brauglit from the Adriatie, tlw 
former packed in iee, the latter in chests pierced with holes itpon laurel 
luavv», ou xhich they rati befure tbey Imvc rcnchtd them on tlie table of 
the ^minnand. Tlic ^wuds of Bohemia also yield a great quantity of li.ili, 
but tile larger part of Ui« consumptiou is suppliod by tlmt great ann of tiro 
JJanuhethflt passen throuffh llio city. 

The ri.divnnrii, fniin wli'iui tliere ia a« much to be learnoil now as at the 
time of the CIiriKtiau ora, gave ine mueh intiTtating information coiiceming 
tlieir trade. They told me that the sturgeons ascend to about sisleen 
t&ilcfl from Vieuiiu. Piesburg ia tbe liighusl point where they arc caught i 

ihc gnaUr part eome from Perth. Four ywan ago thpy captiirMl tikera 
a ■turgeoa o{ ten vwt., th» WrgMt that luul lt«en smo in Vicima fur » 
lone tuna- Up aa W as Lltn, no ed>* ai« found ui Uk' Danvibe or its 
tAutarioa. All th» 6ah of tliu •peoes, used in Virnna, cotne down fnitn 
Bdienua. N«icher is then my ialnw» in tha Daitalw — it come* from Uw 
Elbe and the lUiini; ; aalmon trout aro caogiht in tb« laLea bdonf^n^ to 
th» eataln of the Salt-chamhpr. Kopett, perhaps from iej^ {head), am 
ray nuall 6»h with t«ry Urgn h<-ndii. Thay am eoagfat in the anm* 
nlvn aa die trout, in Uie Trauit and other mountain atreain*, and are 
^ni^nl. of prey. When protietlydrcasaditisaTcry n ell LurtiM) fish, andia 
mei aooM-timH aa a gansali lo duhn whereon lar^r finh sro mttmI. The 
fineat fiah in the iHaabe an: the stiUI and huchrn. The latter is Eko 
s trout in form, but neighs rnnn fifty to Nity ponndii. A« tbv Aopnt 
Are witliout bones, so the huehea have do acalea, or aadn »■) smnll aa to 
be Bcarcely pcix^tiUe, for which reaaon they are the f«Yourite fish of the 
Vienna Jem, who eat no fish »-itli ■colcc, aod are, therefore, so in icn-c with 
Att^Aai that they will pay almost any pri« for iL Thff miiill sturgeon, 
oAcn to ctrongly recoaaiacBded by tbo howl wiutcK to «tran gf-rt in Vieuna, 
come &om tlie Ilungariaii DanulH-. They arc easily fnunglc^ by the 
mout io a naty and cuigllt mnnv at a time. I wai told uninr rrinarkable 
circuinatao0a« felattve to the induence of the watirr* Rawing; tbrougli tlie 
dty. The &1i-dealpra maintain that all water eaaaag frcHSi Uie atoeela, 
canals, and tluicea, k bo poisonous, tlint it kills the fbh in inimenw qnan- 
tatiea. After a raddeti violent shower in cummer, nb(« Lbo whole town 
dit^ortcns it« filth, and the contcuta of all tlie druns stream at onoo into 
the l>a.nube. many thotiiand ewt. (th? iish-dealen wct|;h the crcatiirea m 
thonglit, whiW they an xtiU at Larj^ in their own eK'inent), are sure to 
lose ^eir lifea. In the aumnicr of 11^33, the- Danube waa extremely low; 
suddenly a riolent storm of rain rused it« wat^-rs nearly ten fert tiigber, 
and the stnxun from the city ennie out like inb. The fi:i;h, wlui'ti are 
oleaaly animal*, ruahed as if quite desperate to the fltl^fn4^e, lenpt hig'h into 
the aar, and fcU in mnltitudcs upon the banlta oF the river; a most stupid 
proceeding; on their part, as by goiny up a little fartJier, tl»ev niigltt have 
come Ui flea* water. 

The words tluit hiul t^uupi'd my friend the finhmoncer respecting tfie 
great eonNnmptidii of gnme, which it wajt evident had exeited his envy 
not a little, iiidneed mo to thLnIc that 1 should find thij liranoh of induiti^ 
in a more Uoumhiug conditiou than his owu, uid ao in foot 1 did. When 
we cocuider the wealili of Bohemia in wild animals suited to the tnhle-^ 
wlicrt wo coiuidtT tlie numerous water-fowl that &cf|uent tlM^ InlcM of Hna- 
gary, the larj^ scale on which the st^r-hmita arc carried on U} the south 
of the Pliitl*"'! Sue, llie chamois met with in great herds hi the ncijjhboin-- 
inf^ Styria, utid when wo eonuder tliat Vienna he* exactly in the middle of 
tlicaa toeidiauatible prewrves, it oiay be readily believed ttint it; morltetj 
•re the beat sup^iliiHl with this speeies ot commlihle of any Hly in Europe. 
Bow neat tha qiHuitity consumed was shown shortlv befom my arrival on 
the following occeaioa. The city atithoritien had Kubjoctcd nil i^ime 
bMuglit into Vienna to a tax of b\x. Icreuzer* per head, and the iin[)oab 

• TbM* %rt no wU in the Smith Ruction rtreaais. nor in anj- irf the river* ficiwine 
intolho Hark Sen. till wruYirc nt a verj oonri'lcmUc diiiauctfrum tin; MU. Seat 
leaat I vai auured by a piTnoD wi-1 seqaalntcd with them. 


irn.9 Ii^!m1 even oii evory little wiM diu-fc and teal from tb» Danube lereU. 
A* thr»r smaller articKs rouUl not bear bo hesvy ft texation, the Irndc 
iu ihfta ctued almost entirelj. Hereupon the dealen found th(Tn«i?lrM 
«blig«d to mtnownt <n tbe antlioritu^* thp mstnns of the iiijurr (Ion» 
them ; tbat twjr bad U'cn Accustomed to "bnng half a miBion yroily of 
tlie*e anialler biida to Vienna, which weir now aern brought at all; tliat 
nuitiK'N iif pnsottR who luid frnlned a livHihtxxl by <nt«)ii»g t^nl and 
wild-duck, wwe now mddMtlj tlirown out of emplov, and thj^ h«nce it 
would be neceosarr to impoec llic tax onW on the larger kinds. 1'he re- 
noiHtraiue wu atteoded to, chletly at tne instance of one wealthy and 
iofluOntial ttadcanan, with whom I l>c«u»c aiy|ijainl«tl, and I found mn^ 
ocouioo to admire tlut vast anttm of liis doaliaga, and the extent and 
Tarietj of hi* iufomialion. To buy a piec« of ^iii« from the hunter, and 
giw it to the cook to be dRttod, seema so very simple an affair, that H is 
aol easy at lint to uodnvbuid bow it should ^ivt: n man any position m 
the state. The links of our aonal tiansact'unis, lionevrr. arc like those 
of tlie wtenees, so intimately coniweted one with the other, that it is 
Marccly poanble to emry on iny o«« branoh on a ^miid »«il«, without 
becoming in bodic tiivamiro fnniiliiir with othcnt. It wottid be differ- 
ent if tlw stag had only flesh; lie would then concern the oook onlv. 
JBut hi* aiitlcn arc wanted by the turner, hi* skin )ty the tanner. Tfic 
{rather^ of the bitd* are i>f um in innny tnidc*; tlio nat»nili»t is often 
indebted to the civility of tlio deali^r in nild fowl. Tlie grntidces find 
it worth while to give hint good words, to incTvuso tlie jnuft nf their 
hunting- grounds, or to wcure the ropply of their kitchens, lijs con- 
nexion extends even to the imperial court, for it in known that on estra- 
ordinaiy occannn^ wtdi sa a visit {mm the heir to thi> Kussian throne, ho 
niay be relied on for extraordinary cuppltce, luch oa a Polish vUc, or a set 
of ItiisHaa beathcocks. 

As I was already partially informed of tlinte lelatinns, I wss not at all 
surprised to find my |>aine merchant a cUver, eoU^teotd man, w^ 
Bcquunted with many branches nf natural history, not ignorant of ana- 
toiti} and S'enlogy, thorouglily iofonned <>f idl ttiat related to the rhace, 
and tlte manner of life and habit* of tli^ nnimAl? ; one whn had studied the 
wmln of Cuvier and Buffbn, and could sevcTcIy criticiie the csn^^nition% 
flmnishes, and estravngaot assertions of t)ie latter; who spoke of C-Jtuiit X., 
and Prince Y., at of [lersons witli whom be vwt well acqnaiotMl. and 
rsbitod how tlio goi-emmcnt had had it in contemplation to effect pomo 
ebange in the game rautirm as be called them, but bad desisted on his 
reprssen tnti wis, ^or did it afterwards excite my astonislunent, wlicn 1 
mml an wtist cmplnjcd atnong' thu antlers of ^■arioiis kinds, and amonj^ the 
ptatlcr casts of differ<:nt drwriptioiis of snimals. While I was with my 
meHthaol, there came a professor of nilurai hirtoty, and said to him, *' I 
sm MOK, my dvar Mr. >. to *MeU about a litltc, and see if vou have any 
tbin^ new for me." And ho wns foUowed by a gentleman who nUo came 
to tmeti about, and invite Mr. N. to a hunting-party. These dealers in 
game are as loud of the )ieculiar odour of the wild creatures they deal in, 
H mannon arc of tbcir pitch and tar ; and nsc the rsjmsiwMi tmell 
sbrnt as a technicnl term lor a \'isit. I " tmelf often in at the bouse of 
Mr. J»., and slways found some interMting people tliere. Tbow who hare 
much to do with uutore arc almost always inteitatii^. One dny I met 


there a StiiiaD clumoH Iiimter, w)it> rrUtwl to me laany uiterrattitg 
aJvcnluies V liiJ niti witb in iniramt of (Ko» unimab. Ohierviug that 
I ocnuiouaUr made b, note of vthtH 1 iieard, b« siud, " Ah, vrrilv it all 
down, «td ftl toll you somct Hiiig about (lie cunoiiiK of the clumois tJ»t 
no one hu heard befote." Th^i nronnnfl ypur he hod found n ^is (fi>niale 
chonioii) ready to Itrin^ fortlu lie had followed bcr for eight <JavM to i«e 
wliere sliu would dt-ptwt lier ywing. Sunictinics he took off his fluw-t, 
and climbed ou )u« biirc fitct \i\f> a cut ; aiul wux wlton lie hiid to cluniber 
vp thp 8tcq» face of a rock, be cut off aJl tiie button* from bis clothes itiat 
they might not make a "jingle." At lost he discorcml tlic two youiig 
onoi in a niche at the top of a high rock, in u " kastt," u tlio Itutitf n call 
it, Th« little one) were aporling amitnd tliftlr mother, who glanced fnin 
tune to timo down into the valley to watch for any ho»titu approacli. To 
avoid being seen, our hunter made a (freat circmt, and io reached a path 
that led to the " kastl." tlxnctly in front of the nlclie tlio rock dievcendwl 
pcTpciidiculurly to on immense d<-]>tli. At tliu back na« another 8t«ep 
aesceiit. Some fragments of rock formed a kind of bridge between the 
larger masses, but tlteac were placed loo high to be accessiblo to t)iP liltin 
one*, and could only bu available for tlw.-ir molLcr. The hunter rejoiced 
as he contemplated thin position, and prrMerl u|)Oii tli« nnimaU vrlinse 
escape eeenied im{}a5jible. When the old one caught sight of hitii, and 
iticojiurt^d with a glance the unfavourable i!LS|K>sition of tbo rock*, slu^ gpning 
upon llif hunttT with the furj- that niatcrnnl hive will brpalha into the 
most timid creatunw. Thp danger of »iicli atlm'kn fwm the chainoiB ii 
ioH from the thrust, which is i>ot vcrj' violent, thnn from the endeavour of 
Hit animals to fix the poiTibj of tht-ir ImniH, which arc bent llko lish-hook>. 
0OmewhcT» in tlie legs of the hunter, and then rjnftu him backwards down 
the precipices- It happens sometimes that the cnamoi* and hunter thus en- 
tangled roll into the abyss together. Our hunter wa* ia ao condition to 
£re nt the advancing chainoiM, ajt he found hoih ba.nd!i necewary to sustain 
himself nn tho narrow path ; lur thvrefon' warded nfF the blows as well z» 
he could with liis foot, and kept atill odvaucing. The anguidh of th« 
mother increased. She dAshed back to her young, coursed round them 
with loud cries, as if to warn them of the danger, aiid then leaped upon the 
h«fbro-natned fragments of rocic, from which th<: micftnd hut more difficult 
egreaa from the j^itln was to be won. She then leaped dov^^l n^iii to her 
little oiie», and seemed to encoumge them to attempt the leap. Iti vntn tlw 
little iToaturM sprang and wounded their for^thendii nj;ainst the rocks that 
irere too high fur tlieni, and in vnin the mother ncpea-tcd a^iii and ajpiiu 
ber finn and graceful leap to sliuw them the wav. All tliis was the work 
of a (vw miiiiito!, whibt the hunter had again itdvanced some stepi nearer. 
He was joat preparing to make the last vftwrt when the foUowitiK picture, 
which was the particulitr circuiiistancB he referred to in speaking of the 
chamtttt' cunning, in«t liifi astonished eyes. The old cliaiuoia, fixing her 
hind teg) firmly on the rock behind, liad »trctcbcd her body to its utiitost 
length, and planted her fore feet on the rock above, thus forming a temporary 
bridge (if her back. The litt!(t ones teemed in a minute to comprehviul 
the design of their mother, sprang upon her like cats, and thus reached the 
point of safety. The picture only lasted long enough to i-iialdc tht-ir jnir- 
iiier to make the Intt »tep. He xprang into thu nichi*, thinking hinivlf 
now BUTt of the young chamois, but all three weic off with the speed of 

the vini, Knd a rounle of thaia thxt fin seal a(V«r tlie Tugitivfle, mor^y an- 
aaunoed by Ui^ir «cbo to t]i« turrounding rocks, Uutt be hftd hiimc^ his 

T)i« cluimoli are mora nnmeroaa in tlie ISrol thnn ia •Switxerlimd, atul 
more nunuiroun in ibe Styrian A]|ii titan in tli« Tvml. The wild soatl 
come only ai far ai the oppocitc wcctcra end of tLo iiVlpine cbajii. Ihty 
hare been quite drivpn nvray from tho eastern and nuddle [icirtions, tlie 
Ughcit and most iuacwssible aiimnuU of th« Snvoyui Alpn niono afford 
%t present that def;rc« af tolitudc and rocky vrtldncsi which u ntjutsite 
for ibcm. Tli^y anr now protected in Savoy by a rciy severe law, wliich 
eondocRDs to death any pereon who shall kill a wild-goat. XevertlioloBa, 
th«rc are pMpIc who i^annot witlutand the temptation nf lumtng at these 
homed kiDg^ of the Gmiiui and Jidinn Alps, aim it is Mud tlicrc oro at ihia 
moment in the prisomt of Savoy oeveral of th«M! adventurous linnten, who 
Itave be«n condemned to d^th, and have had their sentence commuUnl into 
twenty yean' iuipm^iament. IVo yean ago a couple of Uving niumala of 
titis spwies pn«)i(-«l through Sleiiiin oit tln*ir way to Rtiana, a present froin 
the ruler of Savoy to the eni|>rror. I h«anl that some time ago a Vi«Qna 
dealer had ofTcred a large price for one, and tliat in cotu«queuce a Savoyard 
had shot an old one nttd delivered it in Vienna. The ninii waa diicovrreu and 
puraued by tho Toyid hiiiilKnieu, but wa.* hivky enough to cwajie bv cho 
f^lmdun into Swittcrhmd, ^c paths being bettor known to him than to hts 

My Vienna friend told tne that hy means of his af(|uaiutance in Tlun- 
gkiy and Boh(>niia, he often T«ooivMl rare animal* not directly connected 
wito his buEincHS. and that scorvely an animal roamed the Austrian 
forests of which some specinuen had not visited his shop. He took mc 
afterwnrda into bia ioe-cellar where I saw a peat Torietv of creaturea 
Ivin^ on th« ice. He hod the cellar hun^ with llun^anan tnats, and 
the ice wni likewise corrred with mata. lie said that it was not sufii- 
eitotiy kiMWD to the owners of iee-cellaiv, tliat by means of these mats 
thaioe could be much lender pir^nriMl than when it came into immediate 
contact with the air and ihv walls and ttiat a smaller f{uiiniJty of it waa 
iherefttre luffifMent. Among his planter casta of heads and antlera he lind 
IboM of an enormous elk. He had given several eopiei; of the latter to 
Aostriaa noblemen, whe niahe^J fur them to decorate thvir castles, a fancy 
that never occurs to th« gentlemen of Lithuania and Poland, the native 
twuAry of tbeae ereatnre^ We may see by all this on how large n ucalo 
tbe game dealers nf Vienna cany on their biisinei«), and how highly i(« 
naourcea are dnrdoped. It were to be wished that the leanied and cul- 
tivaisd on their eido would eometimes turn the knowledge and *|)e<-(al de- 
tails which some people have obtainedGrom nature, alittle more to account 


In the Sans-sonci gardens at Modliog, there are nine tents of tactcfullv 
draped rtii and wlute elathi, pitched in a meadow, each of wliidi is dedi- 
cated to Oit* of (he Muses, whose namm, embroidered on flags, flutter over 
the tops : CaUiopd Clio, Kntcrpc, and so on. In the centre alaitds A 
tsnth, whereon a Vienna lender flourisliea as Apollo, ai»] n>gi>les the Muaat 
with Strauss'* walttcf. The muies are young nuideua and old women, 


146 BtraatER-Kicnrs' dkeasks axd flovek festttals. 

otteDiled hjr cftralten aod chililmi, wlio reaort l« UtOM Domodic lury 
tomplM to ilnDk coffcu. Takiitg refmluDeDU in tbu poetical ttvU im 
ijoite in the U<t« of the \^«!tina peopU', ukose orient&l fancy dclt^aU m 
nio^iug Um loftifiit matters nitb ilxMc of eiwrj day Ulv, luul alwajrs aclocts 
^ mort high ioaring insaiptiooj Ear the Bort trivial tfaiogi, 

Tbo Vmbu f^^ ■'" ulce great po*wl«to( who will adtnit wisdom 
uaij diimMd in tlie laotWi but t>i«r na*« rofleelioD enough to rtcoKsita 
tl>« hand of dwtby that minglvs 'u\ t&c mosk buignifiaiiit occoitciiom ot ' 
life. Therefore thDy will driok their coffee id the t«inpleof llw Muaea, ami 
swallon the bitter draught of truth Bw«ct«iied with Um aucat^plum of 
cheerfuloca, Hencie thv (-xtraordiiiary draioati* oenoiue w RauBitafs 
iDTontioD, the Sibvls as old maids, the G«nii as bowliiig'«T«Bi att*ndaatl^ 
the conjtirora and tnajpcians from Wanudin atul DniuiuamiiiWQu, who poux 
Jbcth uiiwearit^y trittin^ jests, ood spoctivo wUdoon in Swabias and lluu- 
garian G«nnnn. Tlw tiuMof Raitmusd's pieoM and thdr |Mt«vuliug M^lo 
an prMty wpll knnwn amongM Uf, not M the rtylo in wbicli Uiw pToi>Ttfitor3 
of pbc«9 of public rcBort inrite the public to their ouchantii^ popular 
iitatiTalA. I piud at fintc lilUo alleatioD to the anaounoements with whicb 
«wy ooracT uf tl)o gtrvvts vas covorod. But one evauing late, i. e. at 
devcn o'clock, ot which hour Virninn is m rtill lU a inouw, I luvt k lOMl 
laden with an enormous ma&s of priuteiL |japer, busied in pulling down Uw 
old billn and posusj^ up new. I asked liim to lot me look at iioiue of lliefa, 
and ho thnin down a whole? bnb h<-r<>riA mc. Ilerr Lanncr nnnAuitc«d ft 
ttbe with saw dooontioni and illuniiiiaUDiis, undur the Biunc of 'A Swn- 
mer-Niffhl's Dream." Ilerr Strauss had found a yet more attractive tille k 
fer asother f^to, which was to take place at Sperle. liy the gliramcriug ■ 
^;bt of the lantern I ivad " Fiuicy aud llarojony ia the ioic*tiJited n>aC- 
BMntaof Joy, a rural flower festival aiid hall." On a tliird tlio "re- j 
newned Oaum" promised a " KeitirB soir^' and conversazione in hia t 
£lynum." Four ebaractenatio baud* were aiuuntucvd in the various lo- 
cautJut, and IWtlier " the mach adniiriHl origund rcprL-amtatioiu uowly 
anangad for tha p cas o nt Masoii." «>i)ulil tak« plaov us followB : 

III A«ia (ono part of tha gardens) would he dinplayed three aaloona, bril* 
lisutly illuininatod in the oriental taste, on avenue uf palia Uwca aa a pnn 
iDi.niiidL>. adorned with the newly •invented Iraiiijiatout Iris garlands, and at 
^e end the aplc-niltd princ^ijiol vii-w, giviii;; nn nll^|Mical picture of Asia, 
bcyotid which tho inuncians would iie hcai-il hut not seen. 

In vlc^rit Europe (another pait of ibe ganlAun) a Roman triumphal 
STcli would be changed in a niomeut to an nmphith^ntrp, wliornu the 
OlvTiijiic gain>» were to bw pn<duv<d in appropriate co»tuine. 

lu i^mericft (a lawn) would be performed the admired Railwiiy pussago 
to Aiutraliii. led by the gracefully adorned liuliu aud gonllenMiu, Apollo, 
Pluto, Diana, and Minerva. 

Ill Afnca (a fourtli part of " ElyBium"), besides many rnvourlte per- 
fonn»ncK#, Herr Stontdi, trvaa BtN-lio, would have the honour uf axhihttin^ 
maiiy new feati of dextwity, and, in the splendiiUy decorated llantm, an 
Afncun lummer fete would be given. 

As a souvenir of tba convrruiaiont', every lady trould recelrc, " in a 
tetive maanw, two vinvs of Elyniiim," with an ctplanation. For tho 
greater gratification of tho re8p«c<«d visitvn, the acmoaplwric aii' would 
be impregnated with lliu newly •invented >Sch<mlminn flow<ir i«rfumo. 

1 belicfe that uot in India itself could a (6te for tha multitude oh an- 

smiMEE-iaGnrs' dreams aito txowee rEsriVALB. 147 

WKOUMd ia men ponpoos fiufaion. I noticed main others 

. . anuownced, M 
'NigjfatiiD Pan£w, "The Dsdc? of the SvlpU,' &c Eiwh niqiassed 
tlw otl)cr in lii^h-flown fitodca. The ohkf ulureiDtato to til Uie*e pl;u:e9 
are dancing mm good launct and iht propiieton endeavour on mtai iiv- 
caaioiu to procure aniDB ukw compoeiuous of die fa^-ourtU! vnmpo««ra, 
Lanner, Sttmuas, or Fslirbach, oiiiipc»<>d ^^Lprcasly for tKu cveninjr. This 
mvMc ha^ g^nerallv eome vcrj BtnlLuag- tiUv. A iivw trolU of Straiiia's 
wiu vaUrd tlw " Ek-cirk Spurk," wiotKcr the " ETcning Star," a third 
" Tdors of Joy." Miwical toiiios atiil " Hamumjoua pictum" nr« almocc 
always iuut«d with UiMe £Me«, and how far the compoivn of Virnsa go 
with their " hjinnnnjp painting" iiiav he mch fnnn tin- fuHowiDje; sprafica- 
tion iif (neh n " j >aiuttiig" pnxluwil when tjie Mchducal conqueror of Isolde 
w« th» h<tro of th* (lay. 

" StomuDg of Saidc (a new muac&l picture). 

" Flnl Part. Approach of the EngfiJi FUwt. 

"SmomI Part. Approadi of the AuMimn FImI. 

** Thatd Fkrt. Chanwterwtia of the Allies, nod the Eaemy. 

"Fourth Pnrt. Summons to gun^ndcTf rcfuaal. diwmbaiWtioQ, at- 
taek, cai)nnna4lin^, bonitiordnicnt, storming, and conflagration. 

" Fiftlt Part. Joyout dtmoiMtmtion* and thaclueiriags to the \'iclot3. 

"SUth Part Celebration of \'ictoiyr and triuni|%ant march." 

No partipa in Vienna are so numerous as the muaeal ons, which haw 
their fmroificatiOQa from the high««t aooiety to the rery lowest. StrauM^ 
tlie moiit orlcbrated concrrt mastiTi Ltumer tlw moat origiuaL. and Fahr* 
bacJi, also well known to txnt, an tlic traders and danigodi of tbeae mee^ 
ings, the tnbunes of the paoplo in Vivmia. Like tb« Bodui tribanto^ tbey 
exert UmiilflM 1 to the utmost to enlarge and »tr«iigtlieu their ]>arty* 
WlMn at Sperte, or in the [luhlic gardens, they Houriih tlicir him-t in rlo- 
gant littlp t«nipl(», njiiidA a grove of otangO'trooa, rfaododeodroiis, and 
other plants, and «xecuto ihtf nrwvit and moot ^octire compontiona witli 
their jici&dijr orgaiuMd bandf, (Strauss enrols none hut BoaemionSr) they 
ae«ra in n mawnn the cluers and leadan of the public. Bvfbra tlieni stents 
• K*tfiiing thTong. with whom they ok constantly coauettiog, Dodding to 
tiieir fnrndA in the midit of their work, and ginng titem a Cntdidly unile 
ax they »xi>f ute aoow difficalt paaaage. Erciy diMingiiiab«d affort t« n^ 
wardod bv lood appUtiH', and new or farounte piceut by a. Btonny " Da 
Capo." Even in toe common danciiig-rooma, the minic is bo little ee- 
muBi^, that the danee i* often inlrmipted by a tumult »f apjilaum for 
the munnnn* and compoaer*. Even at the f^Ici uf the Sdiwara'iiberga 
and LichtWMteiiMb % eoiuD JaraUwr (ndoiatanding nitJi the favourite' nm- 
sinans mar be ote er fe^ wfakhr eaiODg- tlw people less entliunasiie in tJw 
matt«r of dance-muai^ would be tboagfal: out of place. 

StrnuM and his colkoguet are always on the look out lor ttew iavcnliona 
in the field of niDsic. In almost every Mason tltcy produce soaw new 
thiluuy or daaging ioatrument. or some nlraonlinan manceavre on an 
old ene. Lut summer, in a Pat Pouiri, StraoM maoe all his vioUoict^^ 
vnlonccIUats, and basMs, lift up tlicir voioce and uug the Bhine Song, " Sie 
aofbn ikn niekt hahm," which, witli the baMM cmecially, had a very coouq 
cfiiMTt. Lanner entieed th« public l>y m«>Bns of^a young man, who snng 
a duet between a gentleman and a lady, in whiai the higlt and dtdi- 
tftle tones of the woman w«« an aerunitely iinitateal an tlw di-pth mid 
fltnmgth of the man's race. No mmical loiree ended without on imitation 


of Um npnrt nf firrtrmlcs, wlwniii tlie rushing coarse of ibe rocfcit, «n^ 
th* fpukltDj^ ))Lu of tlic whsels, nnD^lnl io tjui died smy nith the mil- 
■icol tones. Tbe next day theoyou «« fttrs Io ntd m ha'^ article in one 
of the journ&lf brginnbig' in ihU fashion : '* Again hu our jmlly taU^tatA, 
our in«x)ututible StraoH (or tanner <«r FanrtMch) utcoUhcd und m- 
^iaat«d tu w7Lb K new eflfort of hit ndmnaUa genius. Ail trbo had the 
good fortune to be aiuong his audieoce," Ac 

There ia • printin^imce in \'»«iiia, the lole emplojnoent of vhieh 10 
the anaouneen>«nt of thc«c &t**, plaJ^ ftnd concrrtd, notliin^ cUc bung 
prtnted tiM-re but placanla. TIw propcietor of this esl«ti]ifflment, Mr- 
Idnhfeld. hu man^r people iu hu *emce, who thorougUjr undentaad tlw 
meet Mrildog waj of annouDctng nieh mutton to thp onet poUie, by the 
jndidou* nmngement of the aDuriiuf wonU " Bal brUlaut'' " Magic illu- 
in!nstion,"''Ro>*e-tlnCedgann€nt«or[4e*5ure,**&c. I vtntedthiaprinting- 
oAuv, when Ui« readen were cmpl'ijied in conv«tini(|> tbo style and ortfao* 
grafiliv of wuters, Ac, tad preparing their eloquent productions for the 
pret*. The loonster types aro all of wood ; die effect of the great black 
letton upon nien'R eye* and fancies is alnny* njieculaletl on, and the pic- 
torial announe«incHt« of estatee for u!c bv Inttery, whrn all th« lelten are 
oompoaed of pictures of nurtln and rural views, and where every niillinn ia 
npieaeated entwined with the elegant flowery wreath of Iiomi, arc r«a11y 
Biaaterpteoea in a pcycholo^al a« in a sylajfrophic point of view. Tlie 
mnunaJ word«, or tlioae that do not frcoucotly occur, are compoaed, as oe- 
tamtm may require, from tingle letters, but the celebrated oameft, Stmxsa, 
Lanner. ini Sperl, — Klj-siuni, Prater, — Golden Pear, Sic, an «it out of 
dnzle blocks, and many duplicate* arc ulwayi kqit ready for aso at lllrah- 
lell'jt. It ii the same with the stuiidinc phrases such aa " Splendid Ilh]> 
imnation*," " iJaDcinfF Soiree," kc. Whoever has arrived at the bonotm of 
•tcreotypc at IIinihf(.-Iil'( priuting-oSoe, may deem liiim«lf a celebrated 
man within the walb of Vicrma. 

It is fiomcwhat remarkable, although natural enou^ that even theae 
kind n( aimouneempnts and poating-bilk on which the mcti innocent 
tilings in the world are made known to tlie pulilic, arr culgect to the 
cenionthip, in faa to a double c«neorahip ; finrtly, to the supreme censorial 
•uthoritioa who bt-rtow tlw '* Imprimatur," and secondly, to the mbordi- 
note police authorities who make any emcuda^na held occeMar}' accord- 
ing Co cireumatances and localitiej. 

" They play them a trick for all tlint iwmptimen,'* sud my bill-sticker, 
whom I encountered in the nijlit as before mentioned. " Lately tliero 
wan a ball at Spcrk-. where tbcy danced till tix n'clock ici the m»niitig, 
nllhnujrh tbev announced on their bill tltat it whji to end aAvr iiiidnig^ht ; 
ami wheu they were called to oec^Aunt by the police, they taJd that aix 
o'clock in the morning was after tnidntght. 

A Mr. vDii X. has farmed from tlie goTemment, for an rmntuU sum of 
fiv* thoiuand Horitu, the exclusive privilege of putitiii^ bills about the 
town, and lie Iiaa the rif^bt of mineuditig, on gates and public buildingSf 
great wooden frames, on wliicti bill-s Jire pasted. If he find, elaewhore, a 
■uitabie place for audi things tho city aathoritipB gi*e him permijHion to 
make use of iL By Chriitmoj presents to the upper survaiite, he aUo pcQ- 
cures leave &om the owners of kouM« to make use of their walls. 



Odb of ttic rooit interest!!)^ things I saw in ^*i»llna wm tlio beautifully 
oxoculi><l wnndeii inodol of the projected imprawnietitB mid lutdittonH tv U10 
ma«r part of the city ; fire of the tnost oouidenble bftiikcn in tlio city, 
Kos, Poutlinn, Eakelnf, Mntrr, and Curtli, Iirtc oiiiMl for Uie pliin and 
oxecution- This plan ia — in Europe nt \east — so unuauAl, on so mmi % 
Mjte, imd to judicioua, that ou« cmuiot but wish it success, and linger > 
little in the consideralion nf mi tiiidcrtaltiii^, vhicli haa for itd object so 
ooiuiderable an eitonsioii of tht- city. 

PorhajM in no ci^ of Germany does tHer« «xift to noeuliu- a KbtioD 
between the citjr properijr so calleil, and its suburbn, as id V'iGiina. Four* 
fifths of the populatioi] of ViRnnti live in the Huburba, Ac Prrngvo, the ci^ 
wbioh oSifTS ttut niott direct contrast in thn roopect, in almost wholly tity. 
The rvtuoi) ii that Vieoaa, ocrtirithataiidinj: its atitiquit}-, nttmiicu at • 
later period the dl^tnitv of being 3. lovereign's residence tlunn Pra^o. 
~ I tbe twelfth centuiy Vienna occupied only the fitth part of the preient 
» of the city, and only a fortieth of tlic whok- niace, inoludinij the 
fulurbs ; at that time Prapio had neatly two-thirds m it« jireteut circtini- 
(vrencc It 11 only withia the last two hundred yenr«, eiiicu the time of 
Rudolph the Second, whose gcnerjil residence wu Prapie, that the em- 
perorfi have resiileil constantly in Vienna. From thut period theextousiTO 
tuburbii have grown iirniiid tliu lit^art of the capital, and hence the coO' 
tnst lK!lvre«ii thti coinni^itiii^nesa and rcculanly of plan in the former, 
and the cxtra\-agant maxo of bnildiiig- withui tlie walls of the city. The 
■trects are narrow, the bauae;) mx, seven, and el^ht stories hij^h, and build- 
ings, whose grandeur <tttmiu:itU a great public iM]iiare for their display, are 
■tuck into narrow aUeyl^ and loit in a forest of houses. In many of ths 
ttrevts it has been impossible to nialce a trottoir half an ell in hrcadtli, tho 
carriages are often ennipellfd to drive so Kliarpiy against the walU and 
windows of the housei, tliiit it is nn onbiinry inaiiifuvrc of the pedeitrintig 
of Vicuna, to save thcmsclrea from a crush by leaping on the «tcp of tho 
vehicle. Carriages are sonieliiuet tu Iw seen with jieoestriaus clinjring to 
it before and behind, and full often may iliey Imre nccasioii to thank Ileavcm 
for hutui),; fvund a house-door open in time of need. T!ie numtroua 
Dioriuglitun-s, or Dirrchliataer, thiough priiate Lnuaci and courtyaitLs to 
wliicli tlie public has n conventional ri^t of way, are of no amall t«rtie« to 
idaftiiana. 1'he whole city a piomid throufcit mul tbr<iiij;h with tlicni, 
ta an ant Mil, and tliOM wlio hare the clue of this laliynnTh, may run a 
! coiutdenLlo dijlancw ouder shelter, and avoid tlio dangers of the oairiagei 
■Jtogethor. In no other eily of Gennauy is there so gre<at or so nnintcr- 
npted a stream of vehiclHi; the comtr nouM« are, in coiiseijuenCT;, paw 
ticiilarly protected against tliis daiic^roiis floml. All <>f them m the heart 
of tlie eity have Urgu tinnca placed slantingly, armed willi an iron cap and 
jnngs, ■• u>ick •• a man's (!nger, and ilie extreme Mnootbnesa which lh«w 
^3oUs of mail osually dinilay, kIiowk Iinw ahtm cainagea must hare gnmnd 
r^jninit thom. Ttie tmhidiy pedestrian is provided with no suuh defence, 
^fend it mar be a ([Qcstiou wbetmr more penplo have tltcir Umba cnwbed bj 
dinriot wlici-ls in Vienna or in IJengaL 

All these erils have of late becomo wore palpable with tho gronth a£ 

tile tuborbt, all of wtiieli niturally hkve Uieir rvndczvtHit iii Ou owfa* of 
the city; not only liiire dio petmie of rank wlio live in fummer withont 
the liuM, their vriuttrr pft]scc« wittnu, but ibe iMOTcli&nU uul mauurocturcrf, 
altliuugti ttinr dwelling-iKnuct mny hv nitliaut in the suburbs, mual have 
tlicar inopi, warehuuK*, uid bunneti loctlititw in th« city itadf ; and tho 
majority of th« in)i&bitant«, for one r^aKOn or otJu'c, dean to prt(»*« » IJttltt 
pieti A trrrr tlierfi, SJml op ni ila narrow mijiilc-*^ Krniour of bucions, 
iralU, aii<l (iitc'twn, tin' nty etaviM. i-xunid iuvlf u die suburbs liave doQt. 
wliich Kave nmti^hwi further anA further iiitn the leve! countrj-, mmI «<r«l- 
law«il up riilsg? aft«r TillagR in *n aralBiiclie of bouses. A« iii all other 
citiw of ChnoBny. the old wry-necked, crooked ttreett of Vicuna haTe been 
patcltod and polished, the poiuiafiv tioiucs have be<en increased in number 
ytbeteter it wm poMibk; fomc buildiugx that -wwc «fp«cially in the way 
have been bougtit at a lil^h price and pulled clowu, all prcjet^ions and es- 
cireicenoea have be«n pared awav, and Uie pavement laid down is as gooA 
MM can be wi^ihed. But in au di eitr like tnts, wh'ere the Louses sUmA Itlce 
rocks, and tlic tUvcta run thp:>u;;h tlicni like ^Iie« and mounbun paaaea^ 
improvement U no easy matter. luid :ill efTorts of tlie kind lug far bibind tW 
waata of the inereaaiiv population. The prnnd difHi'idty is tlie fertificatioa 
of tbe inner city. Tma iMcenitnle!* a luxiudth of space uot leu llian from 
tliTM to four liundred fiit]iani» (the Glacis) between the wall and the siiburba. 
If the works cmild be done awity with altogvthcr, and the glacis built nvcr, 
the city and the suburbs would form one hand*(imc mid commodioiM 
wliolc. The advanlarc would be iminen«e for the iuliabitancs, for a rerj 
easy calritlatinu will »linw, tliat tli* intuiiteinuiw of tlie fortiliojilioiis costs 
them miUiotLs yearly, directly and indirectly. Living would (w iiii.-Ale(ilably 
dieaiHT, and gruat sums would !» saved in conveyances and other maltcrs 
thereivilh connected; the^* would live in hantlnuner houses, and traffic and 
poptdation would inercAiic from nil thr^e cfiiixe*. 

HowBwr. from ptrfitieal tDotiv<c8, ihc f^orcrnment cannot reaolTr vpoa 
givinf^ up the fbrtincation*, althouE'li we h&ve abundance of unfortified ca- 
[Htats, and many arc of opinion, that in ease of a war, those of Vionos 
would be of little een-ice. The part of the j^tacif between the Scotch gate 
and tho Danube channel, is purtinilarly hroad, tuid on this rircumitance 
tlio asMwialioti of hnnkco-* hare founded tlt^r qjand plati for the extension 
«f th* inner cit>'. They pmpojcd to dealroy the old furlifications io thia 
part, erect new ones bejoiiil. and thus gjiin a fn-e spiwe fm- new building 
of not tesa thao eighty tliouHand f:ith()rii>i. They bave vffered to 
effeet llio removal of tha old fortificntiotis at their o«ti etpeafe, and havo 
bad a plan drawn up by the architect Forster, nctordin^ to which tlio new 
qiLirter of the city may be inoit comutodlou.'ily united to the old mtes. 
Tho public buildings, tlie ehurHies, thcatras, fuuntaina, monuments, galM, 
Ac, which Ibe new <|uartcr will require, thct« f^vntlenicn will also croct at 
tbeir own ciprniv, nna give ctrnipcnsation for tbe lost ground of thf- glacit, 
on eondition that the sites for private hou*os shall be fcukl for their lulvnn- 
ta^. As beftire said, they have caused the oliu), in all ltd details, to be exe- 
euied in wimd, and exhibited to llic public. The olil dnrlt misshapen Viennni, 
in wliosv olwcaritJM so many a Inir pearl ii IcMt, wnuld thereby gain a 
bright regular magnifii-ent appendix, whoso Pijual miglit he sought in vain. 
A lurgi^ open place with niununientu to the Cmpcror Fruncts, and the 
first »tiiti-^inen of his time, and n cliuruli, in the Gutiiic Ntyle, is prtiposed as 
Ae centre of the new (jaartor. A tplendd range of dnivUinj^Wiaw, built in 




dUfercni tt ylm, to %triA » i^m^tttMe monotony-, u to form « qna^ abog 
the Duiube, Mionutfiwntwhichat jin>seatisaltogeth«rw*ntin^in Viflnns; 
mai Uhmo poliUc btnUitics dot in the wont eonditiou, tlic Exi-lianf^, the 
Poat^ifficn^ • liieatR^ witb two Bvpplmnentaiy btnldings intended for in" 
■ IJMiu M toe tfaa aitt, and an tatliBVra ^aiur, an pi«j«etMl oa a tmy 
■nnd K!a3e. On thu rivrr thor |im|MiM> to Emm inA» wiUi larj^ wtf^ 
omuci ; ontl four now liriilci^ to Mirrcspoiul witli strecU alrcadr eiiathi|^, 
•re to unite tlie old ritv with tlie new. Tlid projected new street! tie to 
cotiilnue i)u> ekl an^ nnil )-ot miunttin n nymroeby with «m^ nther. 

Thu model lias borji rstubited to tfao cni|)cror /mi tlic nrclxluke^, ■■! 
adminrd by them, and thercTore bopea arc cntcrtaiDed that pennunoa 
will be fjnvn ta carry it intn executioD. 

The chief nibjcct of liesitution is agaia the IbrtHicationj ; in i«morin^ 
ajwrt, it is fnucd Uip whole may be entlaof^trML Mifrht not the iiivvntioa 
of the archduke Maximilian, io the Toirpre of Line, help them out of ihs 
diffionlty. The whole eitv, vuboHn inclodcd, might be girdW with them, 
Wkd thud the whole Innufrkt within a care!*; of fortificatioiu. With ru{)ect 
to the ^UciK ilxeir, full of moimumnuf arenuM ofaclcly crMH, dujty >{i*o«^ 
and nwuof y ditobea, tharc would be Itttlo Ion. It is too lar^ to M loM 
«at M • guden, as has been done iu aonie dtics. But smaller aud men 
modest spaoea m^lit he left free to be employed for this piir^iose. 


The mott nnimnlcd Mrta of Vieooa Lie roand Stephen's Place, the 
CralwB, and the Ui^ 31arket ; the quictrat part'? are the '* Itui;^" from 
the ^au of tha Mioarites, the Iferrengaue, Teinfidb tHreet, the battle and 
fr«fit SehealcengaasQ, &e. " Our great people line ben," said a Vicotia. 
Bias to tnev " and here it is sUU, fUU as a mowe." There is not a shop 
ia tlie wb(j* uei^bourtiood, no bun hum of trafBc It lains joha and 
tliniMk in tha otliar stveel^ luid oae is put to it to keep from isodar tht 
coaeb-wheels aad boraes' hoc& It swarms thera witb Croats, SlavMuaiu^ 
fimiooa. GeraiaDa, aud Ood Icnows what oatam heades, while nothing b 
to he tami in the aristorTatic (piartpr b«t silfnt palaces, beCuro wImm* 
doo« liT^-ricid laqoeva at« k>uiig-iu)i: as ii' liey were mastan, not only of the 
houBFs, huLof Uw whole ttteet. la this «leot<|iiarter — tlic Tcin quattor— 
ar« the paiacea of the liditanstaint, Stahrsnibargs, thuraelui, Featetica, 
CoUoradeiv Esterbaays, TmUmanador^ and Seluiaboins. AntiquB 
caeulcbeooi are displayed beTora the lioasca, datinf; frwa Rudolph of 
Ilaiiibur;^ ar dwrieaugna, ami ihi> gnldan flaeca ^aama from tltc rooli. 
If tho little sons of these ^raedoej dftmbar m«r the rooGi like tlw boy* in 
olfavr towns, tbcy may eathicr aU manoer of aristocratic rviuiaieti-Dcos ajnoii|f 
the vhimncy-pots. Ilere abo stand tlie proud editices of the HuD^arian 
and Tntnfytranian Cboaoerics, the States Uonsev ^^'> (^ourt and Staia 
Chaooeiy. tho Bauk, and tatoral of the supeiiur tribunals. Tba whole 
Ipaoe oceopiad by boiUinga eo intportant to tlie canpire is not mora tbaa 
two kondied fathoms u length and breadtiit there is morw than ooe pib* 
lie square of tint sise in St. Potanburp^, and it may be safaly aasnted that 
is BO other European kin|{di<m is the f^^cat nubiiilT so narrowly lodfsd. 
31iara ai^ oavaitbeleH^ btuldioga here stately eoougu, if duly •eaCtorao, to 



kdom & whole cApittl. Xot Far from th« Tcin qQUt«r, in Uw scigl&oir- 
hood of tlii> Jews' Plan-, u flnotlivr wlicic thr tnanufuctuTert oonnvgntVi 
Iiulcad of annorial bearings bi>fore tlie houses, w« ses the firms of ooUoa 
•nd ailk nuuiuf*«turcn, wuvhoiu«3 fur clollis, tfaavls, woollen fabfia^ 
FBch&nii-iiKT cottoo jnnit white aud oolourei] knitting-cotton, silks, ataSa, 
&c Tliese aiv oaly tlm wucliouMa from wliich ifoimi «rv »okl wholeMle 
to the tnerchants; tne ivtul dwdcn an to Ixi fouiiJ «lnwlMi«, uid th» mm- 
OuTadorin are iii iixe subuibj. There, especially in tb« n'««t«m part, — then 
tre whnle iiunrloni of Uiem, all of rcccuc date. In times of ^orc Vteona 
was a Roiiinii ciu'nmnipviit, tb«n clit^ Utile capital of tliv Aiutriui dukcf, 
aiuoa;^ himdrod^ofoinenaGtrmau )nipi;ritil city, and nlthnngli, m tWinv 
neriitl rt-sideiice, it became the centre of commerce for the empire, it is btii 
»my tmi'ly that it lia* bw!n the ohi«f seat of maDufactori«f, whose articles 
of to.«t» arc fcittcrt4 over all ports nf tlie Aiutnan and a great part of the 
non-AuAtrian world. 

Gumpendorf, Laimgrube. and Marialulf, are iJie suburbs iu vrMcb 
nearly the whale noputution is employed iu manufactoHea. This is the 
caso liVcntic iu tfw villap^ uf Fuufhuus, Suck&Iinus, and otben. Hvn 
the simple and uniform dwelling of the weaTcis and spinnnn are sevii bjr 
hundreds, and on enterinf; Itviin the Tein quarter, we seem to be ffntenng 
ftiiothcr world. The rt\yr cotton couim titre from two directions, from 
Egypt over Trieste, and from Amtrica and the West ludii-H htw Ham- 
I burg. The jam dealers, spinnfrs, wetiver*. anil |)rintprsi, all lire near 
each other, and the nierchandis* piuses from neighbour to neiehbonr, or 
(rum quarter to quarter, till it rvadw.-) the baoda of Che merchants and 
oonsiimerF. Some of tlie majiiifnctiin-™ haTO also establish men it in Bo* 
hcmtn, where wag*s are lower, and setcrnl hnvf thorn mi the Saxon fron- 
tier ; bqit these an; merely for show, little uork betug done there, thoug-h ■ 
great deal of Englwh twiil is «inujfg'le<i over Uie frontier. The Eiiglish con 
liimiRh ^nm to the maimfacLupftn of Vioniia cheaper than tlutw! can buy 
it fnMn thoir own spinneia in tlic suburbs. The tatter enjoy, therefore, a 
protection in a fifteen per cent dtitv* which, however, is conmdcrably iv 
Bnoed by smuggling. Li consequence of tliis protection, which tlie 
wearers of Vienna do not dears, became, without it, they could purchaM 
the Engli.sli yani mors cheajily, they ore constantly at feud with thuT 
neighbour* ths imnnent. Both have their meetings and unions for tHe 
probation of thsir separate interests, and both seek to mnke good their 
oause with the authotitles. The vruavcrs have Utviy failed in their machi- 
tiationt againsrt the prot^-ctive duty; the npiuinis, iievertlieleis, entertain 
§nn for iu durnlimi ; without it, tJipy would not be able to miiko hi-nd 
against tho Engliith. Be they a.s tliligent as thvy will, and let their 
machines he ever to well eonitrurt^, the Kpinni;r» of Manchester, at the 
fountAin-h(-ad of the comineivc of thi.' world, would still pwi^ess ttilvaif 
tag«« too gr<'at to be competed with by those of Vienna, though with tiio 
best will in the world. To mention one only ; tlm Maiichcsler spinnera 
have a railroad to Liverpool, which enables tlieiu to piurhase the cnttoa 
in finaller nitnntities, na they nmy want iL They may use it up to-day 
to the last tlircad, and scud to-iuurrow to Lirerpool for a new supply, lb 
13, therefore, easy to follow ereiy rariation of price, buy small ijuontiues 
when it is dear, and larger when it is cheap; wliorea* the ipinnen of 
Vivniiri. M'lifther tliey will or not, nnut tmke liirgc ijiuuitities at any price, 
lest Uicir work should come altogether to a staud->tiU. The groat specu> 


,tin, bsvB no vxistvnco iti ViMina. These tpcculatois 
; poftkuM of yam, Uonuu» Ui« cliuuiielfl of tlio world on 
open to them, uiil tliey are, coiueijueiitly, ftUnys iguir uf n niaikct for 
tbeir wnrM. In Vicunn, ihty kimii ttLmiit vicJuiiivvly fur th« Austnan 
monarchy. Tlwra U no intArmcaiatA purdiaser Wtweea th« weaver- and 
sitiuaer, and Hm former will buy do mora ihua be has au immediate occa- 
MOii for. 

Tim a(]vanln|*ai which the Eiif^lish Dtanufa<;tiirct hare ov«r those of 
Vienna, and iiidcvd over thow of Utc whole noiltl, the luaaufftcturen of 
Vienna haro uain over the otlicr maDiifactiuers of the Atutriaii ino^ 
narchy. In Viennii, they h&ve the best information of wlmt i* wanted 
by the Slavonioiu, Croats, Paten, TTtmn-lvauiant, nn^ from Viouna thtJi 
wants and tastn ant supplied. Tltn dld'tiuhiniird ffnid stnlls used for the 
upper Austrian caps are iiiuiiiifaclured in ViLTEia, »(> are the silver bultooa 
in lue throtighout (luDg&rVi and ths blnck silk bondlcerehief^ with red 
border*, whieb the Mii^itr ithe]iht!rd» Inist ruuml their Uiruats. It is the 
Hune with htirtdreiLi of other anieh-«. Ileirifr h1k> t})i> head-i]uarteni of 
&fi]iioi), Vienna not only suppliw then peuplo nith what they want, bat 
witJi what they ought to want. ^'ieI]aa fashione, and Vicuiiu it-arca cxvr- 
cite their iDJluencc not only alon^ tlie whole courM of the Danidiv to the 
Blaelt Sea, but eroi in Poland and RuwJa, «xtandiiig tveit in aome ia- 
•teicae into the Turkith territory. 

Penoiui who understand these thinf>« do, indeed, Sdwrt that Vienna 
pmductioiu will not bear a very severe exajninatioQ. "They are but 
trumpery fabncncions," said a native, well acquainted witit London and 
PariH. " Every thinp lierc ii. as il wcro. llmtrtt together. Wc of ^'i^nna 
are frivolous and licldr, but our taatc U eooJ, and we look more to graec* 
fill funna than salid qunlily." Compann^ them witli what London and 
Pari* CMO produces tfau coay be true -, but if a line wore drawn from tlie 
Baltic to toe Adriatic, uo city woidd be found east of it which could eota- 
pare with N^enna in the quality, tact*, or h)v priee of its manufaoturec 
Tbetr low price has often procored ihmt a «ale not only throughout Ger- 
many, but ereu In America. They malie, for iiutanoCk onuunentnl elocki^ 
of au elegnnDe of which no dmwing-rooiu need be aihanwd, fur eight and 
nine florins each, and bIwwI* fur t«n and twelve. 

The aliawl man u fact ure is one of the most considerable; more to, in- 
deed, than any other in ttiiiMIe or eastern Euriipe. Ttit; Ion pnco i>f tlie 
ahawti haa produced a gnal deiuand fnr theni in Tiirliey. A xniiwl inanti* 
&cturer, wbosa word I have no reason to ntietrust, thought there could 
not be IcM tliau four thousand persons employed iii Vieana on thoee arti- 
elea ; and tJiis biet in the more remarkable, as th« riic of this branch, of 
manufacture dates only from the year 1812. 


it would not b^ posrible to ^ve a very detiuled account of the thopa of 
Vienna and all therewith connected i but I must entreat the reader to 
accompany roe into some, which aflbtd aliundant means for obtaining ao 
sequaintaiico nith Vicuna life, and furitith butter pictures of it tliaii do ths I 
columns of tlie Allgtmeiue Zeitung. Of the shops fnr silks and fiuKW ' 
goods, QQue are at ptaenC iu higher feather than the " Laui«l Wreatha 't 


uid it IB wortliy cf a Tisic, wei? it only for tlie profonon of tbe itiiA of [ 
mil kii)d« di^tvywi tkvn. Ik-foro the " L^ii«l Wr«uli'' roM to Sum, 1 
"L'Amom^ wu the rcptMilory hnnourcd vtitli die patronage of tfae ' 
fnhianibl« world, for it must bo otwen-fd tltat nil th« Aof» iif Vi«nfu i 
haw tli«ir sign*, by whi<li A«t are nndi ben«r known than by th« 
tmuKa of their im^netofS. " L'Amour," however, has quitted tJw ficU, 
aud rettml to a Gue gardeo and rilla in che ouburbi. In good tim% il» 
**IjMirel Wnnlh" will likewiMi witiulraw (o irpow tipon its own cioric«; 
for ID Viewu na «nc ininun this occupation long bcfort: ho Gods niinMlf 
caaUed to take his place amonr llie " rentten," and, in Ictfuie and ro- 
tiramnil, to eachonge lua tki^ lor a palacs. 

FoTTn«rly. Aug^bnr^ wu the G«nnan city most tvnownMl for ita nlrer i 
cba^«d work ; now it is Vienna. Tho (greatest ettaUiihrnfut of tbc kiod \ 
it that of Hayerbofer and Klinkoiich, at the comer of the K(M<fnariB>b. 
Their matkUMOtoty is in tlio sulwrbs, ind w«ll dotwrres a paitienlar ds- 
acrifrtion. The greater part of the plate to be tnuismitti^ n» heirloom* 
ID the noble Canuliia of Austria, is tnade there -, livnce a long leries of 
Aeir ooats of arms, wiiich nimt be Btumped on ereiy separate piece, ia 
prcMrved. A large service of plate for Mcheniet Ali was lately bespoken \ 
at dn* house. TliL' uiiiiilier nf ^irrent families resident in Vieinia rendcra 
H DO tnattur of wondar that the imnil;er of enpravers and medulicta ihuukl 
be gntX Itkewiw^ or that tlie art of cngraviug and oompoein^ heraldie 
afaielas should ba induatriotiKly pursued. " It is only at Viennit." aaitl one 
of these arti«ts la tne, " tlutt iho real tnie fqiirit of lit-nildry in (n he found. 
"We do not even mlmit a (viat pricked elsewhere to l>e ciwiect." There is 
not only a constant inanufacture of new eoaia of arms Gar the afXDmmo- 
datioii of thoic per§oo»4 who are lUily elerated from the public ojKcea to | 
be founders of nnble fuuiliea, Imt a never-ceanng demand for the repro- 1 
dactioa of the old ttme-honouivd ifaialda in tted, gold, alTor, and ffeaMi*l[ 
atones. On all sides we find hands, and sotnetiinei ttii ones, en{d(7ed | 
on tli«w hicrofrlyphiM of heraldrv 

'\Vlica we consiiier that the iJutch hav« cairivd on many a wiu- about 
nothing but pepperooms, that the whole Anglo-Chinese quarrels turns on 
a few chests of opium, and tint tallow, tar. and tmin-oil, are not utnong 
the icoit of ItuKiJii'ii inlerostB, and hafo often been mhjectj of attention to 
cmpcroTS and their mimsters, I ihall not he reproscbed witb an undue 
attention to trifles, if 1 enter a *Uop of mom than onUmny elogaoce, fi» 
the sale of stearine eandlm, on the Kolil- market. Out of tlte white aad 
delicate mvi of stearine^ they had fumied n caveni full of sc.ilactite^ 
vberein wu iodgnl a stcariiie ice bear. The candles wei« put up in 
tropUes, like the weapons in on amenal, and, hare and there, piled into 
OOluDOas, whose enpitali wi^rt- crowricii with flower-pots; indeed, the whole 
shop was odonitnl witli lloncrs. Uy ilie iTiventioii of utrariiic, (allow may 
be said to liavi' been eiinobW, aiad thus tt-iidi-n'il iHiiiiiuviljK- to tlic luoit 
^stbigiuslied drawl ng-roome. In Viennn, it ha;9 CFl-teiiicd a(liiii"irtji at 
court; church tapei« are also fonncd of it, although it is atill a subject nf 
diicnsnon among the hi^ ehutvh uutlinrities, whetlier it be admisaible, 
*'*T*T'* of wax, in placus of wvrship. If I remember n^tly, some of t!ie 
bishops baT« prohibited it. In the Creek church it will cert&iuiy ncror 
finil a phioe ; thae tliv aucient, uoble labour of tlte bee will be always 
bold iu ttODonr. 

Odo of the later ectabliahed sbopa of Vienna is the ropoaitovy 

for bronze J 




inir<>B, kept by an Enj^Ssfanuui nf ibc noma of HoFton, of which tl>cr« «?« 
Dovi bnuK-li «>tablul)mcnto in Milan, l*nqeue, Pestb, and other capiula of 
tlip eiriphv. Tfav haiKkomnt thing I mw theie wu a bronie aviuy of 
Blender gilded wirn entwined with exqnindvel^r wrouf^flowen in wrwNln. 
Tliv first cup.- of thU kiiiJ nas broaght from ]*iuir, for the ctnprcsi o)otb«r ; 
iievcnt«m hai« been dnce nuulc, ten of which wcrfe d«:stincd for Conitoim- 
noplp. Ae I UA tlm bramn dmf, 1 wsBwitDeai of a little sceue, tti'ika lio- 
nourable for tlw bainui and tbe fnubemd aiueaab who figured in it A 
oonple of jrom^ flparrowB, making thrir fint timj in flviug with Uxir parents 
ovn- lb« roofii of tW capital, Iiad fallrn axliaoited nto tho Etn«t, wbM« 
they wvn pirkod nn aitd carriod off by a hor, in whoM hand they HuCt«red 
and cliirpea moet pitifully. The pattnt haaa followed, uttering most niv 
rowfnl ctiea, fluttering against tiie vMa, pcn^iiog on ngnx of the shoM; 
and rentimiig even into the tnnnnil nf tiie i<lrr<!t. I bc^jEjgod ilip lad to W 
tlM yoitt^ OM* g(S And •• tht cnca of the old biTd« ]iad alrawly excited fai< 
enapasnon, he ad S0| asd the cnotom flying awkwardly agunat the irtiU, 
ftU a weond time into the rtree^ and were again picked up. ** tiivi^ thrni to 
me, (or my children, gire them to mc," cncd •eme wotntn ; but tite re- 
ntoDRtrauccs of Uk fcatbcrcd parmts were to pitiful, tbat in the end tlw 
whole aaiembled crowd (all nf tlie lowest class) raised a geneiul nlioiit of 
*' No, no, let them go, give them thoir liberty." Theie wtre «omt Jews 
among the pujiuliu-e, vrho cried out loudvr tlitin any. ScYvml times Uic birds 
were flung up into tiie air, and lui often &U down again, aniid the ^i^ncral 
lametitation of all preamt. Atbutaladderwas procurvd, all lent a Imiid to 
raiiw it againat a small house, and hold it fa>t while tome one mounted 
it and [ilacrd the little aniinaU in safety on the roof. The parents flew to 
them iiiiiiiodialely, and the whale family took wing, aniid tne gciiemi ae> 
elnmntionii of llin multitude ; even a couple of ** Gbcefrtinxel" ipttit* I 
maUrcj) stood rtill at a little distance, and eyed the KoacsmilbgljtJiniugli 
tbcir glavei. 

Among the articlet made in lar^ ounntilics in Vienna are theatrieal 
dceorations, whc/ewith it {umirbca all toe atauonaiy and locomotive thca- 
tiefl of the Aiutrian empire. Many ahopa confine tbi-mtcUes to the Nate 
of frippery of this kind, particularly diadems, and jewelled finen- for the 
queens and princeMe* of tlie mimic sccac. Grtatnunitvn uf thcK diadcDiS 
are made by tiie s^ldsiiiiths (if Vienna. They moke um of a iiecuTiar 
GompositioD of lead, tin, and bismuth, called "stage cornposition." It haa 
M good an effect, that at a little di4tance the deception in complete, Th« 
nnnJl cut ridca of ilio metal ore not raiiicd, but put togetJier in iw L*<mcare 
fomi ; wltem tlie tight pUys on them, they have sU the iipjn^anuice uf pre- 
doua Btooea. 

It in a remarkable fact that the pet>plc of Hamburg have leant only 
within the laat fifteen yean how (o bind a ledger. BeAirv that time tlie 
great fblioa won gvaenlly vent for from England. Tlie people of Vicuna 
Bare not yet maatered tht« apparently titnple art, for Girardot, the mott 
connderdilc Imokbinder in tlie city, whu employs thirty-six joumcrmen, 
maintains amnng them Uu'ee I'ligliihiiipn for nil the solid and difiicult 
work, and nine Frvnchniett for thnt reuuiriog delicate handling and tasta. 
Tlicae people understand tlieir work innniu^h', and what they do ii ad- 
mirahly well done^ Thvy work apart rn>m tla' Gemimi workmen, in ord^ 
to prt«^rve the mystery of tlieir erafi. There are many kinds of leather 
Old fur this purpose, wluoli arc not to he badia Germany, ao tlul tbaalaff' 



M vcU u the tooli »nd th» workmen must he had from Fnoce nod EqC" 
land. Nothing can exceed llto bnuty, cleeaiice, atid solidity of Ginmri 
iHndiDgs, uid their vaiitiy ia quito u umiraMe. Everjr two moaths 
thare ia & gtnenl de&noo* o( olil forms and p»tUn», to make way br 

The last vint in mv tour of iHopt ma to one whose comntodide* wer» 
of a nature not naually madv tlio tubject »£ Lraffic in Vienna, — manVoy* 
Bad («rrot«. Tlifl masUtr of the »hop tnid imp that tli« bod w«atber of tliaB 
ytn liad been parlicuUrly injuriotu to tliem : he had lost monke/* to tha 
value of one Uiontand wnu hutidrcd Horini, all lia«!ug rauglit Mvere 
eowhf, of whii^ tlicy bud died. One of the ori.'aturea was ttill ooughit^, 
eoa 1 wai astonished at thir similarity- of the sound to a hunian rotce. I 
mr here » number of dose dark cagn, which I underafxjtl tii h« the pri- 
vate studies of the parrots. In the eroiiinff their leachcm sliut tlicin up ia. 
theiB pruoiit, and tUcii give them thdr ivMon. If thu t.-ag«a are iioc co- 
vargd, their curiosity would make tliem h«sy thprnselrc* with other objcct8» 
•od if thoy could sdo one another, they would conrani? in tlu-Ir wild Ame- 
licuk lazt^piag^. It u long before a parrot ac(|uire« a new form of ipceoh. 
Some are sent to board and IikI^ witli old wcmient of whom they Icora 
tho Vienna jaivoa. H» majority hul learned to irream out " V'iraC 
Feidinandufl Pnmus." 


It fau often been matter of comnlaint, that the city of Vicuna has not 
a more immediate tonnexion with the many rail aai wntcr rnuds radiatinff 
from it. Th«! pa.tten^-rfi by the stvamboaU compliun that thay find j 

fbemwlvea comu«lli)d to leave tiiar bttln toon after nildni^fht. if ihey wish. 
|o Mt off at Gve in tho morning, and those by the nulrc^idi ^rmn^ble equally 
ot having to trard through the whole city, top^thcr with its suburbs and the 
viltagi's beyond, before they can eonsigii iheinselves to the energetic guid- 
ance of the locomotive. The various rail and irteaniboat Btatiuus lie two 
or three leag^utrs upartt and aouiv of tliuin at a distance ftuiu the cuutre 
of the city. An iticrcdible number of hackney carriages arc constantly 
employed in trunsporting passengers to the several points. Tlie tuagiiin* 
cent terminus of tno Vienna-ltaab railroad lies nt the extreme outer lin« 
of the citv. The posi^on is so lofty, that iJiny might have continued the 
road to tne sery centre of tho city, without being in the way of the snioka 
of a angle chimney. The terminus io that case would have reached about 
half way up lo the summit of Steplieii'a Tnwrr. 

Before railroads wei'e invented, many of tlio beautiful (nivirona of 
VicDua were a forbiddcu P&radiHO to its citixens, Those who hnd no otlier 
means of conveyance nt their coininmid tlimi whut ridture provided, never 
reached lladeo, Stockentu, or any «ui']i di«tjtiit poitit, from one year'a 
end to another, or perhaps not in the eourse of their lives. Witliiii the 
last lew yvort the railruad-t have fpvcn them a key to tlie^e El>^iums, and 
at every opening of o new branch of road the newsjiaiii<rs of Vienna aa- 
nouncc the fact in a style that mij^ht have miied some I^f Captain Cook's 
discoveries, new and most captivating dc4cri]>tious of Stockentu, Briel, 
Helunonthal, &c., twing put forth to cutioo people by thousauds to tho 

The railroads have wrought a change in the whoI« enviions of Vienna, 



Mtd in t})« wholo eyfWm of out-divir piMsttref. Tho Prftt«r and the 
Awfarten «re lost, ani] coro|ttTntirety empty now, vhon tljc seeker* of 
pl«uara can be camcc) awav with sn mucli ease to a diituicn of firu or 
■ix (G^rniftn) mtU-«. Tho I'rati^r hjtd made the most extnonlinnn- nro- 
tnisei ; it had nnnouncrd a "6nn-im« fMtival," to end with a faithful rc- 
prcseutstion of the eniption of the (hre« volcanoes io Fernando Po. The 
three were to rie with each other in the q>lettdour of their finmes, and 
««nd forth fmokc enough to darken tlw heavens. PreiKU'utions had wito 
been made to blow up levsral msui-* of (pMtnboanl) nx:lc. I^evertheleu^ 
the Prater was doomed to be deserted tltcit evening, and the visiters were 
Uironj^nr to th« railroads. Ou the other hand the invitatioua for inoi» 
(Ustant placet of pleamrahle re*ort wprc not loa alluring. At Mctllin^, 
8crs.uM promised bii nowly-compomd daiiont, " Country Dcli^^ht,*' '■ Kail- 
ro*d Galopade," the " Xaiads," ftc. ; anH Lnnn^r announced his musical 
eODTenazione, bis " Eccentric," his '* Rellex from the world of Ilanuonr.** 
to be given at Lieciog. In Radeu all inrts of " Volktfest^' were to take 
pUc*'. Tlicre waa to t>e the " Dance for tlie Hat," a Milan dance, in 
which the ladias dance through a gate, and ehc whose traiiiit falls in with 
• certain ^ven ngnal obtains a hat by way of & prize. In the varioiia 
"Aieriw" (gardoTi thcitres), "The Bohemian Girls in Uniform," the 
** Elopeoifnt, from the Maaquud Uall," " The Maiden fWm Paiiy Laud," 
and other attractive pieces, were advertised. 

Around the Inst coaoh seltinj^ off for the VienDa*Itaab railroad the peo- 
plf w«r« thronging and it«amin^. " Prav, gentlemen, let the ladice go 
fint," cried sonic voice* in the crowd. " res, ye^ the ladiea first, the Indies 
fint, tbey all say, and here am [ shoved hack a^nin," crieil a woman wlio 
had been poshed back from one of the c«rriaje;«ii. She wan launching in 
her despair into a hig^ train of eloquence when wc invited her into our 
hackney-coach, and recognued in her, in spite nf her shining kid-gloves, a 
Vienna cook, 'llie cooks generally wear fihort flleeves, between woieh and 
their long glove*, a brown and tcorched ring of on nrm rcmtuiu to reveal 
tJicir callmg. 

I he Vienna-Raah railirar (now that its direction towards Hungary if i 
fpven up, it will probably he caUed the Vienna -Trieste railway) in pro- I 
bably the most mngniitcent railway in cAistonce. The terminus anu in- 
termediate stations are remarkable for their siie and splendour. The 
waitiiig-Tooma for the pofsengera of the fir&t and second-classes are mora 
like dnvwiag-rooiDS that any thing else. 

There are three classes of carriages ; tlier are all extremely capacious, 
earrying no fewer than fiflv-dx perscnis. Besides these ttiffe clnsse^ 
tliere are the, so called, "safooa carriages' furnished with looking-glasses, 
divaaot tables, &a., and danined for pervous of wealth and diiUudJoo. | 
At [msont the lines of milnwd are towards the resorts of pleasure, and ' 
have their names accordingly :— MJldling, I1a<len, Noiiftadt. The time 
will come when more impoTtant names will appeal' — tlic Adriatic, 'S'cnice, 1 
ihe East, the Levaot, Sic 

The banker Sina is at the hrnd of the Vienna-Baab line, as Reth< 
sdnld prcndes over the Vicmi a-Brunn line. At tint the engineer; went 
■U KlgKllimct), hut they have sinoe been replaced by Germans. " The 
Englbh have not the phlegm of tlie Gcmmnc," »aid a Vienna dtixen to 
nie, " they were rash, and carolcte, and many accid«ut4 were tlio con- 
Mqnenoc. ' The precautions observed on tlie Austrian rulnutds are so 

givat M ■boott to ooQDtoict the main oligMt of these imd*— tpeed. 

Very slowly md itxj gnUhaSij tbo (ruin is set i» OMtiiMV, eounU«M art 
tiie ukutles befon it inorw at alli «ad verjr UMMlente in tbs [w o ^i a M lor 
SOBW tinML Lnaf; behm they niaaii to ttopw iIm i^wod is tlackwiaJ, and 
Mtnnrutiiigl/ llow ia ii^ motion op to ths tofmbM. It ia tnw tfawt if wa 
could be ■omied that every anv ptecautionaij meaBan nved some Iitm^ 
the^ eouU not be sufficiMilly conunendi^tl, but H\« iiiiMtion mil arue— 4o 
ibcjr ■'callv do soy It may •> happMi llut tht<ii«>^ig«nceof tlw lower fune- 
IJouuies lacn-iiHCS in exact pioporttOD with the «xti«at« fcf«si]ebt ot the 
IiigbeT. Thu ntrcr the public ia tkat precautions aie taken by otbenii the 
leas will tbey take eiur« of thcvnselvri. 

On tbe day I wrat on th« Vionna-IUob niilrMd we had, in oat tmn, 
fiftem catiiagefl, full of people aUriing from Vionna in acort^ of plcaaurv^ 
oeuMmortly, seven huadred persoiis. We encountered omilur truna 
••ffsnl lim«*, And, I beUerc, that tlio nurokcr of pcnoiu oani^ out that 
Sunday oooLd not be leas than tirdro thooaaail. The direction of tliis 
tailmw) galopnde was towards the plain at tfie end of the &reat of Viennft. 
Tbe hills are picned by sevcnl raJlcys beyond vhii^h lie tlia beTon men- 
tioued pretty villagw of htemg, MOdliajg^, Itadcn, uid uUien. lluD«lrtda 
of men, wenteo, aira duldraa, wen disgorged by tlw trvii ut thn nitiraace 
of tbeae valleys, and fanndnda of fresh paaaengera pavketl iu. Foiineriy ■ 
stnuiji^-r nnfuired a nvck t<i tint all Uicse Tuuited places in their turn, 
DOW ite can be wbiricd tbcrc, liaTe a peep nt them, and be back iu a few 

We«Uowcdot]rsel*estobeoompliraeQt«dontof tbe earriageet Mudlin|f, 
to enjoy the liij^hly bnded views of *' in der Uriel." We found n doccii uf 
osiea ready suddtedt standing at the slaiioii. On« of the donkeys waa 
■tamed " Karl Wianr," another " Nanerl," and h«r |;>ent1e daiijvhter *' Soli," 
eo at least the Juvenile drirers iufimiied i^ As we were jiut thi'tv in 
number, we elioaa these tltree aiiiuiak, iiinui)t«i] tlitnn, and trotUil aw;iy 
into the mouotaiBS. The fsthvr nf the prasest PHiico LicEitenstc'tn Jirst 
broug:bt the noif^Ii^urhDod of Uriel into notice. He caused th>^ naked 
declivicics to be cloUied irith woods, patbs to be cut, and tlie ^Kmd to bt 
laid out with taste ; adorned the sunuuits with paviUoni and Miinmer-honMS^ 
bult a maj^ifieent se&C in tb« iioijrhbourhnocl, ium] abandoned the pie- 
turesqua old ruins to tliu curiosity of tlic ptdilic. At this present time •»• 
"venu yet wiUW. woody and rocky volleys in the Deii^hbourhrN^I of ViontM 
UW undor^oina; a Einiilnr tmnsfornuition. Coffco- hotMC civilization has 
uit to fii^Kt tiie nym|ihs and dr^mla uf the woods. The caves of tbe fatins 
nave be«n fitted up tor the snlo of beer and vine, and whcra formerly • 
solilitry lover i>f iiuturv Could scaicelv foroe his wny, the population of m 
vhole t^iiarter of the city ar« now (jaddiiiff about in aicnj crowds. 

The ruins of the old csxtie of fjl elite oftein, to which Kai-I Wtzlng, 
KanerL and Sofi carried u«, iire mil ruins, a faet worthy of r^msrk, be- 
«liu«c the hilU around aro covered with a minibcr wf oainiic ruins, placed 
iluTc for decoration's sake. The olil rmllp, one of the earliest possessions 
of the illiutriflus family whose niiniy it beare. fell aflerwanii into other 
handd, and was Mibtcfjuoritly re-piin-hiwed by the LichtenAU-in^ with tho 
laDdi ant] vineyardj belonging to It, for six hundred thousand florins. It 
is a regdar, old, Todt boilt, kni^tly nest. The dmit^xt livs ri^ht beiurs 
the namw entranoe, and the fint Uiinff &o stem oid barons must Imvo 
done oa stcp^nng over their threshold was to give a or^tivc to the pcti* 

tioM for fnctikMii vlaicli the c^tivM ssnt op to tkcm ia groiiu Inm tbos 
fomm betow. 

The hall whereiii the uwMtMl picCnm are suspended, hu iui milt portlj 
«at ant of tfw bare lOck, umI fomy of ffentton*. lie W* rock oUo fonn« 
the floor. Ilia oUnt portmt U that or John of Lkfateaftua^ 'vlio died ia 
l39o, Hod the eeriea is continued down to the gmidbtlier of the pFeant 
prince. The hulice hang in a neighboimnj; chamber, tikewiee carved out 
o(thr rock. U nuub h« a real plvaeurt! to be dcecendcd from tlus hand- 
WHKt, aUMit old TK*. Tliey are all tall handaome 6gams, utA the dainty 
liA, padded donbteta, short hoaet relret eapa, goklen chaiiui, and tiea 
fdaceiy maotlee of wlu«h tbe^ wen aever ia wwjt, ait on than in s 
■MM acatelj laahioii. Tbehan«aine9tainonigtbeuiuoiM"John Squtimua 
?na Lichteiutoin, loni of liiman and Ranuboi^g', nn of JOrg Hortmann r. 
lic h Um t ein of Fcltbwj.'. a^d ^5 y^xn." One of th^n hu a dgcr Hiieh 
k ii eareosDi; by his eidt?. ProhaUy the pi«tent Livhtenjteuia wouU 
Mon adopC a tiger jor a bp di^ at retuiuo thit <^ rockj lutt fjr a dwdb< 

TrWinUoks Cbariat 10 the ownv of the lovely valky liehiad Baden, 
I aeMT nv amre eourtcoos addieeaei to the poblie than llioee potted op 
in the gioandi laid out hy the archduke for the ])ubUc " The rwpectoi 
Hb&e ate i»qaetted to make uto of the patht laid down in thete uToimdi^ 
m order lo tpani tho youn^ irood." No doubt prohihirioM of the kind 
would have a better effect, if luch lODtint wete alwmya tuggeeted. 

The handaooM castle, built hy the archduke just at the MilraiKW of tba 
nUeyt i« called Wolbur^. Although ore had the buildiof; <«mKtantly ia 
a^bt. m we/v oblip.-d to inquire the way Ui it tvicr, at wc had got mta 
eotne by-patht, and each tinic we received gcnninc Auatrian nntwers. The 
titat wu, " I ani oot acquainted with lhi» road ;" end the aecood, " Thit 
' ifat right road, the outer is for iMrmtflcrt" (1. e. the owner*). Schlotg 
I WafflMtg is naowtied for his calLeetioa of roaee. 'tike gardener told na 
there w«re not less than ctgfat hundred specie h«re, but m tlus UoomUM, 
aMtaa, tliey all looked ad like each other as w> many skdetona. To makai 
< «• aneodi^ we nw a plant hot tddoa met with in Gennan grewihomw ^ 
' tiw iBt n eolo urt d Kly, with dark red ipots (iiltum tpttt/mtm poMttatitmf, 
The ate of the pilaniT aod garden u ih« uiott deLiglitful (hat vau he iioa- 
poed. h. iam en the borien of a hilly vountrj-, iil iIk upc-oiii^ </ a val> 
ley, in Tiew of a richly -cultivatwl plain. On vitht^r Kiiln it i« tUiikeJ hf 
wooded beigbte, and behind is the narrow pua of tlte vaUoy. £very tUag 
rriftiired tovarda tho formaiion of a fine landscape ia h«re uitited: th0< 
fjeraling view orer a distant land, rich in life and hope ; the warmly -tinted 
pictei* of tho lorely valley doae at hand, aiul the rctteat into a friendly 
wooded toliludc. The la»t wu the particular object of my research, ana 
I tomoA at the end of tlie vftJley a beautiful meadow, in tho midst of tbirit* 
•It, by the ade of a river. Iliis was called die houso-meadow, Whilat 
Uadra waa swarauBft with peoplv, but few fvuiul tliur >ray lo this pUcr. 
A little boy was axl^ataijf his akill on the violin, and rmivcil, in rvwasd 
ef Ins naiteriy i wtfa tnia iw ^ tbe Itrge oopper piece* of a few wanderaif 
Heeattaa with the warauwt gratitBdaL 

On oar nttm to fiadcn we r efie ab ed oareehres witli a on) ef coE^ and 
Mne eteeUant "A^e/n," whitdi an» better made here than iti VieniM: 
haalf. Thw^ nuke them of all uei, from half a kremer to five lloriM" 
» fnesa. uu mtm anatvcratic among Lht haket* letpend a tbield cv 


emm of Jcipfel dvu^fa oror their window*, iii tlie m«nn«r of aimonal''' 
bMrings; the tnsU ht.'kiA &re eo mucli csivcniei}, thm nittiiy btilcvni, noc 
ooatent with mabinf* them once a day, tnsrribo over Uwir mops, " Here 
Wwd b haked Uuwo tiiii«9 ■ day." Baron RoUwcltiM aeot Aw u B«dea 
baker to Pan*, where liix artUticnl [K'Hormnnce* were so mucli ipiiroveil o^ 
tiiftt lio becwne & rich ninri in a short time. 

Life in Bftdeo has nndereone a great change of latn J'«ft«, Formeriy 
the emperor Fr&ncis lived nttre in the summer, aiid, like king Frederick 
AVilliam at Trpliti, luutftmblod inudi of ihi; great world amund hh jteraon. 
Both pUcc« hdve but bv tKo denth nf thoMt two eovomif^* ; iicv«ftholMii, 
now that tho milrood fannga, daily, thouGonds into the nci;^hboarh(KH], wtd 
inundates it with smoken, drinkers, nnd eooka, the pleamrea of the »mum 
huva befARie of tnlimt«1y more eoniequf>noA than tho«> of the nloou. 
Tlw hatlu will W prcat frainen. They arc now vrithiii reach of 
many to whnm they ncre before unattainable. Many invalids in public 
offiow oome with the first tnuu, take a bath luid return to the capital be- 
fore their hours of busiiic*». Priiicu ?m,-kler MuaUau observes that, in 
Vienna, people talk nh^ut a " lamprrNr" wr n " parajituu," bnt know no- 
thing aljoiit a Tirffettfrkirm. I also had oppoitutiitie* enough of remark* 
iftjET thn foodneM of persona of the uneducxied elassu fin sporting a^ev 
French phraseii. While waiting with aoimi hundredi of penona in tli« 
room apprapriated to the lecxiiid cIsjm, for the airiral of the train, I sat 
down near a vory fat, very fine lady, who wag nanidin^ her Froneh to an 
MquaiatvtM. " Cnnim(>nt voua pmiei to<u? said the lady. "Oh, ah, 
oui, bien,* wtia the rwrly. " Prenec place id, vouler vous ?" *' Noo,* 
"Pourquoi done?" "Non! je, je, — Ah what shall I nay, I don't know 
how trt «ny it, but Vd rather stand," and hereupon he laujjhetl out Loud. 
*' II fait Irc^s chaud icl," ))er«iHted she. " Ay, you mean it is very hot ; ye«, 
hot enough to Btifle one." " OiiJ (I'ent Irop," rejoined the fat dame. '• it is 
loo bad. If they would but collect the heat nnd put it into the on^e 
they might aavc their firing." 

The drive hack, at eleven o'clock at night, waj really brilliant, and the 
jirecaiuionnry lighting of the road almost superfluous. The (tations wew 
illuminated with red and fjrccn laiiip» ; the whole way uloii)]f, lauipi and 
torches vrcTo planted, and withal the moon ihonc rcsplcndently in the 
neaTenci. Late as it was, we met several trains, and, without any exaggera- 
tion, the engines were piping and whiitliug tu uuaicmusly along the fuI- 
toad as 90 niany niice in a granary. 


It was one Sunday afWmoon tliat I walked into the streota to see what 
mspect the city bore at that tim« nf the day- The workday and morning 
tuiaidt bad quite subsided, the constant "Ha! ho .'" of Uie hackney car- \ 
riaiCP!, nnd the " AufJ" of tlic car-driver* were nlcnt, for 20,000 of the ' 
inhabitants of Vienna were rolling over the newly-opened railway tn the 
newly-jijvovcrcd Paradise- of ti[',n;kerau, and 20,000 were flying by the | 
lUab road to Miidling. Kuden. and the other valleyH of t}i« forest of I 
Vienna ; 50.000 more were gone into the oountiy for tlio mimmer. and 
fttiotlier 50,000 wcrv gone after them for tbc dny, to forget the troubles of 
the week in their society. Another not Iom rcspccuble uuniber of citiuus 


■ad citiiGMftM* were Mrftltrrecl over tli« ^ranlrns of tlie lubui'bi, tliK Pniur, 
atx) tlie itM^owE, and thus I retuaiiKed in poswasicm of tint innrr city, ni(li 

.ft romnant of Uck«^«, beg'gvs, and Mck; tiic Turk* tni^lil have ftt- 

1t«d and takeii it at that moment vritli nuc. Ttic domettics w«re lounging 

w tlirirdoonandconrmnngwith l1)eir<ip|H)<3ieneig)ibnura; (hi> miiidii 

I ehitttoring in tlie inn«t courts ; tlw c»rt'ee-Iicnw« of tlie " Orioutals" 

FiVfta tbH full of cotn|iany, fir they w«n.' wrnrccly liliflv to npprove of 
our way of )(e«{iiiig^ Siitiduv. hi llw cailivdral tif St. Stephen, a fcw 
old iriinii'n wprp tvllinj* tiioir ro^arieB, a&d Bcroamiiig their devotions 
tiirvugh tlicfliurcfai and one gratiiig voice anione timtt, louder tliiiu all 

' tiic rest, repeaUtd aa Hw <*nd of «ach vt^nur, " Holy. Iioly, holy 1" 

In the oourtynrd of ono Iiou«p into wliich I looked, I aav n little boy 
mu^ni^ prayen aloud from a book. Ho told rao tlint hti vnut eight yean 
old, and that Iiedid tliU eTcry Sundfl.r. I took hii hook, and »aw ihtit he 

, vas n-iidiD;^ the jroipel of St. Luke, from tlie ninth to thtt fourt«eiit)i v^rw. 
He »u4l it wiui the ^»pel for the day, and that many liovs ui a similar 
inanaer read the f^ospela on n Sunday before the houdei of Vit^nun. ^Vli^-n 
be had finiihed, tbere deaoendcd on Itim, from the ui)|ivr Htorios, u ^fratefnl 
ihower of kr^utxer* wrapped in paper. 

la tbo uual lunndt of the town, I fiad overlooked many smaller els- 
nmts of the population, wluch I now discovered for tlic iirxt time, as Rome 
inh.ibitants of the waten perceived only when the tide hfis ebbed. I 
ootic<^ for tlic fint time tliv poplv nliu fiawk Italian and Himf^Eiriaii 

< ebeese* abrwit the streets. They are chiefly from the nrighboiiHicrfid of 

fUdine, and also sell Italian nincarani. The greater number eould ^"^ 
'U nucK German a« tliey found uecessan' for Utnr street troflic. latere 
■re in all not ItL-a tlian thirty tlimiuixl ItAliiin.i in Vieiiiia, and ihe jiaa- 
senger u not uiifrrquiinlly iiCiHiKCed nitK "Powrttla! rignor mio f la 
tarita.*' Beggars f nonld, out of policy, always speak a foreign language ; 
it excites far more compassion than the lanjpiap? of the eoinitry. 

<>(itn(f farther. I fi>aad ■ man standing befom a tnker'ii sliojl, oceupietl 
in seoldinj; a little tnMd-MrvanC. 8ho wa* a Rnhemian, ho (old me, and 
•dded, " That Boli«mia mast be a very poor country — c^-ery year tbcra 
comR thouuinda of them to Vienna— ^neu and vronieu, inaida and hoyi. 
They l«ain ■• niueh Genniui a* thov tnukt, uftk n i^rrico Homewhere, are 

' TWy moderate in their demands, vnll put up -ivitli a bed iu the »tablvr, or 
on the floor, and when tbey have earned a few florim^ they go back to 
Ibnr CMTO coantry." In fact, if we inquire of a hundred people we meet ' 
io Vienna what country thev arc from, the answer of twenty, on an axcr- 
^;e. will be "/cA bin em lifhm" (I om a Boheniian). Tne whoW num- 
ber of the SbiYonians in Vienna i«, it ii said, about 60,O00, and of olhep ' 
Kon-Ormans 100,000. In the highest eirelei a* the lowest, the foreign 
element mingles ercrywhcre. The number of Iluiigonans is reckoned at 
1 J.OOO : but of these many are not genuine Mag}-ars. 

L>ne could not in Vienna, nt that lime, ^eak three wonis to » unit 
without comiag to tbe name of GcymuUer. My baker, whom I liad re- 

rted to show me the way to the (ilaei*, tokl me, by tlie way, that it waa 
olileit banking-house, and had flourished for above sisty yram, " The 
Kit Baxvu CJeyitiOller, however," he «aid, " w.-w no GoymlUler at all, but 
8T> adopted Km <if lit* iire(iere«>or, and no Iistitii pro|)erlv, but they had 
miule him one. He had equuidered l.')0,(XX> lloriiiii yearly 1 many, both 
c( til rich and poor, bad been ruined through hint; and tvow tma mil- 



ducf-iBiilier hui been politely fhown tlie door ; and ullmrml to j^ uid 
H<M U l^rii witli hb wife on Uie nntuiiu of bis furtiin«. uxt tber wer» 
Bflt {BMaMdenUe." 

Dnrmir this oonvnmtioD wc Imd ic*ebed tW S«ttacr HoT, nbcre oar 

At Um. 1 mme to the end rf tho eity, snd w«nt out upon ihc Glacis. 
Here Bwaned to be gathered togtiiher aJl wboee l<-gri were too abort to 

Eia tile opt'D nnintrj- bevoml t&e cstensiTe suburb* at \'iraii*. It was 
» part called the Wntor GImxi, wb«ie tben b tomo gay tninic CWT 
■(iantout) t Biimb«n n( little childrm with their nonM vere lytnf^ Knid 
playing about the graatf and eorenl sdioob uitder iUe guidanct- of thelr 
naaten ware doiag tlie tiLe. Sonie oTtlmn had intcbtd a tent in one of 
tlw ae«dow«, near whteh tbm- wcrv divoftinf^ tnamMWe*. There U no 
oUivr cilT in Eurppr where the cliildren hoTo socb a ptnv^round in tbo 
vnj liean of the town. Tbe bencbe* were bare of ntlwr vtniUTt, witli the 
«ption of one solitary Turii senied anionff tho cfaildn-n. Hc> h-m taking 
ooSe«i aod dividiajr the •'Aijt/fl," that had been brought liiiu witli it, 
.MlUBg' the tftnows which aie cooctautly flying; in numben rouiul the 
fflacu. 1 Bst dovm by hitn to share in botli his amuscmanLt, and r»- 
Biarii«d a tricic of the sparrows that I had n«ver l>efore noUccd. Some of 
tbeo) were m gnntly, tliut \hty ke^ii lluitvritig iu tlie air about ui, aod 
aouMttmes matduKT a moncl of broad beAm it rauld erea reach the 
gimmd, while (he otltera were eogerijr piddiig up the Matt«i»d fng' 

Like a polrnui turned inside out, the xava life haoF displayed exter- 
nallv, the dead estcrior fltin tumM witliin, even no u the lifo of Vienna 
i«TvriH.-d on n Sunday. Hie Bwanns that on other day* arc dnnnf^ nnd 
bawling in the ttrmts and public place* of the city, are then sin^n^, 
HiTirtrff, eating, drinking, and gnaniiin^ in the houses of public entar- 
tainmeot without. All thi« bumnuni* and druininiiii^ was bu little in 
uniaan with my idea uf a Sunday nalk, that T was glud Co takr refuge 
fr»ni the noiu' in a place where I was sura of harinf^ more to myself on a 
Sutiiiuy than any otliM" day — the Hower-eardpn* and cbuicbTanu. 

Bcet)K>ven'« moDunient itaiidji in the Wllhrincier ceniebT\-. His 
nmple faniily-uame is iDM-ribed in gold letters on a Hlcmv; Imt nf Iat« 
tlu) i^wth of a bush planted neat it lias almost overshadowed the lettccv, 
] asked the textou why lie did not cut away the boa^rhs that tliu iiaiae 
intgfat be more jdaiuly seen; be stud tlio friauds would not allow it to he 

In ereiy temetery tliere is a certam form of iDscription euro to be fire- 
quently iiict with. Oil half the graTCStonos in this place I read the 
wonl " Ever to Iw reineitil'ereil V {vavmjfuUeh) which seems to me ■■ 
unmeaning^ as it >« short. On many of I lie ^>Tnrc« lirhts were bununjp 
in small lanterns among tho tlowera. It i.i tlip nifiom in Vienna to iiglit 
these on the anniversary <>f the death of the deceased. The Wahrinper 
eemetery is onp iif tlie imvtt diitin^iished in Vienna ; and many place on 
the prayefl of their departed friends flawers of a very cosUy kind, for the 
supply of which there is a grceahouse in the eemetery. At night two 
dof^ are let Iimm* to guard the property of tJie dead. 

Nothing' lianoootMS batter with a grave than fluwrin, and by way ofa 
condunioii to my Sniiday jirurneiiade, 1 went to Kmk M. the iloii-er-gardens of 
Mr, X , and Boroii Jc , and came at l&ngtli to RupeK'a nursery- 


J wUch for Htuigar\', and for all tlio Atlwr luntl* tliat rec«ire the 

I oraJtmtion boia Mcoiim plitvs no insifoiftcant [Art. Il U snid to 

ooDtiuu not less thau 2000 epenei of vme, rhiT 400 of poUtOM ; Uie Utter 
uiirlv must be particularl)^ imiiortant for the bofore-iiienttosM) cotintrivs, 
wblch ftTc itill very ill (unpliixf wicli tins ngetahic. Rupert's nrdea is 
alfto ccltrbrotni for ita dBiiIias, tlic Howcr now so pusioaatel}- cultivatnl iu 
all Kuropean gardens. Tito proprietor sav^ that he has 900 vBrictica, 
M-itli (lifi^rent named for each. As vc 6im oGitain insects and butUirflics 
hovrriii^ over oertoia UoMrcrs, to one id alinmt ccrtaia to meet la Rapcft's 
garden i>ome eti&mourad udminrrti of dililias rrom diffpTflut parts of tlie 
Austriiin donunloiu on the hunt for tomu variety of Rawer Tclier«with to 
compk-Ui tbvir cvUvctiuui. Il^rCt as iu £ux''i'u<i> HaiulKirct and LHurt* 
tliev 3tim at t}iu prwluction ofitAw Iciutt^i. Tliu " Princess Kinsky" (white 
vrith lilne e<lgu») is a. f.-n>iitioii of Anemia; " Baroness IlenlerfoItT' (bright 
liliic vritli a dark violet coloured bonJcr), and " Count Flinfkirchcu," are 
cttrisU-ued aftiir Austrian nobles. Tlie rcnr uewest pmduclioiis iif Eng* 
land niid CicriDanv find ibf^lr way first to Rupert's gardi'jt. A " Charloa 
XIJ^" a bntutiTuI velret violet, fading tn the ca\yx to a tender lilac, and 
at tlie outer edge pure white, was now blnoniing ri>r the first tiiu« ia tJiQ 
Auttriau temtorj'. The last consignumnt hod broujfhl 84 uetr aorte, which 
were to come into bloom next year. It is worthy tk note in liow grand a, 
style the English gardens carnr oo their trade with dahlia bulbs. To tba 
tiante of ilie ouIl», tlie nunc of the producers of iti varieties it DnnexHl. Mid. 
osually a Ixsaatiful drawing added to show whiLt tlic Uuuer will be whea 

Towards erening I nrtumod by tlie Gloeis, nml tlierc witncssnl a sccno 
I iJialinat easily forget. A sudden storm of thunder and lightning, that 
eccnii:tl to proiuiiw a M>cond count uf rain and hail, liad swans] all ths 
jonenilos tncamprd on the gruM, and ae 1 camu up, all nera in full ffiglib 
over the nairow diawbndgtrs and tliruugh the small gates. Tlie nnraea 
were towing along two, three, and four bltle cre(Uur«9, and the achoolmas- 
twv liriviiig their llucks before tliein. IIhtc wa* n thronging, bustUugt 
mid burning, as if the Turks li:ul just eiitvn-d tlie suburbs. " VrilliaD), 
you etupid bo}' ! wliat do you stand still to spell Franciscus Primus for ?** 
(tht! name of that erajierar is inscribed in {;oldvn letters over iha gate,) 
" can't you sitell enougli at liome ? don't you hear tlie tliujidvr ?"— 
" fiaWtte uiir joa let go that chain? this is not the time to count tho 
links. See how ron are keeping us." — "Qootl God! what's Lecoue of 
iSei>pi ? He ! child, run, nm, the nuo will spoil all your things." Thus 
Bcrvamed mnthers and aunws, and all dragged on tlieir small cliaiges as if 
a MoOod murder of tho innocents was at haod. At the end of this oontnry 
{wifaafH sooie gnndsire of sereaty will date liia earlieat childish rvcullec- 
lioas from tlui storm, and relate now in the long dspnrlcd year of 1841 
a storm drove him with otlitfn suddenly from th« Gla^us of Vienna, and 
his Fiiund may iikewito nraombcr bow- he was there too, and bow he got 
a box oo the ear from his nurse for ttopping to kikU Pranciscui Primna ta 
the middle of the nin, and how a strange man dnctl his tears and led hini 
hy the baud after his attvndout. 



One imj I went in a $ienKrapem that started from St Scepben's pJaos 
fiir the aoMh talked of KkwtemenlMirg, in cooipanT widt a f*^ littl* 
giri and her mother, a pale joang womaD wh<«a I took at fint Sbr a 
member of the cofporadoa of •empMraaaea, a little old manmkm, and aome 
■lent membos on the back seats of whom no moR need be Mid. "nm 
fittle giA had a basket with foawGnenon her lap which she heU so negli- 
gently, that at the firat jolt of the coach ovt it &D to the nnykJfc 
terror of the mother, who annotmeed the miafoctone br a tenible dui^ 
llie diirer made a halt and I went in sesrdi of the ba^nt, which laAJlj 
had £allen without HimUlng oat its ddicnle contents, and ofived my 
■errices to hold it more securely for the future^ throogh whidb small cinhtr 
I won the hearts of my companions, and a eonveraatioa began that ceased 
not tin we separated at Klostemenboi^. There was no want of subjects, 
fitr in a city like Vienna every night is sore to prodnee matter cnongit 
to employ, for the succeeding day, all the tongoea that stand in need of 
exercise. We spoke first of GeymiiUer's baiJonptcy, a sabject ^lidi 
kept all the taHten of Vienna in fiiU play for two months, and was in- 
tmducecl every momtog as regnlariy as Gunily prayers. It was main- 
tained that it was the banker Sina,* who had nunied GeymDller. The 
book-keeper of the latter had betrayed the embarrassments of his prindpal 
to fUntt, who thereupon, to secure nis own clunu, had come forward, and 
anticipated the o^er creditors. The clerks of GeymuUer had called the 
treacnerons book-keeper to account for this, and even threatened his lifo. 
But Geymiiller had said, "Let him live! tor this man whom I have 
raised from nothing, and who has in return betrayed me, God will jndg» 
him r Next, the last great fire was discussed, and some one related how 
the night before, a young man had been robbed and murdered in Leo- 

" Ah, see there now ! they are going on quite in the Gahcia &sIuon in 
Vienna!" said the slim, pale, young woman whom I had taken for a 
modiste, but who afterwards gave us to midentsod she was the lady of a 
government tobacco agent " Two fires in one week, a man muraered, 
GeymOUer a bankrupt, it's regular Galicia fashion, upon my honour !" 
" Where you ever in Galicia, if I may ask ?" said I, — " Ah! yes, indeed, 
God help me, two whole years," was the answer, accompanied by a deep 

Thereupon our conversation took another direction, for I too had been 
in Galicia,* and was interested for the country, and for the views others 
entertained respecting it. It may be easily imagined how longingly all 
eyes are directed from the provinces towards the warm high-beating heart j 
of the Austrian monarchy ; the hr radiating centre of light, the seat of 
all that is noblest, foirest, and wisest, the imperial city of Vienna, and 
how its splendours and glories are magnified m the ims^nations of those 
dwellers m the provinces, whose fortune it is never to see it face to face ; 
and on the other hand, it ia as easy to fancy how inconsolable must be the 

*Mr. Kobl'i tour in Oftlida will form the dose of the present volome, though in 
point of date it preceded his visit to Vienna. 


/ man or wonua desdned to leave thia teraplo of noovn and Mnrro of nil 
pleoBoro, far the coinMi»tiv«ly jayluH provinc<-^ I novtr boaid a Vienna 
iMiiy more cloiriiicDt tnan wheii spL-alui)^ of the Bohcnuani^ Hflnitiaitfi, or 
CTcu tile Polo, nungvians, Croats, nud other remote people of the em- 
pire, Ab the wires of officers, military or cinl, manv a. fair Aiutrian is 
tUti to wttmlcr unrnij; thcTc barbanuni. W hvL-vcr niu tuul occu ion to 
liitc-ii to tho coDiplalntj of tliosc nho hnvt been siatioucd in Bultowtna, 
TraDsvWsnio, or the militarv colonies, must confess tlmt the Jeitmiade of 
the Cniuew priuoox married to a Mongolian prince, m delivered to u» by 
Rackert, in }iis Schi-kinj;, wiu not inor« deeply felt nor iiiorv uoclinUIy 
«xprM>ed, nor is the joy of (be pnrie(«( when she irtums U> tfav cxpital 
of tJ»e Sun's brother, greater tiian the rapture of a fair natire of Vienna, 
when fihe ttfa Klvpheii's tower again after a riMidcnev of «ome years iu 
IIuiigaTv or GnUciii. If any imu be eunuua to know th« IuikI of pielnro 
she would drnn- of the place the had left, lot him listen to tho at'etiuiit of 
Um tobaoconititu Wtti^-haif, wlieii the berorv-meatiooed uiAfurtuuee aud 
nusdeeds awakrned her rrcolli-ctitxu of Galiciii. 

" Ym, it u qtul« the Gfllicia mode, and wo shall inon linv(> in Viourut 
weh spectacles as v« to be seea in Lcmbcrg- ovtry day. Whilst I w»« 
there, they hung nine men within nx weeks. Once they hung up four on 
the same day. Tlioy were huiig alt«'mately, Arst a Cliriatian auJ then a 
Jew, aiid tlicii another ChriMiaii and then another Jew. Here, Uod be 
tlianked, the punislintent of death ts pretty well laid aaide, except among' 
themllitaTy. But (lalicia! Oh what a countiy 1 I had travelled before 
in lloheinta and Moravia ; I thoiijflit the poverty and miser)' of the people 
was tcaudoloiu enough tht-rc, and liar beyond what 1 hud uuy idvtv uf ; but^ 
Je»ii9 i^lnria t I've learned more lincc ; when I gi't to Galii'is, I found 
wimt it was to bo in a eountry so fur behind in eivili»atiini ! Smell ro^'ues 
and vA»nbondti us the people are therw I never henrd of 1 They plunder 
and iiilfpr,' and commit all mamicr of excowcs. At first we used to go by 
the dilijrciK^i on the great high roads, but aftonnuda we had a earring* to 
our«elve«. On tlie hi^^li-madt )-ou must have rei-onr^e to blows to get any 
thJn^, but out of thein there >» nothing U> he luid either for cud^Uing cv 
for money. One evening the Jew who was driTinir uv, cnlled mit^* I^ook 
ot tlio Klnn, Ho you 6ee the stars ? the sabbatli it uegtimiu^ I' mud liu ai-. 
tunlly wauted to take out his hon«nei nnd compel us to pa&« the ulght in 
the open air ! My uncle, wlio was trare11in>r with me, gave him a beating 
and he dmvu a litUo farther ; but my uhcIp was obliged to eiidge! him six 
times before we eot to oar journey's end." Here I looked hard at tho 
speaker, who hailnoi mtked ine whether I had ever been in LcnibiTg, witli 
a fcrutiiiintig glani^-, but I saw tliat die was (|uite in earnest, meant 
ion& ^fide what alio said, and reckoood fitlly on our bdiof in hci* relation. 
*' LtsnbciXt" she condnued, "tbey call their capital ; but what a cii[tital ! 
Beaviii help ua ! I [ere in Vienna if yoM have n florin in your hand you 
can do something with it, can have tonte dlvi-riion, can satiafy your 
faun^r. But there, if you haye two you can pet nothing for them — no- 
tluD^ w1iat«Ter ; the eoffec-hinutes are had and tUtliy. A cii[t of ootTuo 
eoats twoiity-fonr Icretitierf, and then it is good for nothing. A pcnoii in a 
pablio office, witli ft salary of (KX) florins, eanunt cren say he has hts owu 
Itniig out of It. not to speak of bread for bis chSdrcn. My uhcIo went 
hum one coffee-house to onotlier for two months togeitier, when wa w«ra 
fi«t there, befor« he could make up ■ rubber of whisl." 

Just then wc rvnchcd Nnsnlorri wlicrr a niitnl)cr of liackncy-coadies were 
in waiting for tlie nossengvn hy tho Litix steinibitats. 

" Tlici« I lu all Lvnibers, a cit; with »U,(MX) iiibabituts, if the peopl» 
can be called iiilialniaiiu, uiere am iml h» niaiiy liuckiwy-coMcbea aa jrou 
see here ui one plaoo^ I uaura jrou t>iprv itrv not mare thao a <lo»u ui tlie 
whole town. I lived vith my uador and nrbon the mnt«r came wc went 
to the tuBtmhly. My undfl bad dnaaed himaelf of counie) and bo had 1 ; 
I was qiiit« wuv, mjr neck I ru>.ui, and of rourae I liad my hair nioperlj 
drcOTtd, u w» BbcmM here in Vinnna tA go to *» HMcntbly. Wc orore 
lliera at half-past tea. thst was togn «nou);h, for who tfaiaks of goioff to 
•o aMemblj- in Vienna before dpTea o'cloi-k ? xiH all the comfmay waa a^ 
aenibled, and ai long as I live I shall nexer foi^t it, kll in Uieir fan, soma 
ena in riutpskins. and boot* and ipan, just as tlicy go in U><; iiti«et4. 
Al I and my uncle wcro taking nur places, the |>eaplD called to i;«cb 
other ' SeAaM's die Schtrab'n ! ScJiaut'a die ^/iwah'n I' (Look at lb» 
Swabions!) TAy undo, who understood FolUh, tnui>Ut«d to me all thay 
said of MS, tbc Uuulv-]i-gp>d fellows [ Jcwa and gipsica are the>o ia 
■btmdance^gipaiet (oli, it is scaiid&lou») in whole gang^ Tbi-y !■*« in 
% state of ttoiery that is not to be described, even when somediing ia dniie 
(o better tlieir condition. But m tlint eouutrj eneh tlirow-e the blame 
upon tin: other. Tlio iioblcniau hhv* tliv |MR»aiit 15 lazy, iiiii) the jieasant 
says tlui nnlilciiian b>u iiiithiiig fiir him but a whip. And tlien n>nu>timea 
the Jew's turn eonics. The Jews, ah, I awure you tlu* people — '' Hare 
tho AiitiLiiitn eloquence of our talkative cotnjiaiiion whose innate aala- 
pathy to Hiingariiuiit and GaliuiAnt, acdtcd by appUnM!, ran on in a 
5ti«am as fluent as molten wax, was iottirTHpted by anotbct- denoription of 
oratory, that of the waiu-r of the Klailenteiiburg inn, ae lie o|K:nod the 
door i)f thi! eoadi, and invttvd ut to (r^-t out. Wu did 10. and hastened 
to the cfMivcTit. 

The tradition respecting tlko [oundation of this convent that it was 
endowed by Leopold llie Iloly, in eoinotemoration of Ilia having Iwjre 
fouiid tlie li>st ^eil of hid conmrt, the beautiful Margravine Apieu, on an 
eldor-buili, niu re])eatcd to us, ik^ tt U to all the Uiotiswida of travvllera 
who yearly kiitK'k for ndmimion ut its |^t«s. In the trciiaurv of relics we 
went iJio i>hiiwD a piDL'L> of tho oldBT-busb, a rag of the veL, and a frag- 
ment of the skull, under wliiMe protectiue roof tbo thou^t of such a 
Ibundatioa was firat huti'hcd. Tho legeniLt of tbe CathuUc church are 
really snmetimeji inconecivably paltiy. Wlial a fuss tlivy liave ninde of 
that princely veil, whnee loss wm at once so very eimple and so very iuug- 
■tificant i lu a picture tlicy have even rtjireacnted » troop of baby luigvls 
busied in restoring- the veil to the Mnqrruvinff. And to found a convent 
on such an incideut I The ihin^ wduU \w iiWird, even if tlie veils of our 
Chriitian lodios hod tlic mystic iigniSeance of the Maltnin^iua veils, Uiolow 
of whicli might be supposed to include iht low of half their womanhood. 

Put out of liiuinour by the^ie refleclions 111 tin- ntlic-rooni, we n^quBsted 
to be shown die sptenmd librAry, that we mieht have soniclhiiiK re*- 
aonablu tii took tit ; but t)ic lirat book that fell into our Itands was Cliro* 
njcn Austria! by Joliann Rascli, and the tirst remark that struck on us 
opemnu: it was, that Noah must havo been Arcbdttke of Auittia, beeause 
mien Lao wtttert of the dulugc had subsided, and ho as sole loni and ruler 
of the eaitli hud taken possession, Austria mtist have be«n included. On 
a cloicr czaiiiiuadon of this remarkable book, I found among other anto 



aad pott <Ii)uviaa o«cvrrenc«^ aot taeotitmci in my otKcr hiitorji, t 
oompJBt* Vat <>f AusLnan rul«rs in direct ttcsceat &mn ^<oah. 

No Ims tlian forly prioe«« (heathciui) were enumerated^ thaa nrenl 
Jeiti»b. Then th« cAro&ieler obnorrw, " IWtheit pnncci Bd^ittii Tided in 
Aiutria, and ccrtBuilv not fewer than botbd." To these succecdrtl tho 
Cliristiaii nilera Roluitin, lUptan, Amaouo, &e., a. hundred princes in all, 
whom the enzy ehronidcr laA iaTuled with priocelj hoaours, down to 
the Babeober^^orSi ctcYen ia nambcr, and the Ilajtsbui^-ni, fiftvco. 

The author of this book, a romii.rkable one in a psychological, if not in 
•n hiitorical p<Ht>t of view, was * teach^ in tne Scotch convent oi 
\']cnns, and wc most cviioua port of the itoiy ii, that no joko it io- 
tcnded. but all In (oriouslv nivnnt. It is diligciitlr cumpilcdt uid printed 
in the old, firm, cai-eful, coiuicieutious type of tb« hat century. Tb« intact 
dnlv cf e*ery occurrence is carefidJy ^ivoo ; h<Mr long after tho creation of 
the world, liow long ftfi«r the dclu^, and how long before tlic: biith of 
Chrict. For vxantple : 

*' la tlie year 1807, aftor the creation nf (ho world, in the I5l*t 
venr after Ui« dclugv, and the 21>'(itli before On; birth of Christ, Tuisoo 
Drought a grvai pni>[ilv with lilui fnmi Aniuinia, (lenii&nii and Weiides, 
trnvag irbom wtre twon^-fira ooiinta, and aliout thirty pHnncw." 

AH the TinouB nadinn of the priocee' oanic», their sundry aliases, an 
alfo carefully noted. ^ In the year 2390. after the ereation of the world, 
734 after the dclue<>, livnd tho GitrmoD Hereules, Hercules Alemanntciu, 
tiao ETerculo. Aorj^lc, Argk, Cxck or Argloii, the * IJcro with the 6eraQ 
Uon,' which he lends in a chain, and bears as a cogiiizaaoe in ha shield." 

The whole is illustrated with picrtures, and the coat of arms of every 
pdnco u given. ^Vbraham's is a golden eegle in & black ahield, plaeea 

Miuiy historiographers Iisve laboured for tbo glorifimtion nf tlie old 
houM of Aiwtris, liut none have gone about tlieir work in • way to 
bo «t all ooniporcd to Joliaao IWvh's. Cait it be that in lus time 
(he lived at the begtoniug of ilie ITlii century) people were so Gar 
Mekuided io the fiigs of vanity uid st^lf-esteem, as to give currency to hit 

A further search in the maenilicent rooms appmpriated to the Ulirar^'of 
this convent showed that some rvolly intereating books were to bo fouml in 
it: IliiDfetiuigt^rs lithogru^ from the DrMMO eallery, Salt's Viow of 
India, Dcuon's wmk en Ejgfi, and other fplcowd works of that d»- 

The innmaboki? and inantiKFiptB have all been lately bmntd in Roaia 
Icatber, whidi ia iaid to preserve them from tho wonns. 'Hicre arc sonw 
oh) mlMola and breviaries, and a costly edition of Pliny, on such indestnio- 
tible paper, with so tasteful yet so clear a typo, and with so soLd a binding* 
U in our times ar« no longer to be ecco. Thv incuniibultc must be verw 
old, for the numbers of the paper, and the superscriptions ore made witn 
tlie pen. Tlw old Ii&athen sag« Pliny was painted, in gay colours in fmnt 
of his nork, with a gloiY like that of a saitit round his naid, writing hia 
Evaagelium, like St Jmn t proof eooqgh how highly, ereo in the niiddla 
ages, tlie monks valued the ensstc works of the aucienla. 

1 here 010 also a great nianbcr of old German poems and Wenda- I 
took out Ofw and found it gnawed by the mice. " Eii, eh," said tnc fatlia', 
who was ahiowbg mc round, " sonui wicked ammal has been tt our bookl 



Mgaia ! Tt'« very Ult^lily vnittcn. I can't n*^ tbcM oM Ivtten, mi I 
don't mv tu rcsil them, I like to read a pliuu vood (iriiit !" Thru *tep* 
|riiig to the window, h« liumiDMl a mdody whidi soa« orgBn-grinila' «r«s 
plnjuiG; in the street below, mad obsorvcil, " That b a pretty hor. It i> 
fi^ni Uie I'uritani." I nimmaged further in the mouK magaoiK, and 
feund another old dusty book. It ww called, " On the Gpnii«ii War rf 
BoTtkdcr," thiu) ia Aiutiia ia enlttled tliu wai- of Charks V. ngainrt tlio 

nataola. WomajracqiuntaTcrrmfficient notion of tlmcttntvntaof this 
by only reading the title. It is alike t!hartLCt4>risliR of the roaoner 
of earning on the war, ad of the epirit of the liruM which (Rotated both 
the mr and the hook. It nuu thus : " Of tlie Grnnnn war of Ilortlrdcr, 
with the detpatchM, iiiteUigms^ iiutniotimu^ oomjJaints, tni^Geatiaii^ 
written command!, nunimmaea, ommtelfl, d«lil>»r>tionR, jiit ti fi eaBoi u^ pio- 
tntationf, aiid reciuatinna, re}ilii», deuiali, details, alliances and counter 
alliances, ordfru and toMimuuials, tutten of content aiul dissent, eliaUenges, 
admonitioru, tnicp*, bftttU<8, fight«, and akirmisKcf, with ntif wotd the cauMB 
of tho German war." The mere reading of thia tjtlo makea one fed (juitv 
Holy Rouiao and GemiRD entpirv-ith. 

Klfwlomeubur^, oa it now xtuiiilx, iRonn of ihoce Htately giaut erections, 
reared at the command of the a^rcatcEt architect Austria ever aw on th« 
thnme — Charles VI. It is jirojected in the same grand Style aa all other 
■rv.hilecturftl works of thxt wonitrch, and liku many it[]ii-n) iilmunfortnoaMrly 
((or fortunately?) iiM completed. Want of money, liip tuddon death of 
Charles, and thowarain iJiesucceeding'reigTi of Marin Theresa, prevnited 
the completion, whiidiWflambMnueiiUy often nlt^'inpted, but never achieved, 
as mon«y no longer flowed >o Ireely cui under the adnnntitration of the 
former monBrcli. Much has been done, however, of late ; the library is 
new, a magniAci-iit itaircase 1i:l5 been built nt Uie P-nxt of many ihoutand 
Borins, the great marble hall i> finiihMl. The giant hall which has long 
reiu^ed as thu wi>rkineti left it a hundred yean a^, it it honed, will bo 
cleared a* Hooii an the new cliurch, which the convent ia hound to erect in 
one of in pai-ijiheii in the aiibiub of Hitxing, shall be completed. The coat 
ho* bocn eatimnte'd at 100,000 floHiw, but it will not be bw than 150,000. 
The cftivcnt Inut tlio pationa^^x- of not IvsU tliari twcuty-fivc churches. 

Klostemeuburg ia partictilnry ricll in vln^y.xrds, and their proiliicp flows 
from llie tuna of all the Itouses of public entcrtninmeut far and npar. 
Ueuco it lias acquurod omon;^ ihe ptM>ple the nickname oF tho " ninnbg 
tap" (rwm rmnendm zap/en), j ittt as Gotlweih, on account of its abwid.'mce 
of^roady money is called " tho jingSiny penny'' (?Km kUngrniifn pfrnnig) ; 
and even as the futhor* of Molk nrr called the "lonls of tlw joliy pecka" 
(rf*> HcrrcH vom reUirmlen MtUeri), on account of the many fertile corn- 
fields they poiBieM. 

The Lmpopor CharlM VI. wished to make Klostcmeuburg hii «3ua! 
summer remdonce, and built tlic convent for a chfltcau. Near the culli of 
the monks there is a range of magniticiMit apartments called tho emperor's 
apartmenU, which aro of iiii manner of use to them, but «n the contraiy, 
a great burden. Ite chief cujhiIii of the bulklinfr is surmoniiU'd with an 
impiittl crown, and tJje leaser ones with the an'hdncal hat. The imperial 
crown and the gigantic cmthions on which it n.'ats, is an exact copy in iroQ 
of the rual crown of Vienna. Within, it is roomy enough to eontJiiu 
twenty men, and beams aip ntn'tched aeros* to giie it greater firmEies*. 
The precious stones ore great iKUsei of ir<in.plat«, p»nt«d blue and red, 



I tn RnaB windovri or door« whence a iride prospeet may l>o 

[ic arcliducal hot on each of ttiR otiittr ctipolu has ben mora risiitfi* 
anct than the crown, for KlottcTDeuljurg- u ttis nriiicipal eonvcnt ol iho 
uviidachy, and u Um ffiufdian of tho veritable hat iut-\f, or rather, call* 
H it* own. The moaks aaintain that the liat belaugs* not to the tiii[>eriat 
liousc, but to the coQveot, aud when horaa^ ij to be rendervd to the 
emperor as nrchdulce, ho must borrow ihu hat of them. Thv Archduke 
JMiixiiniliaa dedicated tliU hat " ex devotions" to St. Loopvld, tk« patron 
Mid immortal proptietor of the laonaslcr^-. On tho occaaion of receirine 
luniage, the Iobii of the hat to the new omperor, or archduke, U atuodea 
bjr a number of anti^iit^ ecremoniee. 

'IV» inipcrinl commiiiinoiicn, ^ncrnily itoblcmcn of some old Austriaa 
nee, nidi as the Ilardeggs, Schdnboros, Arc, come on the appoiDtcd daVr 
«QOrt«d by a detaehment of cavalry in a state equipof^ dranm by «uc 
Iwnee, and arc received before Uic ^tcd of thv vonvriit by the nhole 
chapter with the "reigning prelate" at tli<fii head. In the oourta 
of the convent, the " BinftrsrAaft" of tlie town of Klost^niDtibai^ 
paradd in uniform aud armed. Aller a frieudly welvuuic, tlic iUurtrioua 
ffuesto, attended hy the wholv cumpnuy, go to St. Ijc«{M>I(1'k rJiapcl, where 
uiey hear the service and sing a To Deiini, afU'r which tlie " rei^inv 
buiiop," in full poiitil]<:alil>u» and grasping th« golden crosier adonica 
frith precious stone*, admired by travellera iu the: trciutury of the couvcnt, 
repairs to the thmn^TOom whero he gives audience to tne iinfieriiil t!oni- 
misnoiien, and demands thoJr bitnnp^. Tho commiasioiicTa in the old 
•tylc maJcc a speech to the " well beloved, pioui and fiullifal," and declaro 
tMrciD that a new lonl and ruler is tnuioed to invm himself with the 
•mblems and gloriM of majesty, wherefore be requests the convent will 
Und htm the old hat. Then the biahop rijee and gravely declnre^ tliat ho 
eees no leamn to the contraty; wlieixupoii the chapter williugly and sub- 
mtsaively grant the rec|uest of the illustrious xujrplicniit. 

Here ends the fint act of tht» !nii>ortatit drama, and to gather strength 
•nd courage fiw the scrand, the party adjouni to tha baTiquet-Iablu, where 
the " Running Tap" shows ittelf no niggnnl. ami auuiy a gla» i* emptied 
to ihe pmsponty of tho old hou«e of AuEtriiL 

AfWr the banouet, the pariien proceed to tho dcliwi^ and reception of 
the hat: hut in the- tint plaice, its gcnuinene^ii and identity In every n2tii>ecC 
must be a«coRnined. The imperial onttimi^tooers draw out an old paper 
ou whidi it IB deacrib(»l in detuil. Tlie great blue xippliiiv on tlic top, in 
the centre the pearls, rubies, and emeralds, the sable tailt, every thing is 
doeely exanuDM and cntHied, and then die hat ia pecked into its red 
leathern «as<i, locked up, and carriod down to the gate by the dean, assisted 
by two priceta. 

Here the ease is dehvered to the commissiunen, who plore it in n litter 
borne by two mulen. The litter is followed by twelve of llie Austrian 
"noble guard," all scions of ancient race; then tome the vomminioners in 
their carriagv, then tho empty carriagD of tlie bishop, and bcJiind it a pari 
of hia flock, the burger guard of Kloftemeoburg on borsehack with tneir 
tnim^ts. Tho latter, and tho empty csrriag*, only go as far a« the 
; Soottkdi gate of Vienna, where the national guard is stationed to lelieve 
them and convey the bat to it* destinaUon. The return of the hat to the 
«oar*bt t> conducted ia Mmilai- ttyiv, but with wmcwhac lea ceremony. 


The archdake St. Leopold ia thepatrOQ and ptotector of die Aiutziaa 
BTchducliies, but Nepomucene and Fkrian are also supposed to watch oyer 
^eir safetj. Leopold is buried Iteie ; the enamel-work on his nKmuinent 
is admired bj all traveUeni, as in duty bound, although the place is so daric 
that scarcely any thing can be seen of it. But the beautiful stucco-worie 
of the chun:h really deserves the hig^ieet admiration, and I do not think 
that any thing so perfect ia to be met with elsewhere in Germany. Such 
luxurious fulness of form^ such correctness of drawing, such a solidity of 
workmanship, which, after tlie lapse of a hundred years, holds and looks 
as if it had been done yesterday, and such taste m the diviaon and ar- 
rancement of the groups, make it really unique in its kind, and do the 
highest honour to the Augustine chapter of Klosteroeubui^, if they had 
louly a hand in the matter. I must confess, that after I had seen dl the 

?lendouia of this convent, I felt as if I had enjoyed a banquet. 
wo gentlemen who were my feUow-paasengers in the Stellwagen 
on my return, owned to similar feelings, only there was this difference 
between us, they had really dined. They had dined with the prelate, and 
were fiill of his praises. On the way th^ pointed out to me a monument 
raised by a former prelate in commemoration of a great danger &om 
which he had escaped. Be was driving past the spot, when an ezplocdoD 
in a ndgbbouring Turkish redoubt, hnrlect some thousands of cannon-balls 
into the sir. One of these balls passed obliquely through the roof of the 
Inshop's carriage without doing hmi any personal injur)', and, in memory 
of this preservation, he had had this ball riveted on the pointed summit o£ 
a column, with an inscription explaining the motive for the erection of so 
nngular a monument, which seemed to me to announce more plainly than 
any thing else I had seen, the prodigious importance of a Klostemeuburg 




Ox leaving McDua. I took core nnt to leave behind Uio only liungarisu 
won] I was Dimter of, — naniclj", " Vonapat' signifying' "good day;" fiii 
even i ungle wonl of tlie langiiagc of a country we «io about to enter, 
)■ a precious little initrument ior unloeldng hearts, if one do«f but know 
to uw it> A hnndret] wonJa Atid fontia uf Hpcucb forni (lu incstiouiblb 
tnuime in sucb a c«s«. 

Imtnedintely on pasnDg tho frontier, tJia riUage of Potselikine, wbere 
we st«pp«d, pi«sBBl«d aa oatiiel/ diOcroat aspect bom tJiose on uw Au*- 
trian tiae. fbe wiodow-shuttera of die hoiu« wem of iron, on acoouott 
I «M told, of Uu fraquent ooDflagimtiout ; tli« staUff-men worn the coa- 
tum« of butelwn, ana caiiiad tlic impUmcota of Ui« trade, aa they are re- 
quired to eicrdse this twofold occuj^uUion, tmiaeiue berdi of cattle 
oandnualljr paanafif thraugh the |)latr<>. Oiii,> of tlicm mm, vrbom I q)ok» 
will), proved to Im; an Aiutnnn dcfortcr, wlio bad nm away tO erade the 
laws of recruitment ; and nbcn I asked bint if bo did not tear being dis- 
covered BO close to Vienna, he answered, *• Oh, tbey luiow very well vrbere 
X am, but here in Hungwy thc^' can't lay hold of mc. If thoy tried it, I 
' ~, soon get togctlicT bundxvda of (lie country fcllowa ; there ore plenty 
'iof ua here witLoat Icare, but nobody says a word to ua," Four German 
Jliil«s beyond Vienna, therefore, the Austrian police, and the (octal order 
dependant on it, loc«« its power. I met hvre many " Xritelwagen" long 
caniagea, in which the people sit bnck to back, crammed liill os mlgriioa 
ibr llie shrioe of Maria Zell in the mountains, and ntlomed witli large 
iioMga}'!. Tbo driver sal in the front, driving witli one hand, and boldinr 
ia tlw other a prayer-book, Erom which he ciiaiitcd aloud, what tbn ptl- 
pima aung in clionu aft«r him. SomatimeB I met wholv troojti «n foot; 
that aiitii«Iy covered the road, broad aa it waa, men, women, and girls, 
nwatlj provided with great umbrellaa to protect tbeiii from the sun, ting- 
ing, and pttiying, led toinetinMa by a eoiiiiecmled banner. They were 
pnncipoJly Gennaaa, aa indeed am the greater [lart of the population for 
■one milM beyond Oedenbiug. The Mogyan, I woi told, did not join in 
ikcee {nlgrimages. The day (the 20th of August) waa also, among tlicje 



_ ; feMinL It wu St. St«|Sirt Sy, on wliicli iim hands, 
•nd i b«liere a jmrt of ibt iknll, of the laint are cairied iii pnKiiMon 
tbrau)!')) Offn ; and in sll the villn^ wo pauod through, wo fnuiid th* 
people ill Suuda/ clothes and making holidAv. 

At Drulnu^, a village jiartiv iuhahitea by Croatu, we found aome 
Croat girl* uiemblMi round a holy tpriag. Above it was an " Kccw liomo'* 
to storie, covered with diut and couhvIh, the tttVtr trivUing out from under 
it. ] aikcd one of them if thr water was giToi. " To be sure it is," 
thev answered, ** doesn't it ruu off from God hinmOf." As many as thir^ 
Of forty people were drawinff or drioking the wat<>r, and one of the gira 
biought nie lier nitcKcr. To the great aniuaemeut of the bystunaen^ 
when I wi*nl to drink, I ptjum] it all over nw, not being yet avi-anc lliat 
tlio Ilungnrinn jiitcJiore iiAv« a little trodchomiu hole near tlic handle, 
on wliich it ia necessary to put one's finger, if one docs not wUh to or^joy 
the fluid ingde and outside at the saint* inotnent. 

Along the nestom side of the Npuniciili-r Lake, and the Styrian iaxf 
li«r as »r as the l>nivv, the Tillo^ei are inhabited hy a mixed population 
of (icrmans niid Cioals. At thut point begins tliu tenitoTy cxdusivtdy 
peopled tiy Croatians. In the (Jedeiiburg Comilat, or county, tlierc an 
80 Croatian viliages; in that of \Vt<'ielburg, II; in Eisenborg, (>4; and 
in other countiu not so inniiy. TIrmo ou the Neusiedler Lake an; caUod 
"Water Ci-oats. These Croats scattered among the Gfniiain, are perhaps 
the frngments of the original population of the country; tht' dialect that 
tliey (peak among iWninelvei, is Cniatian, but they almost all speak 
Oemiun, though not IlungariaiJ. They srrve as drivers and v-a^oncrs 
all over the oauntry, but arc said by the Gemiaus to l)e too fond of their 
ease to devote LbeiuselvL-a to agriculture. 

The Croatian wcimpii wear very gay cokiurs, the girb have bodices eni- 
bicndered with gold, as stiff as coats of iciiiil, and wear their hair ia tbl 
&^on prevailing over the greciter part of the worid, — natnely, hanging 
down iTciiind in long plaits, and tuiti;^''lc(l with coloured ribbons. The wo- 
men uenr large Iioodt or cnifs, fn>n) tvliirh depends a large piece of stuff 
dworated with rich eiiibToidery and lace. They often come from tlio 
<ountry with iheir giiwiis tucked up, and ciurjing tbwr ihoca and stockings 
in their lijuids, but sit down at a little disliinif from the church or village 
they nre g<>>'ig to, make their toilets, and then march on in grand stata. 
Tfa« Cmatian men are attired in still more showy style than the vroaieR, 
"with jackets and wni«lconts covered with fkiwem luid enihri>idery, and 
broad- brimmed liats with great busbet) of tlowitrs and feathers, in the nnm- 
bsr and beauty nf which tney take great pride. 

They are very fond of warlike enf^untors nntong- themselves, and those 
who feel especially that wav di»[)«!<ed, Mick in (heir liats a long glistening 
peacock's feather. These feathers arc called *' defiance fealliern," and wlio- 
ever mounts one of tb^ni must feel pretty sure of his own strength and 
skill, for lie exposes Limwlf, by so doing, to the remarks iuid attacks of 
all th« rest. Tliey often eome lo pitched battles on a vt^rv ningni6cent 
scale, and if they are interrupted by th-e police in towns, nrc sure to finish 
the engagement in the fields. The swni-i which I myself witucsswi in 
the Croatian village* were, howe^-er. of a very twnceful nature. Li a lonely 
ehurehyard, iii the vicinity of a solitary- church, I found an olil man lying 
prostrate iu prayer upon a gruvci on which atood a rough stone croM, witA 
the iuacriptian, " Here lies Agst«chin. Xaye: died lb'^9" The mourner 



infenncil us thut tliU was his wifi:, wito k^- there with 1i» twn obiMrpn, And 
that he was now lefi, a> be repeatnl ivo or tiirett thtii-i, " c]iiit« alono — quit* 
Rlooe." U« thowed us • ckve in the churchvnrd rntucly liIlM nnth humui 
bones, sud to hkvn lain there from the ttnie of ihe Turka. These bone» were 
re^ilftrly biiilt up iiito a wall, luitl unnnc pltnu Croatian «ronien bnil de<!Q> 
r«t«d the iiit«nttc«a with tibboas and Dowcn. To tome of the ikullt th« 
hair was aCiU hanging. 

We inet ou our mad to Oedenbur^ anny waggont laden with rags, and 
my concbmnn inrnrmod m? thiry weit j^ing to Hw Austrian nunufodariet; 
cbservin^. " The nuogariaoa send us all their ngs* and rubbiifa, that wo 
nm' make something dew out of tLem,*' and ii is chamcteristic of bath 
natioot, that* great deal of raw material U scut from Hungarv to be worked 
tip in Anstnai whiUt twnc over tmrvU iu lui oppo^itu dirvction. 

Oedcoburg ii th(^ greatest cattle- market in Uongir}-, nnd most of tfao 
anijnals iold there pua ou to Vienna by the road by which we had come. 
W« frcquenUy observed trace* of their pasfagc in Kttle marshy ipot», where 
the f^uud hod been torn and routrd up. 

At length we <li:ieorered the town of OedenburE; Ij'ing in a pkin, and 
surrounded far and wde with «abbaffe-field». it is a^ old a town as Vienna, 
and d&Uui from thu Roman time, its prvsciit Huu^arian naim-, isaproDiOt 
being a corruption of its Latin one. The Gcmuno hnrc mtlnl it Oed«n- 
butg, or *■ desert eity," on necount of the desnlntt' iip|ic9.ninco of the eimiitry 
8um>undiiig it. Coming from Austria, at all oretits, the naoie app«4U8 
ajj|ili<*Ahli- <iioug}i, for there ix mow mute tluui cultirated land to be scco; 
Inil soim nfUT [iiLMiiig tlii.<i Lowii, little vinfvard* begin to oriiu on tlw right 
and \efU The monr. imngrtant lie in the airivtion of thn \eusiMlli.-r Lave, 
where the air is milder than at Oedenbnrc itself, and where the inhabitaufat 
of the town have lands mid vineyards producing the wines destined to alake 
the thirst of Moravia and Silejia. 

Though thv tow-n uf OedcnburK is principally inhabited by Gvrinani, 
one nici'tj everywhere with lIuRg&rian apjtellatioiii and intcripUnns, csp^ 
eially at the inns. The one I entered waa dcdicniMl to the " Magyar 
Kiral} hon," tliat ia, to tlic " King of llnngarv," and I drank my eodcu in a 
** Kafiduu," on the sign of which a person m the nadoosj costume was 
depicted presenting ice and coBee. The company at table was various, 
eoniifting of »ome Poliali eavalry-ofEcei**, who were marching' throaigh the 
town with their companies, a few Englishnica who vniro escorting tnenly 
full-blcxl English horses to some llungxrtan magnate, some noblen and 
eitiiens of Omlenburg, and lastly a Vienna nicrchaiit, a man of ta»te — at 
^least be said bo much ^>out vmut of tasbe b otiivn, that we unturally in- 
~ ired that he regarded himself as in full pofseasinn of it. 

Beyond Ocdvnburg vo agun potved through s Croatian village, whor« 
vh was full of pretty, clean, white-robed women and girls, (iTmying 
I St. Stephen and the blessed Viigin. To this succeeded a German, auo 
■After that B luiugied (iemuin and Croatian village, and at Isiit wo arrived 
1 at Zimendorf, the Knt Magyar locality. This place b^ongs to the renowned 

Count S , wliose poasesaons extend along the sonUieni shore of tli» 

lale, and join the Esterhnzy estates. Near tlie town, in a handsome park, 
lioh in fine old trees, lies the taitle of this nobleman. It >■ of handaotn* 



architectorei and Btted up iti' tho uitcrior in the English stjlc, vitli com- 
fort and elegnoce. 

TIm) cutl« «-u occninied at the tim« of tny arrinl merely by s«n-ants and 
officer* of tb« Iwiuehold, but tlic twuut, nbo wu in Vivnno. )ia<l bad tbs^ 
Idadneii to give otden t)uit my party, (.'omiMtiiifj: of myself alotic, «1»ni)d 
imitiid to remun a day or two, nnd be trated u owner of the place. Sob 
■poitnicnti oa tliv luwci- iiUii^' vmxv opeaed for my aooommodation. 7% ^ 
by among flowrr-bntls in lltr iiiidillf! of the garnen. I found a aleepin^j 
tootn unth II b«d^oad of Ttallaii [iruiiortion«, a tofn of oriinital liuttry, sndj 
•one loungiog and rockinc chairs, at for the indulgence of s great {^rftod-n 
(iulier. 'Iiie dining and Bitting rooms were of equally grand dimension^? 
all wa* in the inoft briiiitirul onli-r, thi- funiiture admirably Icepi, and ere^ 
pipes stood ready f3l«'d, ns if tHoy hod jiirt ex]>rctod imeh a gnect a* myaelC 

Several servant wore always in attendance to fulBl all my wishes, and 
the coolc beraed to be iofnniied what 1 would have prepared for supper, 
nnd wluit wuie I wiui acGuitomt^d tci drink. There ore many people in tha 
wvrld who esprois a, f^nw deal of enthusiasm for aolitudv and a honnit 
life, and I helicre rucli a hemutog? as that in which I now found myself 
vonld be exactly to the taste of such entliu^ioste. The upp?r roonu, par* 
ticttlarly, wcrv arranffed wiUi a ta»U' and elegance rni-viy seen out of 
Loudon or Paris. Tlic libmry had many mogtiiliectit co{>ic» nf Frcnclt 
and English books, beside* an ahundani'o of utefiil und tnlfrestiiig woricfll 
on all subjects, from which, every morning and evening, 1 liad some trana- i 
porttil to my cc/A One of thr M^lontis liad ita nails adorned with porbuits' 
of the ancestors of the count's family; among oilier*, that of an iirch- 
biihop of Gmn, wlio had exp^ided for the benefit of hi» fatlioiliifiil, ia 
bridf;T^ fortilicntiouH, und otht-r jmblit; work.-*, no l«fts a sum tliau " vigesiet 
et srrut cmtrna triginta mHIia trecnUi Florttii.'* 

llungarj* has at ^1 jK-noJa iMiastod of disintomrtwl patriots, who hara 
laid tlie«e offerings on the altar of their country, and no family bun pro- 
duced more such men. than that under whose hospitable roof 1 now found 
mytielf. The present head of tho familv. .is well as hi) father and grand- 
fatlier, have all rendered their naincn ilfustrioug by irplendid liberaliliM of 
this kind, nioli a> tlic fonndation of the Uungoriau Museum, uf the Uua- 
garian«iary Society. Ac. 

My abore-mentioned hennitnge lay not far from the Xeusiedler Lok^ 
tOWard« wUcb kd a lung and Ix-uutiful Hvenuc- of linden -tivL's. I de- 
termined, ^lerefore, to pny it a nsit, and wni ittt<Miit<il thithiT Ijy an 
Knglbh Mrront of tlie count's, i^fr. Jolin miido nie aci[iiainted on the way 
witii a couot^'man of hie, employed tn superintend the stud attached, to 
my hermitage. It ia a >«ry common thing to fiitd Rng1i<ihnien in the ser- 
vice of the riungiu-ian ni>tiU«. HiiiUliTig bridgct at P«th, makinj^ roaiU 
over the difficult grtmnd of the luwnr Danube, blnsting roflia at the Iroa 
Gates — ererywhcro one finds Englixhineo, and everywhere b it all tho' 
uelter for tlie works that we do so And them. 

As WD Tode along, Mr. John related to me his own hlstoi^'. Ho had 
formerly acrrcd in the Englith navj-, nnd hecD in China and the East 
Indies, but had been aftenrarda wncKcd in the North Sea. fie had been 
hospitably trtoced by the Danes, who sent him hack to London, where he 
was engBgwl tut a working o^-er»e«r of Uie Peatb bridge. There lie mot 
with a severe accident and at length found hta way to nis present asylum, 


where Iw wu oceupied in coiwtracting on die lake a. little harbour for tbe 
jaolits nod boat« whicK tl>« ooant wL boUt An it. 

Tlu; uiet of tbe lake toe at tiua pert name hundred feet higb, Hlnpinf , 
lumerer, eerily down to tlie tow «hate. llie evenue 1 hsve cpdcBn of 
Icadj to the iBnunit of tho biuik, wlioiicv thmr i% n fiiio ri«w over tlie 
water. It teniuaatee io a g'ra^'Ci irlicro there ij a little clui|>ol, ontl u mo- 
nuniRut to tL dccewed count, who here met lib death by a n.\\ wKilv bunt* 
ing. We got raaie Huiij>rarian boatmen, ntid rowed ntit n liulo <ny into 
tho Iiko ; thu water was CKtrvnicly smooth, but a laiit lay on its surface, 
which was broken by no livinf^ thin^ hut mir frail cauoe, and >oiite digliu 
of wild ducis. Mr. John infonned mo that thev Bometimeii prooewled Hi* 
&r u the op]>nnCe extremity of tb« lake ; and that a new yacht nu* aoon 
tn be launclicd, w)Hm a fU|; would bo iKiistrd, the oaly one timt had ever 
been unfurled on tbe lake. Mr. John was the adminu of the fleet of the 
■* Ferto tara," (the Hun^^&n name of tbe bike,) and if^ u a eommon 
■ilor, he lind ft>rnivr]y sailed orvr tJic ffmt ocean, and round tlie wide 
wortd itself, lie might now coiufoit hinualf tike Csesar with the reflection, 
that it woj better to hold the lit^t rank in a fleet of cockboats, than a se- 
eondary one in an Eng-ltihtuau-of-wor. 

The Ncusicdirr Luke ho* the tame colour m the DniiuW, — namely, a pale 
milky ^recii. The saodsof tlie river, also exactly resemble thoee of the 
•borctt of tlie lake, and it has been imagined that by means of the cele- 
brated whirlpool, and a subti-rraiLeaii cliannel, there is a conimtmica.tinn 
between tlieni. This is very iiiiprobabli-, Init there is another ktud of sub- 
tetranean connection which ui by no iiuutiut ih>; nnmelv, by tlie crent 
marches and the loose epuogy soil, Ivinc; bctwooa the river and the lake. 
I obHervwd that some piles, driven m for tlie intended harbour, had sank 
eentideralily, a rare inaicatiou of the lemeneat of the soiL 

CoDccmiDg tlic iocrcasv or decrease of the water of tlic lake there is d 
£Sereucc of opinion. The rico|)lc on the lake soured mc that, for several 
years there had been a regular decrease : in the dcepeat places it was not 
more than acvvn or eight iei;t, and in most not above nvc Tea yearv ago 

WHS at least seven or eight fi!wt higher, and bod a depth in some placw 
f fifteen or sixteen feeL At tliJit time ic was constantly rising, and liod 
eovetMl n conridctsble mimber of acre* witJi barren sand, *o much bo that 
several commnnea had deti-riniiiLt] to remove their villitgc!i higher up the 
bonk, when swldenly in tlie year 163^, the water fell again ; and lince 
then, witli the exeojitinn of an occasional rise, dependant on tbe season of 
^e year, it bos been regularly declining. It would Ix; interetting to know 
* these risings and fallings oooutnd at regular dttleniunate periods, but 
this 1 could not ascertain. 

Tbe fleiuii^dli-T Lake in wLatcTi is cot'ered with ice as clear as glais ; and, 

I acvouiit of its vliailowness, it fnseie* in the miklest winter, and in snm- 
ner it; always lukewarm. 

The only town ou the lake ii nuit, the BOiallest of all tbe Hungarian 
free towns, but tiic most cclebntt«<) for the rsceiicnce of its winsa W* 
eould distinguish, in the distance, lb vineyardg, wlicre various kiuds of fine 
grape* were growing. The lake should, in my opinion, ratber be luinied 
after this town than Neusiedek winch b a little insignificant place, as, in- 
deed, are mort of tlw r)tlwT villigeit and hamlets on the lake. These, 
i^ongh tbey are all inhabit4d bv Germans, hare all Hmigarian nnnMS, 
nd then are many little {Jaoes inhabitH by Ilonganaai wluch have G«r* 


mui Sftpellntioni ; and, ind«M), muiy IIutif<;arisn tomu hftre not onlj a 
Gtiman nnd Ilungannti, but *.Uo it SUvituiaii iind a Lalta tiftinc. Ou Our 
ride back I found aa the ixmuI a Mnj^ai' {K--aKUit-nonkai), reulin^ aloud 
wit)) ^pvnt devotion, from a Hungariiia prnyer-bciok. S\\» spokt tin word 
of (i<^niiiui, but 1 fvniid ineaim to conrene with licr, W means of nijr 
Eoglislimaii, who liiid li^ariit a littU HungBrian. Tlie dilTereiit clia)>tcr« 
of the book were uiBcribed— " Th« Litui^y," " Penitence," " Tli« Holy 
Mms,'' &c. It vn» )uuidsomel;r bound, and althoti^ tile owoer was very 
poor, it wa» rcn' ufatly IcrpL 

I asked h«r if it liuu bwti ^'ivcn ti) h«r, and the nnxirend no, alio liail 
bourht it will) three fiorins that she hod tayttA up. At horns ah* bad 
anouier, called the (lardeii of Rosea, which wu «till aic«r and cosier to 
pray out of. How (gladly would I linve f^ven the j^kmI old aoti], who 
■Mm«d to hunger and tliint after Hf>-hu«i!iu:ne0, a bottttr ^id« to the king- 
dom of lleavon thau these books. Whv wut the not allowed the true 
ifnritoal noumhinent of the g;DS|>el ? She aiuwcrcd hU our questions will- 
ing^jr, bat wu hy no mctini inclined to |p»fip : indeed, ^ttrnilitj' u seldom 
Uw bilisf^ o( a llunpxrian ; thry aro iTii>rily chanLctcn».><l by a crrtaiu 
■enouaneH and dignity of mannirr. and their eloquence caeily piu»cs iixto 

Tliu costliuvKt and Kjdcndour of the plate in whicli my trening' rovol woa 
icncd up. dacded my cyet. I felt xmicvthat like ponr Hadji liaba. when 
thev persuaded hiia lie was o sultan, t wiu not much inclitied to eat, but 
could not help cnjoyinpf the manTier in which every tiling wa« prc!icut«d 
En my hermtta^ ; indci^, I »haJl ro):^nI it as a point »f more importiuicc 
when I turn anchorite, to have my dishes pre«rtit^ tn ^kl and silver, and 
ricbly-eut f^au, than even to have them peculiarly daiiitv in themselves. 
Such thiii):pi 11.1 ^>kl(-n nlicafaiitc, however, and ))ii)c-.tpplc8, fruits, jeUieOi 
he., inifilit lx« r«(piirwl, oil account, nf their iM-aiitit'iil up[ieamiii'e. nn well 
an their perfume. On the followitif* m«»miup I pnid it vi»it tn tho English 
boFM* under tho |;;uardiaiiwhip of Mr. Itohinsnn — or Robertson, and en- 
tered, for the first tiiiip, tlie houses of some SIii;yyar pirasonta, in atw of 
the DMghbauriiig- villngcs. Tliey wt-m all built nllki-, one suity high, 
wfaitewashcd, with the fronts not turned to the »tri>H, but to a litt]« court. 
Ou tltv «idi; next tbe street ia a small window, nnd nUn a lar(^ thick lieam 
running up through the wall and supporting tlio loof. Uelow tiiiii beam 
is let into a huge block, which serves at the same time as a house-bench. 
The lutirriors pix-sciitt-d no appeanince of extreme poverty, althougk it 
must be admitted that all riun^riaa villages are not so well built at Ziii- 
zendorf. The peasantry of Hungary are, however, on the whole. bett*!T 
ofTthaji those of t^tlilatid or Uthuiinio, though nut bo well, certaiidy as 
thoM! of Auatrin. 

In the count's stahlea I snw none but fine English hiood honiH, ihs most 
disttnguiihcd of which was "Christina," »aid to be tlio finest blood-horse 
in Hungnry. Mr. RolnDnm thawed me a printed fccnealagy of this cele- 
brateil lady, and I became very desirous to «ee her ; but when I did, I 
mutt confess I felt, as I have done on beiufj introduced to celebrated men, 
ao little disapjMiiiitmcTit, for I could di.wovvr ii" tnice of those admirable 
qualities for which she was famous, — nay, to own the truth, 1 thought 
her downright ugly. 

" Oh ! Tpu must see her at work," Mid Mr. Bobinnon ; " tliat't the way 
to judge. And oven so it is with celebrated men. One nuut see tlieiii 


at work, for it is only thtn that one aa no^mun in tlimi the g«tuue or 
tlie hern ot* diritie inspiiution. 

TliQ Riiglidh paaetion for hones and Iiorfc-raccs luu itoea rocenlly Lraiu- 
tated liit4> Iluiigarv, as well an some parts of Gtriiiitiijr ; but in ilie fur> 
mifT emmtrj- thutv Uiing* arc eamuJ on lu ^nuider ntylu. In y.inWnAojf 
alone, tUcro wen no lew thoa two-and-twcnty full-blood marcs, cacb of 
which had her own stable, and her own grooto. In currying theni the 
ffUovfi mode a peculiar, immiuible kind of noUc, to whidi ttiey told me 
tho ICn^EiiU niArog w«re ki a«eii>toni«d, thitt tlicy vrould not ritnnd ftill 

I without it, so that the Hongarian grooina hud been ubligcd. to study to 
acquire tlie accompltshmeut. 

Two Gonnan miles from Zinfeocdorf lies Estcrhax, formerly the prin- 
CB|)a) Mut of the pruic«d Eilerliuzy, wid ns it would not lie in mv rokd tO 
■b, I inndo ou pxeurooii tlnthrr. Wo met witli a very frii'ndly retTp- 
Do, and found •ome Indies from » neighbouring oroviuc^f, who liud also 

"'flooie to see the oaatla. It is built in tliv \'vr«&illi-d ityle. Duriug the 
Inst century ciiormvuH itiint* were exiicndi'd ujmti it, by ttie PniiiTt!> ot' £»• 
tcrliaiy in honour of tlio Eni[>m» JVfaHa Thvit>Mi, wlio frciiiii'iitJy vixitcd 
the place. A great saloon was biult with this view, as well as a plcfwnre- 
Doloce ill tlie pftijc, in which files cfiampitrrs weie given. The salooD, 
)ion«Tvr, wac Ixiriit down hefoiu the cnijirfn had (een it. The nanie be- 
flowed on till! plcaiiure-|)alaiv, it \t «Aid, wn» oiggcstod by a ea.'iuiU qiics- 

Ftiint put by the cmprOM, tn to how mucJi its erection cost. The piiuco 
replied, " eighty thouaaiid flonoa ;'* and tlie sovereign observed, " On ! for 
an Katerhnzy, that is a mere bagatcUe ;" and on going out she found 

." Uegutvlle' iiucribcd in gwld Icttvn ov<?r tlic gate; aliiw when it has 

'gone by the iinnin of " Ciude Bagatelle." 

In tnis ]iftlxi>tf is bu apartment so eoustnieted, that miinc pinvcd in the 
room beneath is heard it plainly n* if pUyod in the room iteelf. 'fhe rifect 
nay have been surprifdng, liul 1 mniiul, Iitlp thinking', that the pleiisureof 
niusic is iiicretiseJ by the night of tlie inslruiiient* ; if nut, we nugtil to sit 
ill, R eunc^frl-raoni witJi imr backs to the oncheftro. In \iw esulle itself, 
although cveiy thing has been of late much neglected, aud many iiingni- 
ficent articles carrieil away to other wvatii, whiwe Hituatlons arv preferable, 
there lire still tn be fotuid many tk^hly iiitarHting workD of art. It it im- 
posribEc to c-nunicratc thorn, for than ue whole suit** of raoms filled with 
thi^ui. and oHL- eounot help wondering how tliey all fouud theii' way to 
goch an out-of- tlie-way spot of earth, so little favoured by nature. In t!w 
vatt track of country noasCMcd by th« l-lAterhAxv*, thtrri; muiit Imve ln-^n 
many snoia better adiqited for the site of suirh a caslli.% than this sandy 
hill on the edge of a morass. 

Among the curiositioj eshilMted, are two small figures of a man and a 
woman, of Italian woTkmantlu]>, eomptwd entirely of Venetian !>ea-alielU. 
By an iminciise cxpenditui* of labour, the lips tito cltei^is, tlw eyes, llie 
[igrrs, llie dress, the boots, the buckles, have all been rmirownteu uecu- 
raiely by sliell» of diflWent colours ; uveu tlie liair of the head and beatd, 
has been imitated. The flgnrcs arc by no mcaiiii beautiful, but ihev afford 
actribing [iroof of tlie variety and richno8s of the Venetian coiicliology. 
Twelve tltousand fiorins were paid for tlwin, bnt rather in eon^iimcnt to 
• reconiniendatoty letter from the einjirest, brought to Prince uterltaxy 
by tlw Boou who had tliein to sell, titan Eroin any desire lie felt to become 
t&t pOMMfor. 


In Efterliiu aUn wmv iHuy bInod'luHvo*, and, m buuU, Engfidnm iq 
atteadaacc upon thein. 1 vu tcld tWt tin fiareiiU of tltcc* honw bmi . 
sold for enornious fnoea in Rngland, tlircr and fonr thoasand pounda^ 
subline, wbmeo I wu Ind to infer tli« nol>ility of tbc dnldna; I wtm' 
sereimkM, Uiud to Umr miutifold poifectiooi, md ibould \mm Kt more 
vatoe on am gooA h<Hiest woridn^ hone. The gmt Ertertnxjr rtud is 
kept in tlw 0»md <&trict. to the soutl) of tli«> Plactcn Lake, and w and C* 
ooluiftcf eiffhl buodred bigh-brHl honofi. b^itde* thestabl«fl,weniitod4M 
do^kntiirU, U> vtliidt iii nUnchcd n ffpanlf kitclicn, n o<>urtj)inI fur vx- 
vrrW, itid otticr nocDmniodatiou fbr the diflVrrat uw of the cniiiiis oc> 
cupnnu. Tficr9 vara no lem than ninety-two Eng^lJM don of fino finmi^ 
and with pIiywo^oouesnnmBivc of tlwir Bportiti};^ ai|)<unlities, l>ut 1 caa 
f«el DO »jFm[ntfay lor them lordly htmliufi; dngs ki^jit iu henli, awl vu not 
Bt nil (IUu<wM>d trhrn tlw w)iipii«r>iii rut in nmnttg rhpni with a ^roat whip 
ta briiit; tliiMn into order, y«t I should have f^iievod to »cc a lilow umod M 
kfaitlthd houso do^, or & dMfili«Td's oompaoioa. 

A maouAwtorv of beetToot mpr has now been eslabliihed four yean 
in Kdt^rhsi, ami produeH on Ul •vrrn|;i> rverj VMtr, thirty Inmt of l»- 
Sucd vugnr. Fnna a huadrvd w^bt of W-i-iviiX, from tin; to &rv nod 
lialf pounda of sagar ue made. TUa branch of industry is nm- in Hun- 
gsry, havit^^ fini bMn cstabtiibed them twelve y^ara af^ by the family of 
Udt-Mrliulchi, Iiut thvrv aic now thirty-tno cstaliliiKiuvuta. Tht l,trg«t 
lictiiiiu;^ to the Cuburg Coharys, and thtnv arc Kumr nntillcT thaii thai at 
E«tor)uz ; Init if we snppotic tliaC ani> -u-ith anolhw, they tnakv aboitt tb* 
nmo i]uaut!ty o) is mndc there, n« may calmlate on a y«arly production 
ofa thousand tons ofn^r. If wo nllotm }Kiiiiid nf sugar jmit week to 
(jvpry BugufHaliug tndiridual. the want« of abiitit forty thniiouMl pMwnn 
will bo snpplipd, which is not an uiiiiitpoTtant eon sidera lion. Forevory hun- 
drad tirauaaiid sogar-cntitre, tliere ait in liiiiii^urv, Imwi-vcr, ooe tbousan^ 
iriiomiwCaatomlialuxunr. Attheeiid«rrlirhi>i r^-nhiry, ibereweteonfy 
two eitgar Teliii4*ni>« in all Ifitngarv. onp in f >r<U-iihurf7 ilikI nint in Flame. 

It ti uat Eflci'haz but the town <if Eif«iistatlt. nhich is tho cliicf Htat of 
tlie £steriuiKy ffovemmati. At the latUr lowu is the eentml-officc of 
■dminifttntion fbr aU the ra*t estat**, exiondinif hone* to iJm? other side 
of the Pljittcn Lake, m» well a* nnrthward into tlie SlowJick cmintry. Each 
of the territories or lordshins is adnunistenxJ by a tnradcnt, residing in 
Eueftitadt, and fbiir oountello>ri. Tin gnat mnM of ihe estates is divided 
into five distncts, to e«eh of whiob a prefect ii apnointcd, and so oitensiTe 
an these, tliat a iircfiSTt \axt nitvu tn Iravel ttm days to grt from one end 
of his diattict to the otlicr. Vnder l1ii> [irefitt:* iw&in are the directon 
for each nnj^e cttnte, mUi their rentmwt«T«, ttewar^fs, agents, A'e. Someef 
f3ic eatlttM navp ft-om twenty to thiiiy villages and hamlet:), and sometimes 
a town of larger size. On an nverage they contain about etglit or t«i. 

The oldest caiille nf th»- KUiTliiUyx—thnrlK-n-ditary eastle of ttiilanllia, 
liei in the Slowack eonntTy, but the greater iiuinWr aa well as the largest 
and Dtweat am about the Xoiwiedler I^ke. The i:asile of EL»i':ti!itaiU is 
oclehratml for ita ntrJc, and its numerflu<i treosurfif of nrt. It is ile^'flratod 
on the outside with the buna of Attila. and tlie leadi-r* of )ii« Magyar*, — - 
a tiort of dncorstion not utunmtnon in the caillcs of Ilnngnry. Among 
tl»e vRrii»us collertions I was most intervitecl by the gre-at library of Church 
Miuie. Tliere were two tbCKUand eom position si of vuriouit luntU, — Masies, 
LitanJe^ &e,, bendes two thouaond orutoniM, including (cvcral maQoscnptt 


«F Hft^dn, wtittau in a e1«u-, dolicate, «1of^nt hnnti, yrry nsliltc Uir eenv] 
oS BMtbcn^iL. At iLc time of the Tcatiialfl j^wn In- the Eeterluujr^ tn tlw 
EmjircH Maris Tticrcaa, tliey had Iluviln for a Ica4lei of thnt orchouii, uid 
(roni I80ri to 1 HI 2, iJnnuncl, tn «rho'ni tJicj «•» indebted for tlw rieh and 
bMiulifully Rimnf^ cnll^ctioii of ehtiwli munc «f whieli I have tpokm* 
At this Miitlc Ilo^dn comiMHcil hi> oelebruted " NcImh Mau," during a 
vJMt pud b^ the mro to Prince Nicholu. Another more reeent EdjiIImIi 
▼irit«r. Lord Gny, procorM) for lli« eompoMr a nonunent in the diunh 
of Eiwiwtadt, hy inquirinf; after it U-foro it existed, llo vw tlm toU 
that mcfa a numnmeiit liad long heen ia contemplstion, and it lua enfaM* 
qunitly beea enirted. 

The eastle snd towu of luMiiHtadt, which I Tistt«d durimc mr stay at 
Vkonat lie at tl» foot of tlw Lcitha mountaios, up thr fiicleti of viaek 
•trftdiM tim jnrk, the largest and inoet bcautifel in Hungary. It thua 
affords o|>portuuilie6 for tlie moM flxqutnte groufiitif^e of tree* and fiowen, 
and its ^T<^t extent may he Im^ined from a aieani-cngiDB having becu 
pot up for lb* purpoao of eooTajptng water to the AoweT'bodt and green- 


The valks leatlinp up tlie mornitaJne, the avcnitc of rocias ^^ chcanut- 
sreniiea, &C,. irere, when I saw them, filled wilh promenaders. especially 
with Bietty JovreaaM. I was, howerer, leM int^retted by the fair Iira^lilefl 
than t>_v a Frandwan monk, Fathei titaaialaiu AUmdt, of nrhoeo pnuMS 
my compouioDs were full. lie had been a pceachcr if Pe«tli, and had 
there eitchanted his hearts by Ins eloqnenee, bat as hit) ncwn liail \»vn 
thought too libenl, and he wouM not aubmit to retrart any thing, he was, 
by onh-r »f bin riiiiwriur, laiiuJinl from Peeth, and now lives in a vcrv i«- 
liiwd iniLuner iii tjiwiwtailt. I)<> tliere ooinijiin hiniH^lf almost excIuHii elv 
with ]>lant*, thoM hamUaa efaiidnMi of nature, tho interi-oume with whin 
ii best adapt«d to hrittg balm to « wounded spirit. He often wanden 
aboat botanionr lot dava together in the lA-itlia nmuittnins, and among 
the ntmhy regiont of Um >cuaedler Lalcv ; tlw rt*t of his time iti em- 

filoyed in writmg down hi« rch|[n<»u coutoiuplatiooa and praycn, of which 
10 luu already publislicd a rolume. 


^k» NMuMler Lalce t«, aa I have said, lurrounded on the aptilaii 
nde by the low vineyards of Rust. On thit side, abo, tlie water ia de«pett| 
as its haun Uonea a Little towardu the moniitains. On tlio eaat, it b 
•faallower, aud tlwfa oeeur faDdbanks and ixInTKli of peat mon. wbieh, at 
laa^ bsoonw united togttbsr, and » «ide nianhy diatrid coiBme<io«% 
whcb MrebhM oa £ir as the ndi^bouihaod of tlie Danube, vbere tbo 
land rises hi|!^r, and taaumns a limici' diaraetcr. It is mvliable. indeed, 
that the river hoc fonntyl fur itscJf tho«e hi^rh hanW. The whole ntanhw 
back lying between the Nouacdkir Lake and the arm of the Danuln-, whiot 
mnnnids itw tdanda of Sehott, •■ caQed by the Uungariuts HatiMog^ 
a name tignilyini^ morasa, whi^ has been retained in the Geogranhies oa 
a projier name ; but the (lennau of tho ncinity call it the " n'aien.^ 
He wbote iticlud«« a surf&ec of from viffht to nine Oemian square tiiilei^ 
and t% tliorefore, nearly as larf^e as the Nciuiedler Lake itself, but aflbrdfl 
only a teanty (miturage for catUe. 


In some KKita che »oil of tliu IluiMff is rather timwr, in otiien th« 
«lU«r bw «oltect«d in liltlo UkM or ponao, A« mo«t rem&rluiMc of which, 
u the one called tlie Kin^s Lake. The greater part of the llaosag may 
tw ngardn] af a floating cog; but, hem anil t\wn, trws are growings 
and nenHy in tliv <v>iitr(! lluro it n wuixl of alilprg, whicli iloiu nnC float. 
Orer tliu wliolo Auriaca of the mgraat lies a bed of nioes, ufuallv aboufe i 
ilx, hiit M>inetiii]es as raiich. as from nine (o twelre feet Uiick ; and oeseatk ) 
thiit lie*, alnuMt cwecywheK, a stratoin of bog' earth, rmtitig on a firm bed 
of clav, covered, like tK« bottom of the NiMuicdler Luke, with M«i)«l and 
graTel. In the spring, wltcit tlic nholc Uansa^ ia overSown, this moM 
ooveriug (fund somettmes also the stratum of turf) is loncieDed, and floats 
upon the (UtAko of the water. If, in conscqucnr^c, pcrhapf, ^f a favonr- 
nblc rt&tc <if tlw atmcMphen, the granth of tlio muss has brcn more tiiaa 
usiiall^r vi^ntiu, it clings clonly to the lower toil, and a orerflowcd ; but 
it sometimes happens that large traeta are suddenly loosened, and what the 
day beforo wna a sheet of water, hecpnaes traiisfurmed opuareatly uito iry 
land, in i.'MtLie<|iieni^e of the nioaf bed liavitig eiiiiTj^ during the night. 
If thifl account bi< enrrcct, it U tikelv that thu whole TlanMi^ liait been 
formorly n laico, and hiu tHMai changed into its present condition by thA 
growth of the mow. It may Iidto fonned, with toe Xeu^icdler, ono great 
lake travened by the Danube ; ajid in the iniunie of centuHcti, dtning which 
the river lutd formed for iuelf high banlct, become reduced to its present 
uzc by the growth of the moH. 

The accounts pirspncd in Oedcnburg and Esterliaz, of villages swal- 
lowed up by tlie lake, and the very inodeni data a»cribed lo it, do not 
neceisarily cviitradict thiihypothcfij; forthis might have been occasioned 
bv a sudden inunilation, anil the coonv sand of tlic Danube ipmul ovcc 
toe whcde lower aurfare of t\w ILuisag, b a surer record than tlie^e. 

ThpgreatMt proprietors of tho Han«ag are the Arclidukv Charles of 
Alteikbur};, and l'rini;i! Ksterhfuy; the Utter aknie claims tlirce German 
square laWvi. The following t.-ib1e may servo to ehow the ualure of tbe 

Overgrown mciwlow and standing water . . 19,3(iO yock 
Clear meadow land. . , . . . . 11,700 „ 

Alder fareit . 8,190 ., 

Tliefnl i»cidv tracts 5,"0(} „ 

Ara,blv liuiJ 2()!) „ 

About chret^-fiiurthii of the Ilaneag. tliereforii, including tlie rocdy parts, 
are manhy, mciulDw gmuni); tint quite one-fifth fore*t, and 1-I60tli 
arable land. This was the £tatc of it fifteen yuKn ngo ; but it is ]iouible 
tliat it may, by this time, be Kiuiewhat imprnvcd, as tlie mere pasturage of 
cnltle on it would do ioniethtng, anil thti uwiier« hare been making some 
eflftrts to reclaim the wildcToess ; but ihcie would jmibably be more pro- 
gre^ made, if tliv land were divided among many small jiroprietont. Littio 
or nothing, however, has been done by the government comniisfion, esta- 
blidied for the purpose, since the Emperor Joseph'» time. It lio^ Lccn 
BunpMcd to be at work for fifty years, and it is impossible to find mtt what 
it nas really done all that time. 

ITie gi-eater part of what in obtained frfvm the moraiw, U got out of it 
in the winter, and in very iry eutnmers ouly is it piMsibIc to do any thing 
towanl* di^i.iiiiiit|; it by throwing up dike:! or cutting canals. The princes 
£:iteriuuiy have exjieuded many tlioutaiid florins on these worlu, but the 



night nnk their whoU- rcvnnuca in Rudi a ttwaRi[i, ivtUintil pnuliinni; any 
gmt vStd. Oac of their uimt pxptiisivc uadcrtakiags ii a (irnkt dike, 
wbich tlie^r have conitructed as a nicKiiB of conunuDicaiiou helweea the 
nortli and south nf th» Ilansa^. Thit dike haa about t^hctltv-lllrcel)ridj^c■, 
imdcr which, in tli« fpHitj^, the wutn- Hon* iiito tlic liUfi-, out U somelimtt 
happait that the stream runa in a coutniry liirxtioH. 

From the castle of EstoHtux the rlew iniigfs o\-er a grout part of Haa 
wUdetneu, where »o tmcc of human Knbitation ia diEcnvcrable. 1 viu, 
honmr, as I have alrnulj snid, dv^irnun ni taking a riuaivr ticw of the 
great manh, and net out, ihiTclnro, ror a ride aloiif; lliu dike, in llie in* 
strudiTfl company of one of tlio EsKtIim^' prefects, hut vat soon Jndaced 
to learc Uie carriage, and uroceW ou foot ov«r a itatL whi«h lieaved up and 
down U'lieach our (vtt. It tj, ne>'ertbe1e»i, [lUMible to diivo in a curiae* 
to jtonic iif tilt' linj^frUlit ami m-A ^rouuilK, at U-»h[, with the li^lit voliiclea 
Biid »kilfid nianng^mcnt of the IluiignHnn jieusiit*. When wc atlomptvd 
it, hoHerer, one of our heavj' horws fell Uiroueb and remained sticking 
ivith all hii (nut feet in the ninrsh as fast as if he had been nailed there. 
"We left our coaAhman tr> pull him out, with the airiatancc of nome hnrds- 
men, and continued our way on foot. Tbcr« wax not the sli^litrst danger, 
but it U A curious sensation to feel the ground everywhere tliakiiig under 
one's foot, and to find it impoaiible to obtain a firm looting anyuberv. We 
fvund woikmcD, rccd*cutt«rs, and mowetr, proridud with a ooutnvancv of 
BtnuU boards (ast^iicd to their feet, to incrrasc thrir MpcnTJiy. whifc their 
liead^ and faces were covered willi a kind of wig made of woven gmsH, to 
defend tbem»elve> against the bit<« of the small marah gnats. They al«o 
stuff a iiuaiitlty of grtutt into tlkeir hata to kwp their beads cool duiin;^ the 
beats nf tiimnter. The wlicle int«ri()r of the HaDsag- now lay stretched 
out before ua, a bflimdl«M dosort of roods, intersporf^ with marshy mea- 
dow*, and skirted od th« digtaiic hoiizon by the aldtr fortct, which was ju*t 
vmble. Tbo atraosphere was heavy and suttn', and countless myriads of 
gnats coDlinued still more Ui darken the iirtu'ix^. Di^udcs th^te iuM>ets, 
Biere ia anoUier, called by the Germans Mimcrln, which aro u drvtidful 
nlaguc to both men and cattle, but which are occasionally vct^- useful as 
keehes. Mv companion informed mc, that tlio caltle here are liable to a 
peculiar maradv, 9«caji<tDcd by the sudden chaDgc from th« qtnre and 
scanty diet of Ute winter to tb« abundance of juicy herbs with whtcli in tJti) 
sprinfT thci innrth«s are covered, aud many of them die suddenly in oousft- 
quenee. But after tbo month of June, wh*n tliese insects make their ap- 
pearance, the rattle arc so plentifully bled, that tlie malady disappears, and 
the ante^ of snddm de«th orcnr no more. Large henU of what are called 
Vfibi cattltr iiv« in the H.ins.ig. They are called wild on account of thair 
bcviBg tiotcr eiitered a stall. In wtntitr thv herdsmen drire thctn towaidi 
tlielMndeta of the marsh, into tlieneigtibnoihood of Tillages and forests, and 
ptace them in a rooftees enolosure, where tliev remiiin till spring. The 
cows calve in February, and the youjig auiiuale pass stiddcnly from th« 
matcmnl warmth to the lianlwt fnut, witlu>ut inffering any liarm. It is 
■aid, howerer, tliat only the cattio lioru in the Ilansng con endure the bard* 
elup to which thi'y arc cx|Hi«ed there. Cattle that live thus alnnyj in the 
open air arc called " Gulyas" by the trHngariana. For a tame herd they 
lisve another name. For the men who bnie tlie cliaige of oxen, sheep, 
hcmM, pigs^ Sic, they hiive entirely diflerwttt words, and among all toe 



soDth-CMkni European nations, nidk m Ui* UtLgyan, Tstan, aoi W«l- 
aduim* with tli« execpdon of the ShraniHU^ m Gad tfab lich fuMaal 
voobalarj. Thia «xeeptioa •ecim to ne lo tihiA a atiang |iToof UuU llw 
Sbvoiuaas were nut M cBliretT • BoiDi(E« peo>pte u bw bMo uniall; fop- 
poMd- Wliiki ill lliu^arjr, too words «nd jwwra imbtiiijf to BgricuUine 
uv f lutljr Geniuui, pwlty fflafoniu, *nd pvlfy Sbgjnr, thoae canoctn- 
in^ pMtAnl Kffiun uc ftbniwt cuIoiiTclj of Mftf;yar ori^. At w« ad- 
VBOoed further, wc met n benl of four bttodrvd roua-^ nseii nnd wild cowB> 
Ju wc spproaclied, they lUitoJ &waj and crvKdcd timtiUv together, wlnltf 
ttmt lai^ whiU) iho^^ Am of superior n» came rushing towvds ml 
W* dufcadnl ottrwivc* H wdl M we could, btit tite herdaaum bad gi ot 
£Seiilty ID appeuiiig the tenon of thtlr cliargv. Tlw innineiit, howerer, 

SpcrceiToa their keepen adrooee to aemst m, tbajr became more tian- 
sad an wo coutinued to cooverte with (be Bken, db« eattlo lesumed 
' fevtling, and endeatljr began to if^ard u m fiiends. 

Tlw hi'iiwnea wiiro two Mogjan, in wide trouaert, tfaort jncketi, and 
browl'brimaied hati, with Innf; blndt hair, dbtrplv cut fiuituros, and 
spBrlUtiijr tyte. Hart of the Gemiaa nlUf;:**. od tlw Neuaiedlcr Laha^ 
employ thefe men la herdmen. We accompanied aooie of them to tbeir 
dwellingn in the inanh. Tbeie were hutc of a coiu«al riiapc, biiilt of 
reads, with the floon alao covtvcd with iccdit and itraw. In the luidsc 
ver» mne planln nailed together, and covered with liaid beaten clay, whidi 
•errnl for a boarth. Round thu weie laid straw beds, with pillowi made 
of bloelu of wood Mrered with ^ecpiddm. The inhahituulj of thcae 
hula eaonot aran tarn la tJiar linb nithont reding the ground sli&kc under 
ihnn, jiA they iteeapy them all throngh the winter, and ha*« n perfectly 
Jkedthy i4)pe<arai>c«. Their principal nourislimcrit consi^te of stn&ll ]Me«es 
of hta, nnbed with oniona and pepper and roneted i but the pepper — a 
Hnagarian aort callad " Pi^mka"—^ uaed in enonnoua quiuitities. I 
Bwalbwed a pieeo oFtha meat, and it felt as if I bad »a,ten a burning enaL 
To this piquant dish llwy diink the muddy nian<h mtUiT. Wbeii they 
-wish to think tlicy lie down on thrar stoinaclu, and ilraw tJie wnttT i:p oy 
means of u tw4. Une oftheia showed me esncttv liow th<t itporntion waa 
perfoinnod. lie cut a reed, placed it iipHj^ht, ami then slrurk it about an 
elt down into Uie ground. He then snrkcd up die water and stiit it out, 
as the fint which (.■ame was tbicli, brown, and dirty. The moro he socked 
the dcAnr it became, till, at lengtli, Bodinj^ it dnakable, he drew out the 
reed, aad wrapped a piece of mf' round the lowtr end to serve as a hlter. 
He then plunged it ogsun into the bole and called on me to drink, saying 
it was delieitiiis. I found oue of these reeda stickiiig in the ground before 
every bed, and 1 wn* told that in the morutuj^ when they get up, the tint 
ifaing they do is to take a drink. On stooping to tAke a draught of thia 
eool bcrerage I chanced to take hold rathiT earele^ of the reed, and they 
begged me to mind what I was about, as I might easily trouble Ibc water 

In die whole extent of the Ilansng there aio very fnw peopb wlio can 
lead— read boolcs I mean — bat they can all read, with great readiness, in 
tba phyiiognoraics of Uicir companions tlic oson, and tlicy can also read in 
the oeavciis ilic siguj <:if tlic coming weather. It is not uoiniblti that the 
nomadic ancostors of tbi?S3 people can hs%'e led a simpler and rougher 
life than tlteir deMwdanU do, and puhapt la ail Europe ont- could kudly 



find within Uie aame i|Miee % inare strikHig coDtnut Uiaii that of theaa 

rtural rofjioiii^ biuI of the luxurious cafttal, whiob, with « nulnml, might 
mohad iu tvoboun. 

Staay & Vunaa e&r&Uer, however, ooiugb to ahoot in tlie Hwiaag) with- 
out taluug aay ttutico of it ; ukI I niii cotiviticcd llmt if s KWiw &um the 
UuuAjf, wore cteverif rc[»rMctitcd at tbftlr tticatnt, the Vieoiui peo^ 
would toLo ii for ft eceno mid in eofoe Csr distant onuoti^ — perhaps ui ihe 
juDff las oa the DdtA of Uta Ganges. 

Hot* wild and boihaiout this legioa it. appcora aiilKcicutly from th« 

atory of the celebrated wild boy fouud !ii the llaoMtig, nod known throurb- 

oui tlM couDln- hy the uftme of IIkd latok (Manh StetAeo). Accordiue 

to the story gtvea me, tliis bov wm a perfeetly brutaliaed creature, ana 

ma Mosht by timv fisiicnuau witli a net, in tliv [■rioripot lake of tliv Hau- 

, a»gt in Hie yen 1794. I saw liu portnut in CiLitU; tJtbcrfa&Zi and to jiulga 

i fioin tha {rictore, be had si bald IwaA witli a few liairs beliiiid, brood fe»> 

I tnrBa, naonblinp the lower aninial!i, a thick u&'der lip, low etomach. short 

I lagtr WDU which liti jerked alwut lihi; « froj;, luid li>ng nngers a»d t*xtti. 

lb aooM fartimlar* I fvlt inclined to dutniat tha mceancy of this portrait^ 

tbifiAMn aud tOL-^ \x\ng repreconted aa eonoeeted by a. meiDbraae Uka 

^tfaa web ou the feet of waterfowl. His whole body wad covered with a 

tfcard, (caK' kind of «kln, and wliciJ Grat taken, be wouldonly Ml graa*, hay. 

; frogi^ and raw fiab, fnin which ha racked tho blood. ARer he hatl hvan 

fccf>t for Boren months iu the cattle, he left off mckin^ raw Uooil, nnd bcf^aa 

to endure dothinf: ; but tlicy were obli^d to keep him can-fiiUy from the 

water, aa be made many attcn^ta to eaeape bv leaping into it. lie ro 

[BatBed fonrtMn mootha in tho castle, and in t\\e Utter part of tho time it 

wu fwund possihki to employ liim in the kitchvm to turn a apit. Tliey 

could not, iiowerer, tunwed in teacJiing him to tpeak, luid tho [>iily .-tound 

be ttUend was a kind of hisiing wliistJe- At the end of iho tima I have 

BOctitioDcd, be eluded the rigiUutce of bis kuciHirii probahlY by springing 

iota the castle-most, and tlirough that bock into the wiUefneos ot tho 

raai. Frioco NicJiolas Estema^ took much paina to recover him, aod 

a had tho moat and the ueighbouriog waters dragged, ooder th(< ide« 

'diat he might have been drowuvd ; but " Manh stcplien" was seen no 

more. Three yean aftetwwdi, it is said, aoma one caught a glirapae oC 

him in the ilansag, and aa aoms old FranchnHA still doubt of the death 

^ Napoleon, eo many of the betdamen heliara that Manh Stephen is otill 

Knng aniong the watera. He has become. Indeed, for the people of 

the newhlMnuhood a kind of mythic penonagc ; at least I saw a poem ia 

' vrfaich he was spoken of oa » kind of manh km^ who at tames Cormeated 

ktfae hrrdsntcn and fishermen, and aometimai beatomd gifts upon tfaeni< 

At) official aeeouut of bim had been drawn up in Vienna, which agrwt 
perfectly witlt that whidi 1 [lavv ffiwn. I 6ni uolliiug iitcrediUe in tha 
•toi7, if we except tho particular of lus bving iu tlio take ; but u men 
have heaii known to lire like sijinneU on the bou^is of tr ase, or like tigera 
md boni in dana^ I coonder it by m means irapossiblo that a man might 
ha c c i aa accnstomed to the mode of Ufe of tha b^Ter and so* otter. Manb 
Btapben, Iionever, can only be considered tn have carried tlie wild man- 
aanoftheiliMiivtahUle farther titan tha net of the inhabitants, of whoee 
sorol condition be was but an exaggerated specimen, ffot ody are tha 
niional people Iiere more uncultlratcd than anywhere elde, but there am 
■uny wlx> never attain to roaeon at oil. In scvenU of the villages touv' 


the marHli. thoiv ore oimtbrre of Crotins ; mid I wai iaformol hj m iojji 
that in Uw tsland of Sctiutt, in the Dsiiube, there were >o nuuiy crip|iw 
idiota, scrofulous |)«tieiits, and Cretiaa. that it wu tjuitc dUg^uabn^ to go 
the». She uaiunl to me also some iwvi m the I^aiunf;. mlit wliom Gt«- 
tinUiii vrm;* IK-Tvttitiirr ; and tu far u I i-oiilil judge duiiiig tho tJwrt time 
I rvmiuiMd tJiorv, th«M Cratini have tho ssniu peouliaiitiea kb those of the 
Aift—idnotey, large twoJIen bead*, deficieucy of apMvli, atunid ioMDiibi- 
lit^, cunning, &e. It llap])cn^ iJho, aornclimi'^ hvru, m in th« A)p«, thab 
tlio parents ant iM>rimnly lioaltliy and mtiotint, a»d all tlic chitdron afflicted 
bj- Cw-tiiiiim. 'riii» nwUjtdy cxt«ndt over the whole itlaad of ^hutt, and 
it may lie doukli-d whrtlicr it have not some coime&ioD with tl»e water 
which ihey wiick ont of the raar»hv jfrouiid. 

The sun had befrun to sinlt, and ithrn ytr c^tc nut on etir return 
luHDei innumerable nooka of btitb ncrc returning to their ncstf amon^ 
the rccdfl froni tiio distant comlieliia nn tho lino land, where ther had been 
Ceediiig. Wo found nith some diflif-ulcy the jilnce where we had left ma 
equipage. Sererol of the herdvincii limtcticd to our assi>t(uiCB, oth(v« bad 
drawn OUT honte out of the nitre, and pushed tho raningv upon tirraer 
ground. I could not help tiuticiiig an an indication of the abjept elavery 
of the pMiantry iu Hungary, that one of (he suttordiiiatc oflicjal* who ae- 
conipouied tu, as Iin wiu fretting iuto the ra.rniigi.^ hit. an fild inan a blow 
ou hi« bald head with a tliiek mud, with which ht* wu jilaving'- I intjuired 
what Bort of maTi the peauat might be. " Oh, a capital follow," wn« tho 
aoewer, " one of our beet herdsmen." " Why did 3-au strike him itien?" 
" Oh, I don't know ! By way of taking ]enre." " {'ould you not have 
shaken linnd^ with liim ?" " Oh, no, no ! not tliat either." Thi» f^rului- 
louit insult to an ohligiii^, liidd-headed old man, gAve mo at much pain 
sain hiul necn a man receive the piuii*)in)eiit of the kiiouL 

Oiu> of ttie principal tMnploynieuu of tho dwi^liem in nnd near the I lan- 
aag, and cf the herdsmen, in tht^T lelmrv hniir«, is drying tho r«cdi and 
pl«liug them into coarse loats, which are used in Vienna for packing, and 
ibrother purpoaea, In the Venetian territory, the Black Forest ana eloe* 
where, tliu |>eaaant3 make the jineat and tn<Mt beautiful straw mats, and 
if we ciinipare ibvtn nitli (iioiv ntadi- iti tliu Unntia^, wc slinli have a fiiir 
sUuidard tor i-itiniatia^ tkp comjiaratiTC *kill of the ililTerput races. 

On the eutem ilmreK (if the lake, in dry Kiiinrner<, soda issuios frora the 
MOund, and tho (iermnn iuhabitanta call this soda " fsicA" iu imitation of 
the Iluaffarian word «cA, and call iJio pWea where it i.i found ''tsUk 
earth" The ground must ha»c been lolemljly dr\', and its iippi-r crust 
subaequently softened by U|^ht ruin*, hef<irp the siwia can is*we m>m it in 
sbuiiuaacc, and vovi.t it for miles, making it look om if then- had l>cen snow. 
Tlic people then i-iillcct;it witli brooms and bi>il it. The hirgi'^t i|iiaiitiliea 
are obtained betiveeu the IMnuhe and the Tlieins, but most of tlie little 
lakes tu the Uan^a^ yi^ld soda wliuii llii-r dr)- up. In wet yeora it is found 
only on their nmrginx. Since tho jxar 1797 tlie Vienna «oap-boilers have 
fbnned a vompany fiir the csiahtishnient of soda nianufnetoriea on the 
Keiuiedler Ijoke, and they understand citing tlie sodn better than tho 
prince's mibjecls. He would iiave bl^eIl wilitiig to fumi out tho production 
ol" the whole eastern shores hut coiiki not come to terms with the \'ienna 
company, which ha^ now established it«elf near Neu»ied«-I, and must injure 
the prince'd trade. New the village lliiiiek, on the lake, there is also found 
a fine crystal Halt, whidi u [lartl}* sold mid pittly used for the cattle. Oa 



our return vrc brou^t the ladies of our party some for^fct-nic-notB, plnclced 
from th« i«mI huw of the herdamen in uie mjirsh, whiire this tender fiower 
Uoswnna in great abundance, and u «ateo by tlie tatlJe. It wob inidiught 
when 1 BKHUitcU my Iihtsc to nd« back to SSalModorT, sod lu it wu thn 
nij^t betwMn Saturday and Siindsy, we found, according to Magj-ar a»* 
torn, all thn villages full of lifo aiid movemmt, for on tliis ni^ht the youn^ 
men ■pAy visiu at the windows of tbftir respective dsmseb, and in many 
cottares lighu were buniinp, and many happy pairs were atanding in uoi- 
mated eonTenntiun faofnro uivni. 

At the cattle of Zinlcendorf all mu diu-lc and still. I had not been px- 
ptctnl back that night, and every one was eouo to bed. The dnora and 
windou-<i, bowener, w«re uufaatened, and I found no difficult in (frojnng 
mv way to my apartmi^iU. I waa aftcrwaitla told tliat no one ever uionght 
mlodaog up the ntstlc. oJthoug'h it coiitiuacd coiisidcmblv Rum$ of money* 
This is a fact which 1 found it hard to leconcilv with whiit I hsjl been told 
of the j^erai state of insecnriij' in the country, mid of iho procnutions ic 
wa» >ii-wwary to take. U may be tlint crimiii*]* ate too much daulcd by 
tlie halo of )(Taiidoiir to vcntiiro to attack palacea. 

On the foUowing morning, while my carriage was fretting ready, 1 vi« 
titei the mulbem- plantations of Count SKeeheuv". a gentleman who has 
eurcised a must liciieiicial Uifluence on tli« imltivatjon and iiidwitrv »r Iiis 
naUvs country, by tlio bencHt of hi* own t>xnm]ile. In h!.4 mirrteneJi in^ar 
Zifikradorf he poasMsei two hundred thoiuiafid mullterry-lrecjt, and hd hns 
planted out upwatdn of twenty thomand into the opea field, which baro now 
■ttaitiied the age of from eight to twelve yean. Shoold many of his coun- 
trymen felkrar Ilia example, tlio growth of silk in Hungary may at no dis- 
tant period bccomai-ery coniiid^^rahlc. Thi-ie ii ncarccly any Hungarian 
town m which there ai-e not Uolicmianit actth^d, and rultivutin^ soma branch 
of induntry : and in ZinVcndorf I found a BohemiBu coachniaker, who in- 
fomicd me that he had already iavnrhi'd six himdred (K]iiipage9. He oUo 
conducted mv into the Uleraiy iiutitution or readiug-room of the phicc, for 
since tlic birth of Hungarian jouniidii«m, and lliv c-Jilaliliiihiiicnt of the 
Casino at Pesth, and tlie Hungarian Literary Society, these insldtutions 
bave fpnad over Hungary with extrBordinary rapidity, »o that as I liave 
said, even tlu: little villugi* of itintiendorf can uoaat of one. I found ihiTe 
the litllo Huiigarinn publications JV/ew^JW, llllag, flimok, «:c.. besides 
the Allifemtine ZeitUftg, and several other German papers. Ijk« most 
similar in.itiliitious in Uiis cniintry, the reading -rooiiu hod exbtcd about 
Uiree year*. 


The whole country between Oedenburff and Raah i* a' Sat oa if it had 
Woo adjusted with a pair of .iicaloh II brma a |iart of the western Hun- 
nrian plain, the lowext portion of whit^i is the Hansag and the Neiuiedler 
Xake, and i« bounded on the nnrth-wAit by tlw !U>«alia mountains, tbn 
Leitba monntains, and the Prcnburg brancti of the C'arnathian$ t on tb« 
north-east by the Neutra niountmiii) and other snuri of ttic Carpathiaoi; 
en the •outh-aast by thn Bacony forest, and on ttie muth-west by spitr* of 
the Styiiaii Alps. A tigurc whose boun<lary lines werv drawn throv^t the 
tcwus of Frcsbtirg, Pyrnau, Komoni, Raab, KOrmund, titms, and Ucden- 


faanr, wouU incloM chu pUin. compreheniUog' a nrlacc of limit tvro imif 
dred(Gerinsn) tquara miliH. With the «xc«pit>oD of tlw Hwita^ thix vbote 
district is ncrrrlindhr ferliU, uid tkis fertility reiM^Me its tiffliMt point in tlw 
uLuid of Hrfiiitt. llie Ukuube flows tbreugli the middle <atiua |duit. dirid- 
iug itselfiiito several braocbM after putior P^wdMrff. Bud nmtiiif; u^nin at 
Konorn. This is gctMcsUy c«li^ iho LatUo ITongmriaa Plun, in conlroilH- 
tiuction to Aa gmt pUia on llie eiut, whicli uuKltt be called the ploJo of 
tba ThotM, nnc* tlut river dows thiougli it from begiomng to end. lu th» 
ei«at plain tiio pcnp)^ hs« princi|>iilly Mwtipted with putimgc, bat nesr 
fteabuiv ^ricnlturc if at least equnllj imporlaat. All tbs cattle nul cont 
uUcndM for exportation Iraia lluogary is brought to the great stqde 
fAtKvii, Wiecelbiu^ aad Uedeobinj^, and (ben«e passed over the (nmtier. 

The dis4nct bvtwwn Wi«aelbu^ umI Pr^tburff i* called the " Haid- 
boden." or Heath ; timt Iwtwccn the grxatt. and little Rash, the Raabau, 
and betKem tlie lleuJi ant] Raabau lies tbe Hansajr. 

It was on a tremendously hot day that I passed through the Raahau^ 
which is like one large iuzniiani meadow, iiiijted with eontfields. Uy coadip 
man, a true Mag^, was toknUv wdl notoctad from the flerca arrotrs of 
Apolio bjr the immeiin brim of his hat, hut J, tiudwtfaaiea»lvAMleof my 
tnvelUug-ca|i) aufiered much. Everywhere 1 aotiead Uie uoptivii »{ Ac 
feimivi; iiieasima againat the aun, aiia the other ploiEue of these iv^oii% 
tl>e gnats. All the bunca wete afmed witti buihen of u-iUow or odier 
Bhrubs, ai>d several slwpberdt with hones and ithu^p war* oA«n crowded 
togMber under the shade of a ni^le trecv the liorsn being cooteut if they 
could only thrust in their noMai Sometiraes I ootieea a tfSH g w lat 
TonetT ot aiiinukls, pigs, goat*, g«oae, and oxen huddled together, tmA 
eveu trom the middle of » hollow tree, popped out the head of a goat. 

in all the doorways of the houses in this part of the country, wherever 
it is pMttble, cuTtsiiu are used instead of doors, by which the doobtt' ad- 
vantage is obt4uned uf a greater circulation of iiir, luid tlie exclusioa of Um 
gpata. Even la the castle afZAiikendorf. ifane door'iintprne* were emiiloyed. 
nhal are called fty-windows arii also in iim? in idl tlio cottages ; and the 
MoatiUr and nustress of tho house often have the bed-otatriiuonial i>)aced 
■a the open ur under Ute veraiula of the roof, where they are ahielded from 
Aa niMa, by a Uuck net liangiug do¥ni, and enveloping Uiuin in its folds 
like Uats aud Veniu. 

The uoit cffvctunl method of defoacc a^nai this plsf^e of insect* bttf 
been discovered by the bul!aloes, a ho wallow up to their iiecks in any dir^ 
pool ihey can rind. I got out of the carrinOTi to tnkc a nearer survey of 
-these unclean auioiuU, and pcrveivvd, that tXinugh tlicy were cowrixl and 
dripping Willi mud) tliey were still elicwing. Prom time to time they left 
oS however, and putting down tliedr beads into tJie puddle, took up a 
quantity of water, and threw it over the bock tif their neckti, whicli stood 
ftUne the water. Itiea Lhcy began to chew again, but repeated front timo 
to time the same maateuvre, so aa to keep themselves always wet. The 
aagaj-ity of the ox does not appear to raaoh so far. 

Xlw more oppressive the licat, the nioiv iimTi>kini; became the fahe ap- 
jeaimces of watirr wliich presented lli4-ttiiielv(^ to tiin K\f. mi all sides, und 
tbere was a heaviness and gloom in tlii^ atitioiphcn', nltBCMlgh scarcely any 
clouds wtre pej-cvptiblc U was Sunday, and we met onany stnarL-luoking 
peo^i the broad liats of the Magyars, like thoae of tne Croats near 
Oeuaiilui;g, wan par&ct beds of flowers, natural and ortificialt mtitniuxsd 


wtU) banehes of Mttich luict {wwradui' fc«tb«ni It uraMn that iSas cu- 
tom liu puMd fnim the Cmua to thm iiagjtm, for I nve dMnrhin* 6b- 
«err«d it tinoog them. Sobm of them wore biuIiM of (me Undi ottridi 
phimcs. Before the tinaf^ of jutita cut !n nUmc, wonira w«r lai«eliiie 
on tiw nithercd |^n«i umlur tlic biiniiii^ biul They wotf at tfa« badu of 
Ihetr beadle nich ■ profiuion of ribboiu, btvns, and lac*, that If ma^oifi- 
eence depended on tba qiianti^ of oraanieiit, they wen cecUini; mag* 
■nfteemly dteaed. 

Tlw ttcpheHc whom 1 mw in tb« ti«Id«, rMMnblod in dnu nnd appesr- 
BBc* tin cdcbnted iwiua-hrnls of Ducoiiy, and wore wlut« ttiontlnt rm- 
Ifoidered with red flowers, their liair plaited utto I wo silft uiU that hung 
down over their earn. In sonic of th? villaicM I noticed h^h tlMtm hcdgoi^ 
on tbo stunmit* of which, great niasw* of tlmrn* were piled up to keep out 
tiie woln-s. llmG nrcunirnlhition? of thorns arrt nlso in me in Snutk 
Ruisia, and form the can«ft and best defence a<^iift thoso animal*. 

In this distiict bejjins the cultivation of the line Unog;arian tobacco, tlw 
plaiiMtioiu of wliich my coadinian pointed oiit to me. What Biir> 
ptiteil me watt, to »'« jKrtatoea growing aiDong the tobacco^ as well m 
naong the msiie, and ludeMl then appeared to bo no grannd devoted ex- 
dmirelr to iheir cultivation. Thirty yvnrs ago, {wtaUMiii were K-an.-cly 
known in thu port of Hungary, and the {tvaple are tncbbted tn the 
Gerniang for the introduction of w luwfol a mot. Tim Magyar nmunnta 
would at fint haro nothing to do with it, or at Icwt only nwd it lor tbeir 
pi^. but they hat-e clian^'d their oMtiimi since then. 

Et^pf) n'tit^rc in pavings throuf^i tnis piain. I could see on looldnfr bade, 
the diitnnt tnowy mountaiiM ^ the Styrian frontier, coiiimiui<linfr th* 
countn- tike a distant tovcreigii. 1 f>7odualIy loit nght of tlitm, bowrrer, 
A* well ■« of the Prince Esterliaay, whose name ii ditinguished aboTC oU 
other names in this part of Hungaiy, as nmch as those snowy peaks abore 
the Leitbu and other nMnintaine. 

At Tthoma I toolc my dinner, and was exceedingly iudignint at being 
atkwl by the monks, who I waa and what I wanted, when I requested per- 
aunion to ece the library. If 1 had asked adnusdoa to a prince or a pre* 
latOi it nii^iht hare been a diflerctit f^aae, but the mtiaei sraMild requin no 
such ceremonial inlroducUon. I wu even Innglml at for wiifabg' to sm 
the arehiree, and told tlint the archives contained importsiit state sMret^ 
and that I could not ace tbeui witltoat a wntten panuawm from tlie King 
of Hui^rary. 

The ehureh of the eenrent wtu filled with devout Msf^an ; the friiU 
■ttiiw in front, tin married women next, ihcir beads coYtTTvd with wnste 
I fcand h erd ii e fc , and the men forming the outer circle, extending crea into the 
elotitered walks, where they knelt in silent derotion. 

Grapea are found in vwr)' village and hamlet, and if the traveller thotUd 
rmiplain witli rcasun. that tlic soup is too wntc-r}*, tlte nicnt loo lunl, and 
the eocutnbera too sonr, he has only to stoek his coniaf^ wiili Vienna tmUs 
on setting out, and witli these grapes he can indenuiily lunuelf for the bad 
coolMt; along Uie roodt 

I m not on the wliole way to Raabt met ray eanUgea, ar any people 

who appaarad to bdenig to dw higher orders, fer dw route which I iol- 

['lowed, was a by-road leading tlirougli the btenoref the country. WcIukI 

COn^oally to nioka our way tlirougn large herds of cattle, or Socks of geese^ 

which are bars l»rgtr than uiywbera ehiu^ oa it la the practice for the geiH ' 



htioaf^'mg to a vlu>l« rillagv. to be coolided to the nn of one dkmuu 
SocBetifni>a we wwe slopped bjr a givat drove of pigs Minini^ from Turfcev, 
wbciicc thiey had hcvu hnvghl v{> llie i>iiuube ia tlw rtcftniboat to Kaal}, 
«iul were ina.kiu^ tlivir wny to Oedenburg, mi« uf tlir grcatvat jii^iuarketa 
in the world. Tti« plan goooniiy adofilMl hy tlio drivpra, is (or oiia maa 
to go before tbokiiuF a bae of cucuraben, tb* odour of wliich it renrded bv 
the piga u e*pecialiv enticiDg, while another of their guonlians ttJOoin wiln 
a largv whi{>, aiifl (riiii lietweea coaxiii^r xuA !J)rHiteiiin)r, th» pigs adtoim' 
OO their way to lh« mnrlfot* and Hut »Jn.u^ht4>nnf;-housM of OMonburg. 

Towards erenin;; I aaw tlio hcnls returning home to th« Tillages i tbc^ 
oonnated moidly of two-ihirdi oscn aiid oiic-tbliil bufTaloes, and alwayi 
appearad to oteerre n rejfular order of march. 

Thp oxen cotDc- first ici loow order, and the bufialvca, who never laioglcd 
with them, followed in closo ranks behind. About half-way between 
Raab aud Tshaniit, we paused the Urge village of Encsh, whose iuluUt- 
40(3 are exdimvoly Hungarian nobW ; and whitit, nt crery other [ilaoo, 
W«Iiiu] bfcn tavilly if ol ut«'d, uo oiiu here took the slightest notieo uf tu. It 
u raid tltiit, B4 wey unite eiiornionM privik'gi'ii nitli ettontioiu intolenoa 
and (.'ounnL'ncft: of niaiini.-nL, it i« vor^' neoeeoory lo be on one'a guard in all 
iiiterc-'imc with thi;ni. j\ti wc drove on, a young lady of high liirtli and 
ancient fiimily was [ixinted out to me, engH^et) in cU^a^iiing- out Ikt fatber'a 
Htahlev; till! Bnron of K. ptuiu'd u« driviti^ bin toatn of oten ; ftiid th» 
IJfln>ti<-«i Z. WM sitting before hor door, pnlcbiog Ii«t husband's lc)Vth«r 
breeches. I dnive reapecifully aud quietly by tlicie iiei'aoiuiges, which it 
was <io much the esiitrr to do, as tlte road lay over a iliinghill. 

The Jtiltrj' day brought forth, townrd* cviMiiiig, r tnngnificcat ttomt, 
and Uic iaccMont ligHtuiugs ilnttcd about like restless ihoughts in the 
mind of mau. lifting.up various objects till, at length, the towers of Raab 
speared in ughl. As we approoclicd Kaab, the ittonn aha cianc neurer: 
xay Huugarion coochinuii urged liis horses, according to caaloni, into ■ 
gallop, nud wosuoii fitund mmeln'!!) in tlie middle of llaab, andin themidsti 
also, i( wind, and niin, uud thunder, and lightning, which made ua all the 
better pleased to iittd thcltiT in l1ie " Palatine" Inn. 

Here, in the large hall, we found a grand dunce going on, in wluch, 
after I had a little recovered tvam my fiitignw, 1 liwirtilv joined. The 
oompany, which was juinpitig ahmit in Mich high glee, belonged mostly to 
the lower order of tradesijicn and niechaiijcs, ro[ieniakora, grtn'^era, biitcberSi 
4c., and Uungurinn nnd German weie Ajuiki-ii |)n«ui,tcmHiiily. Mo«b of 
them were dreeu'd in the (lerman fathion ; hut n c^^n^idcrablc nnmborwore 
parading in tliv HuDg^rian nationitl costume, which, for people in thif 
situation of life, iniMt be very expensive. It con«i«t>i in the first place, of 
rery tight jMnit»lnon« down to the nukic, with nhurt JiaU'-lwot«, and mofiuve 
ellror spurs. Over the waistcoat, hangs loosely on tho shoulders u " JJol- 
taan." trimmed, as well as the waiilcoat, witit tliick rows of massive sdver 
buttouj. and faalened by a tiilvvr chain that falU down over the brcnct. 
On tile heiui \* placed, mtlicr on «n^ side, a high llungariaa cap or Kat- 

f)<iA, and the hair hangs in kiuoQ curb mi the checks. They went mostly 
laudsonie young fellows who wire this showy dress, but not always native 
Hmigarion*, for it Goinctiines ha]i]H-n< that Gormau mechanic, on thrir 
trawls, will tuke a fancy to display their penons to ndvuntagi^ in all tho 
finery of Dolninn and Kalpak, mid silver .opnra, although ftucli & costume 
cannot co«t less than 200 tlorins. The dauccs wore oftou Cieraiau, espe- 


cialljr the waltz; bnt after psrli woltx there wiu a ctv of "Afaifyar/ 
Atuf/yar .'" u a signal tint Uio Maui^-ar il&i>ce was required. SoimrtimM 
thry nouM nob even wail for the (!i-nnati dance to be llnitliecl, liut com- 
pelli'tj th« niii^icJnns U> makn n miikltiii i;Unnj>(t nf tune by cl)i> vcbement 
try of " Magyar I MnByM!" (pronoun«nl Ma^ar). The whole mass of 
the company iheo fell into pairs, the p^otlcmon placed themselves opposiu 
eot^ to a bitly, whirled her round or dsiiced roimd her, the eyes spiirkt«d, 
tbo Untroiint fl«w a)>nut, and the chains and apura (blattered nn aM^inpani- 
ment to the full but rattier melancholy tonm of the HungBiian music. Hie 
Borae wu not uniut^mtln^, and I contemphtcd it a orauMlerable time 
before I retired to niv room, in the rather deceitful hope of a ui^ht's rut. 

The city of Raab lies at the confluviici' of the river Uaab and tliu Littla 
Danube, and is of very reinot«' aiitiqiuty; it \i only in modem dmet, 
howfrvOT, that it lias acqnirwl iu prvwiit eilenl. In Uio year 1785, it bed 
only 4535 inhjUnlants, and at present it cnntaina probably 20,000. There 
are in Hungary many inatances of an equally rapid increase of populution. 
Tlif tnvn is hy n» meaim poor in hiitoricnl recoDcctioiui, and indeod, aA«r 
Pc^th, is nnc of tho mort intercjrtin^ 1 hnv« Men in this country. During 
the wars between the Turks and AustrLuE, it was alwaya rcganled as one 
of t!ie hulwarlu of Christendom; but in the year 1595, it was tilten by 
the Turk*, and formed, for a short time, the estreiiie limit of thnr dnmi> 
nionf on the Danube, Wing govx-mcd by a pa«ba. Since 1609, when 
the French were here, the fartiti en lions bare been for the mn^t part de* 
Btioyed. Tlie Frwich halls are still U> Ix' «wii in tlie walls of i-lio Evan* 
ffelical chui-di and othpr tnildinjjs. Thf>m is nlw) pw^rvod in the Ca- 
tnedral Cliurch tlic iron ^iv and the petard with whicK it wa^ blonu In, 
when, in th« year 1.50S, the Austrian jrenerali Palffy and Schf .uzeuber^^ 
recovered the eity from the Turks. TRo joy nt thl* n?eoni|ue»i mutt hava 
been very great, for to tliii day its luuiivcnniy \» celebrated as the givtbift 
festival of tie year. 

Tile Cathedral is sud to have been tlie work of St. Stephen, and a lirce 
picture hy on Austrian artist, represents him as presenting hia son to tlM 
.\linighty. The Turks filled tlic ciithvilnil with cartli, and made um of 
tlie high roof aa a mound on which to plare their caiiDun, so as to com* 
nand theeonntiy fbrmilce round. The story goes, that the Turkish gene- 
ral, .Mclienicd Itaua, one day aaid scornfully, that the Chriatiaiis nbuiiid 
have the town again whenever tlic irttti voclc on the top of tliv Ciintieltte 
cnnvent should l^rgin to rrow ; nnd that tlie day befiitv the roivivery of 
the town, the wind having suddenly changed, whirled the Mek round, and 
made it utter a slirill sound, resembling a crow. 

Among the thinga whieh struck ino as remaikable in the town, were the 
C'tria, as tliey are called, of tJic nobility, that is, their tonn houM«, 
vlncfa an privileged in tbo suae maaimr ■• their eatatca iu the coujitry. 
Aoooodiog to the ancient laws of tbe place, a oobleniaa ought to be 6ubJ>ect 
to the eity police, and within the walls regarded aa on on «tuaJity with 
every otber dtiMn. 3f&ny nobles and magnates have isauag«a to procure 
exreptioDa in their own favour, and have settled in tbe town, and bought 
land in it, without submiuing to its regulations. " CWta nofttYtirur" is 
usually ioacribed, or out in stone over the entrance to theee mansions, and 
fritliiu their prcciiicta they enjoy, beiidce otliers, tlie enviable privile^;ea of 
brewing beer, and dtstilling and sftlling bnndy. Tbcy cannot be airaited 
by the city police, who da» not so mwA ae enter tlieac Curve, which nu^ 


thof sffonl •heltar not ouly to thuir ownor*, but eno to uijf cnnuaalt 
Aey oujr cbooM lo hariwur. Tlie bouw oC enrj dagjmaa, kIm it, ■«- 
corang to ibe ennmoit ber« uwd, Curia. 

Aitkough Rul> ii by no UMUia cxclunvoly m Magyar town, being in a 
mat oieaMiK iuhaliitcd by GvimAas. iU citiiciu uv KDOwntd is Uaagaiy 
iar cbcir patiiotic teal, wuich dunr are rvcu Hud to cany to fanatotan. 
Oni- ctiriuuitaaee, apparcstly triflii^, may bav« coiitributHl to tliis,^ 
iiAtn«Iy. that it ritittan the be«t B*tian&l nitiuoiand in Himf^taj. The 
gifsy iinnds of itiinb are &c<qiientiy iaritcd to play in other placv^ and are 
always mudi adiuii^d. 

If Usab wmt tarmerly oonaidi>red u the Last buliraric of Chriat^itdon, 
it may uuw bv rvganW u tlii; ultimate refuge of Mftf^aium. It wae tl>e 
fint town iu wliich I vraji nblc lo iirocura a complsM coUoct!ou of all tbfl 
Jotmuilji and neriodintis puUished m tfae Hraigaiun Jangnage ; aitd tlii* I 
£nuid iti the Literary Inatitutioat ealabUBhed oa the model of tb« Cs«ino 
of Pcadi. The cAieei Qun^^an [lajuT does not date back beyond tan 
y«arF. Befof* tliu liiiw, tlicm men- uiily ii lew, iKually i)rint«d in Latki, 
whtt-h )iAv« nnco <li«d itwny. The moat dittiDgiitRKM nl tlip joumoLi at 
pr«9f lit in vogue, llic iisine of wliidi meeta one at t'vcry tuni, is tho '' Pali 
J/irttifi," or l^eslli •Toumal. which liaa exiitcd only n. year and a half, but 
hu olrt^ftdy flutiitrippMl all iti rorapetitoni. It IcM-pt a vijrilant w&t«h over 
all faults and abuses of tlic ^\-rmnivnt, ajtd i&th« most librral paper pub- 
^hed in Huugary. Its editoT, the darlin)^ of hia counirymPB. is the celc 
biiU(<d HiiiiguriAn noble, ndroeiUe, and deputy, " Koszuth." Tho other 
^pcre azv, the ilirimk (llit- Mctiviif^), the Vitag (tlie WoHd], th« 
£rdciift Hirada (the TraiuylvatuBD Uerald), the Yrirnhor (th<:^ Preseot 
Time), the MtUtea IWen [Present aiul Past), the AfAena^tmt, tho /Jtfttlo 
(the itoiaontic Tale-t4.-llcr) the 'fuilvmanytar, and some oclier*. A* I 
ahail iubscquctitJy Itaw orcatao:i to rafer lo tJicM\ I rautt beg' tny readere* 
if pouibl«, to k«ep in mind :tt sll trventfi, the names of die Btrlap, tha 
iMrnAor, tlie Hermoi, and the Ilioff. 

1bi» moat magnifioeat reaidence iii Raab a that of the catholic btaho^ 
whose palace wns jntrdiBaed hy one at his prcdeccHon, froiu the EmpreM 
M«tia Thvn>tin. The pmant biihop n said to bi> n very itstimaUe uti 
etUtiviitod mail. The IlHUfjarian c«tli<Ji(i clerpfy is nlnio«t tlw only OTio 
ID Buriipe that still mjoys untouched and undiniinished its fonncr pri- 
vileges and revenues, but a t^tne is, probably, not far off when these ^Ideo 
days will be overcait, for there are evident symptonts rtf discontent at 
di« Uulc udruntagc to humanity or icieiice dcTiTcd from the largo inoomef 
enjoyed by so iiiariy rery reverend but rery useless gentlemen. 

Far less of lu£ury aud superHuity is to be seen in the abodes of the 
chief ptutor of tlie ei'ttagetito! or ut the Lutlieran roiipiTrgati'JU than in 
the spli-iidid «uil* of dining-ttioiin, rerop lion -rooms, libraries, and billiard* 
rtiont« showed to tia as tlie palaoo of tlio Inghop. So late as the reii^ of 
Maria Tberasa, the Lutbmwu wer» forbidUeu th<.' public t-jiuictsv of tlieir 
idigion, and thoorii JoM^'a bolemtion edict removed this pmhiliiTioQ, 
dwy romuned hoUi poor and opjn-eased. The exact dimensioiLS wn- prw- 
•enbcd to dieni for the ohtiivh thev wore nllnwed to build, and it it, eon- 
•equeotly, very email aiid low, ana bus nether bell nor eterpte. Theae 
ang^ now he added but that the means are wanting. The allnr waa 
^■eed imniediatelv under the puipit. and I was told that thit woa cus- 
tomary in oil tlic Luthciaa chunrhca in Uuagwy. 


Of Ihc Lutberno wltool, oi it was, iminckilv, u holtdav, I crniU not see 

nudi, Um I «an- Iimv, For tlic Knt time. 4 conipktu lutif <Mc«llent man of 

ifiic kiiij^oDi of iiuii);&r_r, umI tliorc arc lunr plenty nf thrni to be bnafur 

jsU putfM>i>.>&. The most vtrikinj; feature at a map of lliuifrciry ti th« 

white spKc, de5titut« of names, dint appears on llU locrar ttf^cm of the 

Tiicis> and J>«iubr. Tin- Mungarinui'gT-m'ralliriioiutto it tlvonuclvfia, and 

, Bay—" Ijovk .' tht« trbite blank ire cme tit tlie Turtcs. who made a desat of 

^thwu' miuitri«s, and whoM faariiarism has ntaarded tis for craturica on tlw 

of dvilimtiou." 

oue oeeaf ion tlwre nai aliown to me a letter nf a pwha from tin 

I of the INnUrii doouniun in Raab, in which he addrasses the oitueu 

^ «f a ncofrhbaurinir Iowa a< " IIo^ and Do|^" inqturinf why they ate ao 

Ijeag to nuiBoming tfaetr gii4s whom he has taken in ple^e, and tniHoteo- 

' to take tbeir oeadi off if tbey do not agree to bis propa«a1<. Simibr 

of the Turldah modo of gonsraineiit arc found ewj-wbt^e in llua- 

Igary in tlie arcliivn of ibo cities, cburclH^, and countica, ai»l complaiula 

, «rw &vquent of the outrafrw tlio couiitiy suffered from them. Almost every 

eouftlry in Emvtpe has tome foreign bcifaBRau com^neroF on whom h lays 

tli« litiiaM; of bariap rvbtrdcd its progm*. Aa thv Turk* m Hunt;ary, m 

■re ihc Montis regsnletl in Ituaga, the Riiniana in Poland, Jie Aintrittu 

I fai Bohviiiia, the Cremiaas in Italy, and th« French in Gtnasay. 

At our dinner at tli« inn, an sitide irom a Uungarian paper on the mb- 
jeet of mixed marriages waa read and oommetited on, and ttien fellnwnd aane 
iiedtatiau bv tno hilli^ prU nt nx atul ten yean oM, of German mwm*. 
[towliDff of tlie " pMMitmin^ tire of love." 1 then nrHerMl mj caloach, and 
I in Uw conmanv of a courtcouf and learned Uuns^nnn fncn<^ drore to Um 
[ablMy of Martinaberg, situated tno German niilM bom Raab. 


Una Tenowaed BenodictiQe ablwy li« on a (pur of th« Bneony foTMt, 
which rtretcfaea into tlie plain of llaab. Many a diifrrence has been tbui;ht 
oat on this jilain, and neither Nnpoleoin nor Cbarlemaicne ponetrated 
filitfaer into Hnii)>arv. After the battle in the plain the French nere 
ooiniK-Ued to uadcrmlic a siege of tho boicn oitd lortn-M, which lusted Drrr* 
bI OMyt, duiing wliich they tired tno thuusand tix hundred and aiity balla 
wainat the derated city. After their conquest tbey l>lew up the fortifica- 
ttoiu, which bare not MtD aiocv restored. Their fra^mta and ruina lie 
arunud H)nie three or torn huodnd honwa Khidi have sitruiig itp >ni their 
Mte. Tinii did the Freneh render the same Burvice to Um as bo so many 
Gtrtnaa towns. 

Uy ettoomed caDponian was one of those Hungarian Utersti who pre- 
&r vpealmi^ Latin to any other lanenage. He usuolW becan l^ speukiiKf 
GefTnan, but soon fell impeteeptibl^' into Latin, findmc it M ne «atd m 
■neb man coat'oaient anu better adaiited to oonversatioo than any othtf 

"^ tangiH. He aaid tlmt he knew inauy liLeraiy laeo to whom Latin waa by 
fu tho most familiar, alUi<Kigh on the wbolo it had fidlen mte dintse of 
late, lie liiiiueU^ as a Huiigurian patriot, nrefvrred as a matter <A' prin- 
eiple, tlw use of the native laiigusgp, but nnon lie wished to pour out hii 

I jHort bo eonld not lulp onin^ I.atin. tMtme, he said, carried their pene- 
onfint of it to a [ateh of bnatiann. " «t dlia nunc pndor e«t lotjui Latnw, et 


vclunt ut emaea nocturni vigUaatei llimj^uic mnant," Witli the liuntfto 
guarduiitD <»f the nij^lit, in tome Huii^;aruin lomnti when; thvyltavt bcrn ia 
the liabii of riyin;;; thp hour in Grrman, this bu rvoll}' bcca miuircd. 1 
ifiquircd w)iei!ier, as i liad heard, tlH> Uuttgariai) IrUm tpoke Lado, but 
bo mmI he newr nut but one who was oapsble of doinj; so, tuid tfaat nw A 
ladyfrotn iPrvoliuix. Tltc lliin^'ikriiui iiin^intti all vpi-aLit, tnit the SloTDcks 
an coufidvnxl b^twr and moir lliiviit I^tinttU llian tlir Magyars. 

As the abbey lied v«rv hij^li wv tiiwa came in dght of it, and I was 
Tcallv tLHtoni^Mi at Hie sue and beauty of this niagniHcent biulditi"-. 

"\oii iiiiroreri*," l»ogHn my friend. " You wDuld not mwdrr at tbs 
Bplendour of the building-, if yoti km-w what revunuw tbew gontlemaa 
ptMitew, and how thoy lira. Tbcir abbey i« one of tbo riobat ia ail Hun- 
gary, and the poorest of them drive out with four horses. Omnium rvnon 
ftbiitidantix fruuntur, exempli gratia \iai boni, equoniro optimnnim vt totiua 
Titdc npparntu* diltwiini. The mouclmn on vrhich the abbey itaada, u 
you fcc, ri«c3 proudly ftxnn the pUiin, and has probably been since a very 
early period, dedicated to tlie service of religion. It wsut called by tliB 
Aoniani, and still potwits the iiame of, tbe Saocr Mom Pannonia^ and 
Vtaodi ia the ramv rvliilivc piutliuu to Panuouia ma Mount Atlios did to 
Maccdon. Tht- firrt Chri.itiau Kiiit^ nf Hungry, St. Stephen, and tlie tiret 
uio<tie of ChriatianitT iu our i^iouiitry, St. Aiia^tatius, eatal>liihed liere tbe 
fint Cluiatiau cliurcu, and founded tli« al>l>ey tuid the caiUu. Snnctos 
Anantatiua prinim fuit Abba* Sii. Miirtiu!. rt niinmi ct iiiexpliicabilc vet 
quantum uain in propn^tioii? fdei nrtli'Mlox:i> demilaTeriL" Stephen sent 
him as anibae!»dor to I*0[>o Sylvestor ]I., who roliinied to him Uw crown. 
•lid tccptrc of tliG ITtingnrian kingdom, which the king tiad ord«nMl to bo 
liud at nis IioIui^m'm ffwl. The po|ie nfteru-nrd-t raiwcl the abbey to the 
digpity of a high or anib ablwy. tho only one of that rank in the Aiutriaa 
empire. The abbot is ''cx oflicio" a Maguate of Ilimgary, and he is 
chosen by the Benediclioea fi'oiii among tliemselvet without the aanctioa or 
interiereneo of pope or emperor. Joseph tlii^ Sticond IndMid dippiid the 
vring^ flf these occlwattic* a little, but Fraocis II. restored, souig gf their 
lost featlien. Since his lime they liuve birgiui to make great alterations 
Rnd improremencs in thoir coiirnit, nnd ulthuu^li it is not yet mora tlian 
luilf eomploted, thishnlf h(Malrpn.dya most tna^ificent efiert. In th(v front 
of tbo buiJdiug in a group of ^atuci, atiiuiig which thoec of Stopliea and 
Francii^ tbe founder and the restorer of tlie coinx-iit, are the most ^tin- 

Wo IcB our carriage; at the foot of St. Martin's mountain, and rlimbod 
up on foot. Ab we entered tliit courLyard, wt nore saluted by the busy 
hammering of half a dojten voogieKt, who were employed in fastening larse 
oaken «ask« of mo^t capacious dimcnetonj, destined to be Blli-d with tn« 
finest Hungarian wines. In the walls near tlk^ gate I rcntarked tli<' looji- 
holes, which in former days had been used by the EibbotM in defenee of their 
olftbey nnd their native eountry. The ehitrch of the abbey is adonied by 
tlie works of Maidbcrtseh. Many uf tho Aiuiriait fhurchi,-;* atxi fidl of the 
productions of his pencil; bnt trie best are tho*e in Papa, ft kiwn over 
whieh Prince Esterhaiy exercises sovereign «wny- It is said the prince was 
lately n-proavhed by ati EugliiluuBu in London, for not doing something 
for their prvsi- nation, Li n cliit[irl belonging to thin churcn, a niiirbW 
seat iu a niclie «-es ehown to us, oi that on which King Stephen wad a«- 
customed CO sit, when he attended th« service performed hy St. Auaftatiua. 



Tlu« marLIe niche mid ami are reKsnlcil by the (lun^amiu as their 
moat intermthtg antiqidtiM. " Sw 1" uid an* of th* mooki, wIk) occnin. 
panted ua, " tliew our sftiiiinl king used to dt in perauii." llie HiingftTtut 
ptTKMtita coinv iu gK»t uuiubera ou Um tt'ativiU days, uhI bcff for pormb- 
aioii tn stl awhile in Kiii^ f^pheiiS c^»ur, m limy conndcr il Tciy service- 
able Tor many point in th« biu-k. 1 trwk my scat there I'or a, niomciit, 
but live very cold of the maibl« H>«inpd to mo more likely to givv a poin ia 
tlie liack tliui to take oue away. T)io cha|M!] u biult with nx crlumns 
mijiporting the root, which resu on them, uid on twive poinu>d amdiw 
springing out of thnn. The St. Martin'* hiti is conne«'t«d with llii.' iuotn>- 
, tola nnSGi to Trhicli it bcloD^;^, by a Iaii|; rid^e, along nhicli max a foob* 
Mth leading to the lonely little chapel o( St. Fmnierich, the frm of Kin^ 
'Otcpbcn. Thia Enuncrich km married, l»ut during or intm(><iiatfllv after 
tbt pcHbrmoncQ of tbv ccrciaony, tiiadc a row of pcrp«tual chastity. He 
naa accuatomed every evening to pass oloti^ thia path to the chaj)v1, in 
order lo offer lus prayers to the Blessed N'irgin ; ami il liapprnnd that hia 
ivifit noon began to harbour some suspicion concvniin^ tlicsc nightJy woa- 
'd«rin;;s, and dctcnnined one CYcnin;* to follow liioi and discover the catue. 
She did 50, and peeped thraugh (he window of tlie chapel, aiid there she 
saw, by the light of the tapers on the nJtor, the bandtosne and devout Kin> 
mcrich Illustrate in prayer, with Lin hi-od »tirroundcd by a saintly glory. 
• Struck by the sight, she also sank on her kii«r4 to pray at tha door of tJlie 
-chapel, and embnciug her husband as he came out, made a iiitnLlar vow of 
'permtual diastitr. 

ills library d thia comeitt is aa magitifiveiit in it* arrangeinvnta »a ehoH 
of the conv«utii oa the Dauuho, vrhinh I hare bebre doscrlbiHl. It is not 
possible to orrango books and mnnuscnpts in finer or more bicturewiue ord«r, 
and 1 did not venture to take one down fur fear of disturiiinj^ the honnuiiy 
of their poaitioD. In the great lioU of the libraiy wera tinely-eu.-cutra 
atatuca et Stephen and Francis 11. Jo«cph built his monument ia tha 
beaiti of nulBoos of bis aubjcctf, but if he hod had a successor to hiivo fol- 
lowed in his footsteps, his statue also, in bronze and niorblv, would evorvK 
'Where meet oar eyes. The eollcetion of hooks amounts to eighty thousand, 
among which are tuidoubtcdly many of f^at value. 

In the museum wKich is connected with tlie library are prcfcned many 
.Turkish and Roman antiquities found in the nt'ighbourhood. In the 
Turkish time the convent had to pay tribute to the paxha of Stuhinrisscii- 
burg, and the cOTrrspondrace between tht-in wm cnrticd on in Lniiii. 

Tlte Turks had in fiudu and Pesth olao many Gvniiaii xubjects who nviv 
made to serve as interpreters for them in their adiuinistrution of tliera 

In the (tolled ion of coins there are some nud te be of the tinM of AttiJa. 
Tlwv bear the portmJt of a man whom fi.>atures are those of a Faim, and 
the inscription " Atttla 451." In otiier Hungarian towns I havo seen 
DKtre of tltMe cniiii, but am by no int^aiis couviiictid of their aulheuticity. 
Soaie were inscribed " iiitda Ihtjt Huanumm." It in remarkable mough 
tbM tiie VMtMiey 6i Attibt ha* bceii a-gaidcd witli so tuuth rof p«ct by the 
people of Hungary. There are here to be met urith more Tipre^cntatims 
of .^ttiln, tile " .Scourge of (iod," thou in Germany of Kari den Grosmt 
or ArauniiM. 

In tho front of the courent is a high tower of considerable compous, from 




tlie top of wtuob B tnJy «pj«nditl pro«poct maj bo fin}Ci)red. Th« auoat] 
hy m oanrenient gaJleiy on tb« tnitriiie, aoA the wye csn tlieuce cml 
tne whofa Bortlivrn haif of PanDonia, no fewer tltui foKrtsro of tim 6Ay 
t*m oauatiM cf Hnnjpuy beiiifi^ conaprUf^) within the tipw. Coold we, m 
our eyet rested ou this mdc eurfiurc, have known nil thul wat paniiig 
iMMtli thetn^could we lave followed all the spirttual mowoenti of tllB 
millions of b<^in(^ whoso dwclknj^ lay in ihoie ff^, bkm, gnea, ainl yellow 
pAtchea, we iliould luiru eeeii i»iuc vuougb for botli jojr and aonow. How 
£ttle can the indindua] embraee in bu KympatliiM ; ncsroetjr his ueamtl 
friondi I and what haa ha to do with the jo\-s and (ORtms of milUoua iu & 
fbntiffn laud? 

Some of tlte Mclenutioa anon j(»n«d mt oa the tower, and with them my 
friead from Raa]t> ao tliat I hul iiib.>rpnrtnni eanugh of Uw various object* 
tint iitruck ni#. Many mut^? were point^v) out to tut iw tb« )uir«dtaiqr.j 
acAts of tliid or that family. Near the mod leading tram Ka^ to Slld%J 
Balled hars the Biitcben' road, probably on account of the gnat herd* cf' 
eattl» driven alon^ it to market, lie the aneioRt eutle and oonwmt of Dotii^ 
in which >latthiaa CoTvinus pasecd ao moob oF hi» Urns. Wc could pa~ ■ 
oeive nljo quiie diatiuctlv iu tiie luoontsm penpectiro, tlie mitiance to tha 
olabratod pntto of lAitia, and wc taw tlirou)^ the loit^ mta at past vaaiv j 
ft horde of wild Turks, at the oatraooc of this grotto, driviit); in the lali*- 
bibinta of tevtai Hiin^ariau riUngvs, and sufTK'ntin^ thrm tiwve with tiro 
snd finoko. Jio len than twentv wo^on loo/da of human bones were lub- 
■vqueutly t&kon out of it. In tne tenitorici ruled hy the Turks there «« 
many aucb caves. £Ucd with human bodies by the tide of barhnnstn, as in. 
vorioiwimrU of the world other ca»e« bare Leon tilled by natural flotids with 
the r«ni.iin« i>f animaU. 

Not far off in the same range of niotiataini, wc cnuld with our glnwo 
diitin^uifih the itooe qoaniet of Olmosch. whence the Tnat«rialR have bc«a 
tnk<?n for the torttfieatiooa oi Komorn. The ent-irons of the townn of Pgf^ , 
G'uiis. aud Sl«inaniaiig«r, which wu tuid Lvfurc nwa oitly marked with bhulc ; 
slrakeK upon the map, lay now iu vivid ctiliiun Iwrnrv us. Tn tliK itoutb tar ' 
ttio iwi^hbuuriii^ Bacnny niouutAins^ eovunxl fratu tlioir vallBys to tfaoir 
mmmit* with »in iiiiinterrupt^d formt of oak. 

The convents of the BaiiedictiiiQ order arc Tery numerniia in HungafTi 
snd Uke tliia Abbey of WKIaaUns, uiually built on tlie suuiiult nf a bilL 
They ore, however, nowhore more powerful tlian here, whore thpir poMoa- 
eions cutvred on one side int» the Bacony oa far as ^lo Plattani hake, and 
on the other to the Danube and the Dotis niouutains ; three abbeys of 
inferior tank, also in this part of the tnuntry bclonjf to them. On St. 
Martin') hilE, ibinv rvxidc ftftytwo of these reverend ctclesiastics, but in nil 
then; ore oue hundmd and nincty-iix monks who belong to tho convent, 
whitb boa the onntrul of two academies, tho«o oF Prvabar^ and Raab; 
eitrlit Uymniuia, those of Kaab, Koiiiom, Gunt, Oedcnburjr, PajiB, Gran, 
Prc*burjr, and Pyniau, and liftwn pariibef, and the ap|)ointmeEits of all 
the professtir^, teaclien, and prenobere, are made &om amoDg the inmates 
of the abUoy. The arch abbot of St. Martin'*, lias tu-cvrdingly tliargv of 
thi- KpiriluiU, and in a frrat measure ahto ijf the tciiipcral wolfiire of the 
itihabitants of two buiidrod Gemuui tijuorv mik« ; it ii not fiurprising', 
tlien^fure, if the election of a new abbot u matter of istereit to the whew 
couatiy rouiid. 



The nficrnooD bad boen Traiwl«rFuUy bmutiJiil, uid I could Murdy tcftr 
mjTMlf from tbe lovely ipeetade pnwnu>d ftma xhe top of the tower. The 
HrMiinf; drew on, and we were still goMipin{|> Cionnon, Himnrioo, and 
Lattii, all mixed b^i^hcr; u Oiv Rucnaaf mix French nud RiHwiftit, tliA 
people of AIhco Frcuch and Gcniuui, so do the Hungamns in tlieir con- 
Tcnation mingle together Uunganui at>d Gennan, at least, 1 ibouM p«r* 
hrnpa add, the; do w in the pr«M>ice of a Gennao. An immniMi nunbar 
of Gamao vrordi aad phraMS have at all ereiits obtained atrreacy, and 
although many naloua and pernvwins afic»1a have been mode to hunt 
them ont, they oontiniie to muntain their ground. 

Hbe tva suik, aiid ad I turned towards the Baoony foieat it by before 
n»e, an iminenM tiiibrokeii ouac oTf^oona, not ligfatniwd to the uiud's sya 
by its ivry equivocal roputatioii. My uoinpaiuoru tli^ monki, howeveTi 
a{)peared to be scuuuinted with every " dingle and bushy dell of that wild 
Wood," as one of tJi« abbeys it situated on the oppa«t« ndv by the Pliitten 
Lake, and anotlior in tb« very ncntre of the {orast. Tltis u caUed " Bacony 
B«I," that is the entrails or kernel of the BaconV' The oioDki have 
therefOTe ol^n occasion to rross the fomt in orery oirection, and are inti- 
mate with all its wild popolation. Those immense oak woodfl biv* been 
found V4>ry favouiaUc to the roaring of hags, and in this part of lluogaiy 
therdore. the swiiush multitude takes precedence both of oxen and ilieap. 
I lAs chililren, the inhabitants of tius fareit learn neither reading nor 
i^rriting, and very littli.- relij^ion, nothing bnt tlie numagenaent or pigf, 
t wlkosc existence indeed tlicir owu 'u la^vd. Ilicy live in (rcncrol, 
Uy on pork and bacon, wiUKinrd ki Iiiglily with t)iv " Paprika," of which 
1 have alrendy spoken, that no one uiiiLceuj>t(mti>d to these epicy morsels 
can vcnturv to taste them. To tlus they drink the Uunganaii wine in 
^jlBnUinited quantities, living, however, day and tiight in all weatliers, en- 
I linly in tlie fnvesL Tliey wear large thick wliit« woollen mantles deso- 
lated with Aowors and oisameots in red thread or firagtnents of red Ma£ 
I mentioned to my comnanion.i a paseage I recollected in Diao Caanus, in 
vhidi he dsaoribes tho Paiinoniajis as vearing nuuittH of tJiis land. " It 
is fwy poMablo," ho replied, " for thcM Kopenyc^ as they are called, with 
^Iha large loose decvos banging down, we OB^ worn in Pnnnonian Huit- 
and are never swa in Dacia on the other side at the Danube. Tttesa 
'jDantlea always appear to ittnke even* stranger, and are therefore very 
likely to have been obserrcd by Dion Casrius. 

" It is often very difficult," continued my informant, *' to say whether 
tiieae Bawiny fonat<-r« are swineherds or robbeni. Their wtmdering and 
mecrtalQ mode of life, and their supc-rivrity in strength to tbcir mor» 
•otlled coontt^men, are einnnnstanccs by no meana nroorablo to their 
honesty. It is of them that tbe poet says : 

■* Fsra von 1 Jchc, Lust and Letei, 
Wdl' ich hier im dualBn Wald, 
Wo im .Siiirm ilie Eirfam bstoi, 
Uod dn- Wolie I]euh-n w-lulli. 
Suniienitjuja and Suimiciniiithca 
Sckwinrton Bnvt mir bkI UmmM, 
Und «« bonTk* Hosrdt hOttn 
Im Oebftaeh M niatiNt Pflkibt. 
Kelne MensehcnniiniiH? drisifDt 
I>Bicti die Obde an mein Ofar, 


ScttM dw VandrlD fliehl und dntiet 
lieber fen tn Uoach odU Kolir. 
Aui drra Huik nur sii<r«il<ii 
Sumnit bvnuf Oer Gbcke fSUa^ Ac.* 

" The bad chamctvr of Um« sinni>henlf Iiu givrn nK to a law in 
Hungary, that on}' noe nhseiit from liij N^ witliout permnsion, ti ngsrded 
as a n^bbcr, ami {>unuli«<l acoording^lr. Th«se mm, Kowervr, on tba wbole, 
are not so bod u might be suppoiea ; lhe;r nerwr ham the poor, and tliey 
{MtT nroper respwt to the cler^-, roiiflnin^ thsir depredatioiu to tbe rica 
noDility, for tney are (n«>d* of librrty tini e^ualily. About two yctrs 
ago thcnr attacltod a caatle and plundered it of seventeen thouumd fiorioa i 
but within MIX nionihi aniTw.tni^, I saw the ipirrnwt build thdr neits in 
the ikulk nf thn«o whn had perf'irmM thii expljut." 

He priningial ivca))on which tW " Gonat:" (sn'inrlitffd) carries, u 8 
vmall, neatly made hatc^m. Bxed to a handle nbnut thi-ee feet long, wliich 
■mrei a* a walkin^f-rticV, a pajit'>ral crook, or tn on* wood for fuel. When 
several of them meet in the forc«t, tln^y oncn omiuo tbeaisclves by tlu9w 
ing thij weapon al a mark, and in tlii; gnme they hsTe attained an cxtn- 
ordinary degree of sliill. 

Jly CDn)iiani'>a went on to inform me lie Iii«l onco witoewed an in*1 
nf this in Pesth, whither two " f^manzC had driven n pair of bufiiJoM 
for sate. Tlie animnis hod somehow become ^uddenlr ciiragi>d, and had 
rt»h«d down a hill and ov«r the Dantibi* bridn* into ih* very eentre of a 
crowded market-place. Tlip om- waj stoh uki^ii, but ihe other oontiaued 
ovcrthrovriug and trF,niing down every thing in it« way, and no way re- 
mained but to try to hit him with the liatfhec. Thta vriu nreonliiigly unna, 
luid the wt^agton thrown «> acciiratelvi that tlm animal, tliougli in tho 
midst of n crowd, ww »inirlc exAJitly in the right phicif, and instantly fell^^J 
to the gruuiid. Their ilcill in tl)« ufls of tliis weapon )*, however, by no^^^| 
mc«.ni« always dcwirabfo, for they are often (eropted to try it on men »»^^^ 
well as on trees and buffaloe?. In their quarrob among themselves, Uuae 
liitivlieti ofipQ play in important a part a« the dag[(er* among the Spaniards. 
One may often observe them, whe^n tlioy nre inivlined to come to blows, 
suddenly turn round ami wheel nwny to n couiiderahlo distance, in order 
to obtaiti lIkt »piiw 1 ifcc*!,iry for throwinjr ili« lintchet. and if they have a 
niitid to ntuck a Btran;pr, th^y often turow a liatchet at him, as other 
banditti will Hre a piste!. 

It would be unjust to asst'rt nf the Bacony fureit, that it is full of re- 

Far Twin luvi- imil lifu ami |ilaurnr«i 
Tliroairli the fori-it'» irlnoni I wend ; 
Liati-'iimi,' ti> till- wiilre** wiliI mcuuTC; 
Hvrv nir Iirintlj- limln I lernl. 
Sloimt imil traccbixig nui* l«Vf now 
Swaritied my brtiut nnil burnt ray brow; 
Nfi-er huniiin tuiw 1 lirur. 
I'lL-ririni: l!inni;jli ilir uiowit miuecar^ 

NfVef L'lJlllL-* !ltllllill-t ■Olllll), 

'fliim tliv ilrutitroalc* hnrnkuiK rauniL 
Ercri tlw liltk birds will fly. 
To «Uig wlient ibcy cnii WMt the »ky y 
Only tomeiiinci ircm tlie vdlley. 
CoiM'S the claiiitiTi]; o( the bell*," Sue 



giilar luiditti, but it has ilwa^'* ax* Abundant populatioii of what may be 
rvpirdeil as Jait^iTous chanururA. To tliof« vlto are placed under their 
pro(ecti<Mi, IinwMwr. «r who visii them in their forest hui», or gnvsip with 
tham "vvr Uirir f»ri-9it tirc-^, llwy nrc the most fniult, kotiast, hoepitahle 
fcUowB ill the WOI'IJ. 

" I have nricii," jiroccvded my iofurmant, '* paid them vi»ita and paseed 
many iiiUtrectiiiff hour* in ihvir company. Tim lut tJm* vaa about two 
ycart ngc, nhcn the la*t »f the gnnt robb<T bAiid* wliich }ia4 ntea aniou^ 
thirm, under the ^daiice of tiip rcnovcord chioF, Sobri, bad been tatcE^i, 
and brought to the galtou-t. Sobri nai a haiidsomo young nuui of about 
tveaty-two^ who had, f<ir throe yean, Iccjit oil the ftrm* and eaftles nmnd 
in terror, and a long- time elapsed biTurc he, and his most diet ingrui shed 
companions, could be arrested, for thev were as cunning as they were Lolil, 
aud llie pnsniitf, as U frequently Uie ease, aa well as the niilhrs and land- 
lords c^ Uio little iuni, all round the couutr)*, were Uicir fncndi^. At Icnj^th 
acoiwderaUa body of troops wa» brmiglit agau»t them, and after a tan* 
giaaary contest tliey- were taken. There remained, indeed, to the last 
•one aoubt wiUi reaped to Sobri liini««lf, na some asserled thnt )>■> had 
cscafin), with n larfi^ sum of money, unil gfim to America; but the pro* 
1>a1>iliiy is sgainft this account, for » body was af^OTwardi found of one of 
thi> roKbcrs who had been shot, whieh Sobri's parents deelareJ to bi; that 
of their son. Many of the biuid were htlledt ami others taken, hut many 
quietly <Iiiiper«ed and ttnik up itipitn their occupation of herding swine.' 

" It was H party of tlwrso whoiu I was induced by eurio&ity lo vi*it, and 
1 Found them lyiag round their fire, not far from some huCa oudt of rtmw 
•nd bmnches of trees. There were seven of them, and in answer to my 
salutatiou. tliey timted me to come nearer, but remained quietly by the 
fire, without disturbing thcm»vlvei to do mc honour. 'I'licv were dark, 
wild, jKnt-erfiil lookinj; men, wearing tlic nuttoniil costume, with their coal 
bW-Jc tiiiir shining with hog's lord. I soon hit upon a plan of inrinnatin^ 
inyaetf into their good graces. It happens that I am very strong in the 
■nna^ and seeing a very thick cudgel lyin? near tiiem, such n$ thev use 
against the woIvm, I uk*d theni w'tu-lh^r tlicy bvlievril that I c^^iuld lireak 
it into tliree or four pieces. Thev defied me to do il, and 1 hmke it ao- 
^Wrdingly, Ae tliey arc great adniiiew of bodily Btrtngtl), tliey imine- 
^diatcly stood up, madu ni« welcome, and begged me to itit down with 
' Aem. I n>nlied I titould first like to wrextlc ft little if tliey were u> in- 
dined, and did not take my place till I had thrown two, and been thrown 
bv the third. Wc werv now the best friends in the world, and I took tny 
place among thorn . The fire was trimmed, and a larfiie dry trunk of a tr«e 
was dragged fonvard and thrown on it, the smaller Imnelies being Inokeu 
off and serving to kindle the enontious stem. 

*' They now brought wine and ■ Paprika bacon,' and as I began to »]ieak 

loT those of tlie band who had junt been bung, they cLpreeBeil gmat «yiQ- 

Fpatliy for them, and one of them said, ctapfnug mo familiarly on (he book* 

*Ah, sir, it's always the dioicest of the fritit that people luiiig up ;' altiiding 

to a custom of the «>untr%', during tlm niitoge, of picking out tlic Iinott 

branchos of gropes, and haiigiiig tlicm on n stick to be earned liom« to 

* Ap)in|[nt(>b went ibe rvund O^llwCvruMU pees* a fev v«eltl ago. In which it 
wu ilxN.l iliiil iIm tflvlmti-d llnwmrian bajviu cliieT Schufari tUd nailj ttcufc oa 
the neraslon here aJluckdto, lait ba£aflcra varluty oTindventiuu, MlUcd m a dni^- 
gist In Charlestoa- TV. 



lb mind of nimic. It was, therefore, widi tlwM choic* gtMpe$ ihat taj 
TObb^ vristird to <<tininu« liu ctomnidoc. 

" Tb« pleasure which tlies* pt^nlc t&ko in hntnnjir and reUHaff robber 
stories, a»d mmantio legends oi ruined castles, ib a fuffi owit pioot of ebeir 
Irvely iiiiiig^tuitiua, And them b na doubt that many a mti jomg feUow 
it inmirwl by thc» tt> Am^ of limikr daring. It tvtiOy aroeon to be 
Im either poTcrly or cnvctousiiea ihau lore of action that mMes n>bben 
at them, ill other Gircuntitaiion it would u eaeilj niaki.' tbeui bemes. * 


In order to reach Pcsth. I bad the choice betwoen the nbor^atcutJDiwd 
" Butchers' road," traveled hj the herds of cattle, and the steamboat domt 
tile Danube. I waa not \on(( in deciding for the Utter, although it wua 
omaneotcd vith aume ihflicultivs ; fur the stcamlxnut t'aunnt enma up aa 
Uch aj Raab, but lien two Germ&n miles dowu the river, Ht a littltf |)Uce 
called Gon vi^i wluch may be conHidcred as a Btvrt of suburb of Raab. For 
tlte salie ot this t»o inillu' jouruv}', fur which w« bad till two o'clooli, wft 
were oblievd to get up at suorise, and go oii iKxarJ a little yacht that waa 
lying in uiu Raab ami oi the Dunulw, called also tlip Littlv Danube. It 
was not till the yacht wai ciiuiuucd with boxM, and trunks, and |>ortiiian- 
teaufl aiul good* t>f rariout deecriptioiH, and children, and fat womt- a. and 
Hungarians, and Gonnana, till it wetaod leady [a ihdc, that our ttupper 
gav« t}u> ngnal, and ve wer« allowed to atan. W* pjuncd out thittugb 
what is caOed the " Wat«f-Ciut«," through whicli thi; Turks cffix-tcd oa 
antraaee when they took the town. There were m&ny tmcea of hulls on 
the stonM by the gate, but I couM not r<-fi'nin from putting my hand^ on 
tbeim like an unbcli^viug Thomas, for a strange fcvljng of doubt dome- 
tSmes ooiaes over mc coiicerniag all the occurrences of past duys. 

Front beneath ihia water-gntv I obtain'cd ou interesting view, at well 
out of aa into llie town i for from thi* gftte tliv iu»rkrt- women had ranged 
thsmadm on bot^i sides, and formed u {lit^turu likr tlie lir«t acene in tha 
■ocond act of " MaiMniieHo;" and they wurp^ oSvriiig delicious fruit at 
littla ntore tlian the snine imaginary price at that ]>aid by the playen ; fiir 
iBCtanec a penny for two lurgi; melons, or for eeventy pluain, or forty ca- 
cumbera. Two tuiA yonng fowl* fiii' 1*!!W tliiin itixpeiice. There Heemed 
to me no longer utiy thing strange in tlic ft^ct that hu ruiny Hungariaa 
kiuga had killed tbenuelTes by eating too much fruit. Matthias Cvrt-inua 
{alt sick and died after eadng nwiie frunh lig^, and Albredit after cEitin^ 
mdoua. On tlie other side of the wati^r-gnii^ Iny thu luu-bour, and all tbo 
far from inconsiderable bustle of the tnulo and couimcrco of Haab. Ilia 
great tide of traflic docs not, iu this part of the Da-uube, po&s up llii; priu- 
cipaJ ftrenni, but into its smaller branches, for the real Uiuiube between 
Raob and Preebitr? is full of ialand^ ahoab, and taudbtuiku ; and tl)# ves- 
mIs coming from the low«;r part of the river aav willing to uToid th« strong 
cun-ent of lli« imuu striTani. Tlie little Danube, although it tuu the tliaud- 
Tonto^ of iunuinerable wiiidiug^, is deeper and mort> tnuiquil. Large 
Teseela cannot, however, urwceil furtlivr up than llaob. Hero they du- 
chargr tlwir cargoes, and wlmte*cr is dwtJunt for Wiesclbu^, Pres- 
burg, or Viermn. is spiit forwanl in small*^ rrnft. The prineip^l arti- 
cles of commerce arc corn and cattle, cf which tlio former goes mostly 



to ^Puaelborg (on the Nmiiedler L^e), and tW Utter, as I hare said, to 
Ottdeobuig, whence it u duttibutnl orvT Awlniu I cnuUI b<a my veil 
make out why tlie vom did noi tmi<>] tlio wliola wsy to Pim1)ur^ and- 
Vienna by watOT. bnt I «ra> inroniied t)iat it was on a«eoiint of raiMC eS 
tbe oom-nulb ly'utg sc&tleced at wry ctriiiiitlenlile <li*taiic» n>uiul VicniUt 
altiKKtt ait far a* the Ilunjpinaii ffoulier ; aiid that utticc IiiiuUcarriiige in 
BuDgvjr is Mtmiialiinfrly cbeagi, tho millvTS ])n-fi'rrfd f«tchin][f it frotn 
'WittMlbnrfT, to allowing it to go to Pr«ebui^ or Vienna. wh«n! it« pnce 
vould be much cohanecd. THis can hardly be tlie only motive, nevertbe« 
leu, it may be that beyond Wieselbuzf^ the Ba*igation of llie litil» Da- 
nube bMomw atiH more difficult. 

As sooD M the vistied^far nganX of our doparhira had bceii i^ivcn. a 
Iiltl« hone waa attached to a. lung rope, and aa he begsji to trot, we fouml 
ouiwIvM moTtD^ ven* jvlenaand j down the naimw rivi>r. havitiff on ons 
aide tho hij^lilaiiil* of the coimtiy of Baob^ and on the atUcr tlic " gnldvit 
fniit gvden" of the island of Schiitt. Amoii^ thotc of tlio psaRDgvn wfan 
jirefriicd tho tarry deck to tiio conlined air below, were tntdeHnen^ ua~ 
vanta, iiinltwijvn, and clerks, Uormans, and Hungariant, all with muHta- 
tiawt, according to the nutoia of tho ouuntry ; nicn.haiiu from llaah, a 
few patriots, an Austrian nobleman, and mjnalf. \V» hm! tcarcply opened 
onir mouths befoiv nil tlie Hungnriuii lopies of tho da\'. tho lAnguaffv, tlM 
oonslitiition, tlir nrwspapvTs, litonUtint, ull cnmc on toe caj]i«t, and ocva- 
•roned tluit lively dlscnsflon which is siin.> to arixe wherever two or thn-o 
aro |^ntli«rH) f igether ia Hsn^arv, Thc> strift* bocnmu portieulnrly wnrm 
batween the young nobleman and (Otoe of tlie Huufrnrions present, and I 
bad sevenl oppnrtutiiliaii of displaying my impartiality, and playing the 
uropirr. The Aiiotriami am Riim to see the shady side of every thing in 
Hungary, and the Uungariaiie find it tcit hard to approve of imy thing 
AastriMt, and as I was ndther an Austrian nora Hmtniiaii, thoy found it 
convenirat to appeal to me. The Muogwians beUero uial Anstxia eiercisos 
JtMt as oppi—jye and rcotmining an inflnoncc on the western aa on tbe 
eanem borden of her temtoncs, and they aro thcrcfbnt di«|»i>HMl to a 
friMidly sympathy with ns Westom Gennans, whom they regurd as 
liostil« to Anstria. The Austrian had begun the attacic, on this oc«as)oa, 
fcyatpwiliny groat contempt far the state of Hujii^urtnu a^culturv, which 
h» had hero for the first time became acquainted with. Mid by paintinj^ ia 
Kuifa coloun the state of lUrery in wl^ch tho country Etill rvmaiued, in 
ipite of the fitToarabIa inEucuce of tho recent Diet. He then •LctciiMi 
toe wkAU of profpnity, order, and comfort of the Austrian pensaot. c»ir- 
fmrei witli the bii«knard and oppreioed condition of tho Hungarian, 
znaintaining that in Au«tna tbe ompcror himsvL^ even if he bad right on 
his side, was not sure of being able to obtain ju«ttc« wainrt a iwofaat, 
wbilst in Hungary tho k)W(>^t noble could oppnws his ongliboim as much 
, u he pkasAil. The Hungarians lie went on to «sy, won vary ready to 
try out *' Liberty and Fn>r^d<im," but it waa really enjoyed by only tba 
onler of nobility, anti tliesv v;vr» often the vru«l«*t tyrants to the ojipiTaMnl 
millinua. Thfi Anstrtan pea>ant wai made of bettor slufF than tlio Hun- 
I eiuion, (or thou^^ ho would not lubinit to tyranny, he wii» williugty sub- 
[ Ject to the law. If told nidi i* tlw law, he was content, nltbouf^ evnt 
^the law might be an tinnmsnnable <m9 ; but of this ntluntary submission 
no one in Hungary had any idea. Neither noble nor peasant would sub- 
mit to any thing but force. He muw indeed coofcn that in Austria thecB 

rne dahuhe pkom raab to testb. 

wore mftDj thiofft that mifclii !» aoMtidcd. It wiu not right thit thoy 
(ttie nobles ) ithould l*e &p« from military ilah% tior that the ptannnU iilioula 
bear alone thv burdfo of itmnv of tlie taxes ; and all milighttmed AiHtriwu 
heartily wubed for a rcprMentativc ooiMtimtion ; but even viiih Hmr ar- 
bitmry ^vi;niinciit> the people wcrv intiuitrly better pnM«cted cheru thaa 
10 Huiigaiy. 

Tlie Ilun^riAnfl defead«d thenuvIrM valiantly a^inet thetiv attach*, 
deolsnug that alUunigb tb« lot of tli« peasantry had hitlierto b«en bad 
«nougl^ it tiwl batn entirely dtaogad (nr the bolter by the »cu of the Um 
IKm, and tbnt the fi-utts of this ani«lioratioD wonld ioon apfi(>ar. Vm- fair 
of tb«ir o»ble« deserved to b« called tyrantSi and the conduct of niAnv of 
them wu really inoft palemal InwarcU thrir peasaata. Force must, indeed, 
they admitted, be tometinwa vnipTiycvl, but tlio effactn of the itick were 
not always prejudiaal. That a« to freedom, tlicro cmtid Iw no frrcdora 
wlierc a despot «aa placed at the hmid of alTairB ; that t)ie will of the cm* 
peror was omnipotent in Aiiilrin, but by no means *o in Hiingar}'. A* 
soon as a inan ttt (oat in Aiutrin ho felt hitnielf re«Irtuned by a thmuaad 
petty rvittrictiont, but in Hungaiy be could breathe freely, and aay and do 
vliat he would. Other ameliorations would fallow. Much had been al* 
Teady don^, and one of the firatstep* lowards creatinff a nntionnl foeliny, 
and the purification of the Inn^a^^, by ridilin^ it of the Uvmiftn, Latia^ 
aud Slavonian words with wluch it liud been conlaminnied. 

Upon this hint the Austrian spoko ai;iun. and declared with rather a 
COnteniptuOua sau\v, tliat if the Huitpirinii-i should l<e nhlo to lurcecd in 
wrappitij; thanuolrea up in their Asiatic idiotn they wotild txntu Iwvome 
complete Orientals, since it was only by means of tho Gennun and Ij»tin 
laagua^ tlint tfaey had been able to maintain an interrniirie with the en* 
tira ^steia of European cultnre, 1 lemipoii fnllownt of roune a very lon^ 
Olid aiiiniated discussion, which lasted till wp reached th<> point wlicre the 
hranch of thi- river we woro on, entered tlio Great Danube, and wliero we 
were to excliau;^ the little yaclit for a vessel of sixty horee power. Tbe' 
aight of itiU majestic strtrain awoke in all a i-ivid Benantjoii of pleasure. 

On the one end of our little j-aelit were ptiinted the Hungarian wnrde, 
'* Itltm n-tiiti/r," that U " (Jod i« with ws,"" and on the op|ioMti> end " Smii 
eieiuink," (whii then would be at^ainst us), and wu certainly Itad eome <N>-I 
caaion for these excellent mementos, now that ne found ourselves on thu' 
mighty stream in a vesiel that threatened to f^ to ptec^t with every 
stroke it received. It wa« wull for ub that Oud wof with us, for we »onUi 
had lo experience tluit wo had, at all evcuK an enormous tow-rope agaiiut^ 
UR. Just Hi we etitervd into the main Do-nuhe, and wore driven not far 
frem the »lioro, it happened that we met one of tln>»e hirj^e vessels frcna. 
the lower part of the rivrr called " Niii/iui," drawn bv (iftv iuMTies, The 
rope by wliich thj« j^x^it hi'uvy (ltnN--niii'^ti?il vTaft was |mlleil alniig', waa 
slaekened, and the hnrsdn ^tonpod at ennamfuidt to allow US to pass acroas 
n> is usual in such cases, but 1 don't very well know how, — either because ' 
were too alow, or tile riders of the horses were tiio impatient, or too rerard- 
lees of OUT lafecj', — but before we bad crossed we heard a^ain the wild ciy, < 
« Uo he ! Ho lio ;" mth which the»c people vif^e forward their horsey j 
and the immense rope was suddenly dragged up immediateir before the 
prow «f our vessel. Two inches further would have carried it under the 
Iceel, and our felucca with its whvic contents wotild have taken a dip in the 
Daaube> By great exertion »o managed to stop just in time, but wc were 



•glinst the other twmI, uid its Itovrnprit cnu-r«d our caitla, hnnk- 
iag down tonus stain, perioratiDfr some Imkrds, and lilliiig it vith pale 
tur^'t- I WM toM micli accideiiu were not uncominaii, an tliene nnnnixnialjr 
Illicit Tnpcg drawn by fiftj, # ixty, or ei^tj hor«e«, wftr* nbio W lift » large 
vesicl out of t.)te water. Tlie invii rit^^ in towing: on ibe Danube 
an; a tmtgh wild Mt of fellovrs, and arv otten enougb iu fault. rspcciUly 
wb«n, a* i* frvtiuffnlly tlie case, tbpy belong lo ilie cJais oftiob/ft. 

W« dined at Gouv9, and bad tM-o Ivue Ublv^ ijuitc fdl of panraiic who 
Iiad come frain Raain and the ciivinmN, iii order to go hy tlie steamer to 
Pestfa, wbcrv a gnat fair vna duon ta be held. At our table a good d«al 
of G«tTniui was epolcvn, but at the other I heatd onljr Magyar ; and I uo- 
ticod that, whenever aij caRi]iimtons gat mcrr}-, they Hli])[>cd imninliatcljr 
into the inathci- ti>]i|^<i- I nni mre I rtne vl hnniln^l ^vr <vnt. in the 
Mtiraacion of some of lh«rn, by a few woids of thanks f»r « ci£:ar) which I 
•olun-»fl in Uungarian. 

" £n Maffj/ar watf^ok" (I am a Maprjut') if a phnue one- often lieart 
ottered with no Rtnnll eompWcmf^', and "a SrAuwnli," (** the German 
there [") is equivalent to an expm«ion of iomething like comempU We 
never ur in ine same inaooer, " I ani a Gemian." I belit-ie lliia ii, in 
•om« measure, onrin^ to a want of nationulily, and nloo, in iome ineaiure, 
to what I must think our exccHirc modesty. Wc havo ccrtaiulT as rauch 
iea*nii to be proud of our rare as the I Iiinj^nrian). nnd whenever it boa 
bap|>encd to me, iu a foreifi^n country, to liear any one wiy, " Hn Mtig^ar 
wiffi/ok," or " i ant a Pole," or " I am an pji^ii<)hmaQ," 1 have never 
&il4id to reply, " And I am a tiennaii C and 1 tliink we should do well to 
accustom ourselves to do to. 

After dinner, we went down to the riv«r rida to tee a Inr^ Bteanvr 
como in, which had broiifrht no fewer than two tliouaaad pige from Tuik^, 
^trihuied la three vessels which the had in tow. The boats built ^r 
this puTpOM are wry conveniently arranged, and i)ir> ^g* ore nndoubtedly 
Car Mtter aoconunoaated than many of the ]K»r negroes in tbo Spaniso 
slave-slups. The pg-bonts lure two or tl>ree decks one above oaother, 
corered with jiigsties, divided bj* vtroii^ wooden poling, so that the Aresh 
air cnn pass everywhere through) and spooe* are left all round and atnonjp 
them, ao that tliose who have cli&rgc of Uio animaln may be able to ^vb 
Bear and attend properly to thrm, not more tlian twelve or ftfteeii pigs 
bein^ ptaeed together. They are alto well fed with Turkish wheat wlule 
oa toe Journey. 

All the countries on the Save, the Drare, and the tower Danube. Croatia, 
Slawnia, Bomia, Sfltriii, Wallaehio, and Moldavia, possess ininiento riebca 
ia twine; and since in some of thow jiroYiuces, and «till more in others 
borderiiig on them to the south, tlitrc arc nuinhfru of ptr^us who abhor 
tliis uncleut onimaL it fallows that thev arc nhin t^) export vast numbera 
to tbeic Dortlwm pork-loving neighboiira. 

I Tinted the ve»ela eu^ged in the conveyanoe of those interesting emi- 

ita, in oompaoy with a young Servian, to whom the greater port of 

two thovsaad were confined. H« wa* ahanduMncyovng man, wear- 

ibtt Hmgarian dress, speaking Qemaaa, Servian, and other languages 

wearing a number of bcilltant rings on bin fingers. I drank a cup of 

coAee with nim, and was thinking that, like Mil>OEi<>h, fae might be destinad 

to beeonu! a king of Servia; but nis fate, poor fellow, wu a different ooa^ 

tor a short bme after he was murdered by a robber. 

At l«u|^tli our fltmmbnnt nmn In fmn Viprtn*. nnd feb-hrtl us any 
fma what we may call tlie f*oldeii strand of Gunjru ; for herc^ u on the 
abores of the TliciiiH and outer Uuin^rian rivers, gokL is sometimes ob- 
tained fimn tlw rirrr Mnd. Tlitti is aii occu]MitiL>a excKinvdr of tile 
gipMMy who ddivfT the goM to th« goremmnit, m a gort of tnbol*, at 
vny low prioM. At ATanvtuM. ni>ar Komara, we snw ft niitnbw of them 
eu^ng«d in their intercstini: wurk. Their jilaco a Loord in a ekmia^ po- 
mtirni, OH (thirJi durre :ire several iSagnnal furrowH or grooveii ; tney then 
Kratch tip tho contl nf the rintr over the board, and pnuiin^ water over 
it, the gmd ilust, btnnp^ heavier than tho earchy pnrticltrs, nrmaiDS in the 
^roOTet. The giptiea thi^n scmtch otit thii sedimi^nt and niix it with 
quicloiilver, which aitraoLi to itself iho jtaruclea of eold. These are oo!- 
tflckcd and sold (c the government ofiicon in little oall* of the wci^it of 
about three or four ducats. Goldsmiths and other traders arc forbidden, 
tiniter eevtrrv |)«iiidtiM, to purchase j^ld from the ^ptiet. The product «f 
those op«nttioiia is eertainly very invc^ntiderable ; hut if wv oousider the 

1>TO|inrtian which thrae few ehciveUfull of sand bv&r to the maMos left 
yiiip^ in th^ hod nf ttii? river, vre maj rMaonably onncliid^ that immeiue 
tnasurei afe still buried in the Danuhe. If the gipsiM can get M 
much ae the value of a ducat out of ton rubic frat of sand (whidi is bas 
than tbar really do ^-t), % [tiece of tlii> Dumilii- nf s hniictr«d Gennm 
nllM is Mmgth, luul a thousand paces in hupojlili, takiiij^ the «and at five 
fuet io deptD. would give thirty thc>usa.Qd miUii'ns of ctihic feet of sand, 
conttutiin^ ^Id to the vaJiiK of three tlioiuuiijil millions of ducaU; and 
the actual depth of the seiid iit ^rauir than fire ftn-t, hik! Uui extent of 
tlie goldbcaiinc Danube it grout cr tliun I Iinti> ustnitnt'd it to b«. It t« 
also to be recmlected that the g^jMico take the siuid only irom those parts of 
the river where they lind iC nio«t eonveniviitr mn on tandhnnks; and. gold 
beinj^ eho heaviest nint^rtnl which the wnten aary nlong, it in hi^Uy pro- 
bable that the greater <tuuitity lies in the middle of the mer. and the 
comparmtinly light*>r particles only are wuhed on the shore. I felt the 
*' ncnrd thirM" nwakeniug in me at tlio thought of the rich abundanee of 
the precioua metal — the thr«e thousand luiUioos of ducats that went lyinr 
below in the deep channel thron^h which our ateamer was cutting ana 
founing on its way. A ntngle milt* of this Danuba aaud might atlbrd one 
^Id enough ftir one's lifo. if one eould but get it. How many individuals 
and nations, likv the Danube, possess hidden treasures, nf nhteh (inly a 
paltry gipsy purlion ever comes to lig-ht. Could they de»i;ln[ie all the ca- 
pabilities which God has bestowed on thara, how houadlou might become 
their phyiical luid mental wealth I 

Wo were rcn-ired in grand style at Komom by the whole of the mili- 
tary, in lull nnifoim, with the bands of several regiments, coming to salute 
OcnernI Bagasei, whom we brought with us, and who had just beea ap- 
pointed coumiandaut of Penth, and the sound of the instruments carried 
me hack in thought, to the days when the chie^ of the legions vame down 
the Donnbe to inspect the numerous castles built by the Romans on its 
bank*. The geo^aplueal positwn of Komom is too important — it is too 
evidoiitly pflbiBwI out by Natuia (or the Mttltmtut of man — not to have 
be«n occupied in the earitect periods of history. 

The ialaad of SchUtt terminates at this point, and the arm of the 
Danube, which had separated (mm it at Presborg, as well as that called 



tha BUdE Wstor, inn umt* ngaiii with tha mnin stKnom, titSeh aho n- 
«i*« iMkr thu place tb» wabns of th« Keutzx and thv Wsog'. 

From KomoTn, dwreTore, there arc navigable wBter-roads id tamy ££• 
teifDt tUKctiaoa ; on the upper DuiuIni to lUab, and on the lowflr Oututw 
t» Feath and fiuda, on toe Vi'uag aod Neutn to tbo Cafpatfiiana in tha 
north, and oa tlw BUdt Water to (iie com countnea in tbe bknd o£ 

The Romans occupied this important pooidan with their much-Telaed 
city of Brignutiuiu ur Hrcgetixun, oiid it wa« giUTUoncd by llio Icgio 
prima adjutrix. Rooiaii ibrtiticattutiK were shown to m% at Siony, oppo- 
■it* Konom, and I lisd often oooanon to no^ra here, aa ekewbcre along 
tlw Danube, the ^miliarity witlk matters cvouect«d with tlw Roman times 
diiplaycd by peofJe wbu did not pretend, u I lUd, to belong' to thu l«*rned 
woHd, and yet nfWn pot my iguonuiuo to shame. They talked uf the 
aimrtvra of tlie Yariaiu l^'^ons, of the prima adjntriK, or of tlw I«^ia 
deeinu in Vienna, of the legio secimda aajatriic in Buda, oF the iepa lir. 
GeminB, near Presbtu^, aa if they had liusrd it all iVoiii their grand- 

The town of Komom. aa might be imaginMl from ita very advantageoos 
podlion, haa a eoniidetabte trade, ncd & pipulation of tnenty ihotifistid tii- 
ubitanta, withent eonntui]^ tho uiiliton-. Since the uniiMi of Huagiuy and 
Atutria, the tomi has aercr bccu occupied by uu eucn^i not crvn by tha 
Turka whn paet o ae e d all tbr cuuntn- round. Ilnd Komom been lott, its 
•&to wonM probably haye been sliared by all Hungary aa far aa tbe Car- 

On the strand wirre a. great umnber of beggara, and amnogst tlieiu a 
poor cripple on cruldws, with t»-<> woodea legfi. We threw Iiiin tram the 
«t«amhnat some copper money that we had collected, but imluclrily cwild 
DOC reach quite fur enough, fer some of it iell into the edge of the iratv. 
The poor cripple was xiowly sUioping tn pick it np, when a raacal with ths 
fidl uae of his lee* and ami, puabud before him and snatchDid it away. 
Ute enjoynwiit of lUi, hia iU-gotten gniu^, we^ livwvvtr, lut momentary, 
for another lad, ont a whit 1cm OBedy-looJti^ SDd tattcn-d than either of 
the other two, darted fnru-urd, and bestovii^ some hearty euffs upon tha 
robbi'r. forced the money from him, and gave it baek to the poor eripnla 
who coidd not help hiaiael£ Uad Uaionn al Raachid witneeaod tnts 
aotiati, he woidd eotainly have made him Kadi of Komom upoa tbe ipot. 

We hud now n^ab all the watcn of the Uarmbe uniU<l into one dwn- 
nel, to Bay nothing of the daily contribution of twenty millinng of timers 
fiDra tlw Waag and Neutra, and aa we dashed alonf^ witliuut any inter- 
nptJOd, we soon lo«t sight of the great plain, tlirough which we had heea 
psisbg fix- aeveral daji piut, and reuchknl the mountains, through which 
the rivor linda or ibrcee its way to Crran and fiuda. In the whole of its 
couTM ti>e Danube paaaef three of tfaeee nouotaia diatricta, alternating with 
As rut plsinSi tttniu|^ irhkh it Bows. First, below Ulm eomca tlw 
idun of mraria, intsmpted by tome hilb of tittle inportaiice ; then tit* 
Deaiuifid range of nountaini botwtsen Tins and Vienna ; then tbe rrcst 
tiuagarian pUin between Preaburg and Komom ; then tlie mountauious 
ngvm bet<nea Komom and Peatfa; again, plain aa far aa Bclgisie; 
hetween Belgrsde and Widdia again muimtainat and, lastly, the gtsafe 
WaUoduau and Bulgarian plain between Uuugary and the filaek Sea. 

la fpow pefiml, snCerior to tuMOfj, it it probaUe Uwt tbe Dtmb« fotintd 
thn>« ^TTftt ioluid WW, cocmectcd b; aUancti acnA rfrcn, like tko bkM 
Erie, Oiitsrift, Ac- Wallirhia and jiwt of Bulguik bfloognl ptvtttbljr to 
the Black S«l The pan o( tbe rirer Iving- between ^^tauut nnd Vt»inft 
b tbe fcowt beautiful a* kpU aa the nio«t ir.ierwlia^ ta an tuatorical nyint 
of view, but the namiw paMtcs and cataracts betweeo Belgmde and Wid> 
din, far <>im>«i>1 any other in wild f^ttdeiir. 

Tniinn)mtt<'l\- after pu">>K Ikomcim, the right shore be^s to me, tO] 
a*, lenji^ hy Xi wirKi U ■vcUs into conpUte moutitauu. Near (iran 
the mfimiMFit begin to apfiear abo on the left ride, and Ux-v soon brcome 
M Jteep and ragged, and the river ia j w nau l into sudi a niumw bed, that 
tUa maj be r^arded »4 the »aes. lV«e aart the ntountains which aie 
called on the left itde the Magiuta, and on the riglit tbe Filia raog«, 
Tlie mountahia n««r ScaRn^ gmw ttio wine tha mtmt widely diffiised 
throng;!) tl>« country, §u^ as niiw>ng French winea art the Gr«vei or 
JIeili)c, or smoni: tlime of Greece the SanuirinD. Throughout Iluii^w^, 
Galieia, Sileaia. aod Moraria, if yon oak in any inn for Hun^anau wine, 
without iip««tfyis|f tbe «ort, thi)t, th« Neamuhler. aa it t« called, U alwayg 
broRfrht. Kcar Kcenneti, stntehini; towardi Dotis and AlmaKh, are 
abo the celebrated Moite quarries, which are of «> much imponance to ch« 
new bnildinit* now in proece* in Peitth, and likewise to the fortiticadoit* of 
Komom. Thcro ia fcniiid in them lintcvtone, Muiddoac, and i-urioua kinds 
of marble. paiticuLarlr a marble of ■ piokUh colour, which I noticed m 
Pesth, and whit^li 1 fdall have occuioD a^ain to refer (o. A paisengvr in 
a <t«amb^>at, howcror. must oan over almvsi all tlut i» iaUrcstiug' to tb« 
nacural [ihi!H)io|iher, the political economist, or the historian ; his eye hur- 
nes fitwn ]»aini to point, mul he ii borne in a few minutes past many a spot 
where Cfio and her nittcra would Ua*v lingered lon^. 

The first sight of Gnm U magDiticcnt, and it is ficrhaps tliis tiiic pmiitioa 
which Ltu suggesU>d to the IIuii;^nan wriiera the notion that a to«'n was 
established here a hundred and iifty-fiv*> year« after the dcttiee. In the 
fint period of lliu Hungikriaii niouan-hv, Onui ocLupied Uic position, 
aftcrwanU filted by ScuhlweiMenbing- and Ofnn, luid was the capital and 
seat of fi;QverDm4>nl of her king*. The Kaint^ Stephen was bom and 
crowned here, oi^d up to the year 1241, when it wan ti«jitroycd by the 
TaUirs, (!mn remained a rich and populous town, far ncoeediog in splen- 
dour all tJie other cities of flunfjnry. It wtis at the same time in pome- 
•ion of the most iinportant lnvd« n( the country, aud foreipjer? of several 
nations, FreiwJi, Gcnnnns, nnd Italimis, were iiiimfn>it« oimiigli to liave 
(juBTterf or itnft» iiMiiriied to theni ; nnd oti the high hill, wliere now 
stondd the castle of the prince archbishop, tho priuiute of Iluitcarv, and 
a (Treat civlJiedrft], there atood erwi llivn n KKi^iilictiit church m (lie old 
gotfaic style, with |jillartnif [iulin.n marble. Thp pliiwt wa« in former times 
called, "pap oicellcLUH!," thtf Danube city; hut it* name has rinco been 
cbaiijifi-d, not without reason, to tliat of the insifpiiticant stream, the Gmn, 
which here enttTJ it. The [lopiitation of Gran haa been reduced to as 
thousand, and it l>«an f4:w travna of its former greatness, except its fine 
uluatiou, and the almvo^mentioDed castle and catni»lraL 

Sitoii after jnu^ing Gran the riv^rr he^na to make !u way with many 
turnings and uiiidlngn through som« dil)i<;ult mcmnlniiir>u« pauses ^like a 
wi«c man ovcrcoinincr, l>V encrgv and persov^ ranee, nil obttncW to his 
progTcas), until it takes its gre&t bend to tiie south. ^VhiIat we were tadc- 


lag this my and tlut, through thu nxauttic nioimUun country, iitglib 
CMue on, but the tar warn dftliemuly iniM, and tha prmntiudc on the deck 
■ r*«i nijoynwDt. Tho vtan glittcrvd over our bcoos, arid tho moon pQorcd 
her kA ndiHticv orer ber bnvealv flocks, and in various turns mid comrra 
fif tile mountnina, lights twinkled li'oin unknown villages and honileU, that 
lay hidden in tlicir clefU and li^Uowf. We kn«w nvt eveu tlii> nanii.-* of 
thcM abodco, and to tlictn nur inrty of a Vmiulrcd utrsti^^rrs, nuhiii^ hastily 
by. wa», probably, of na motw intervat than a Hock ut' wild gvvue faa&ing 
«r«r their beadf. 

At Ui» narroweet jart of the |iua lie tlie ruins of the ancieut castle of 
VTiiaehnd, which, «a I have alrvatly iiu'iitioiiwl, t« a HuDgnriaii N<inl sigiii> 
^in^ ** htuh castle." Many Uuiigamn kinm liara mode it their rati- 
oence, and it was the favourite seat of tli« oelmoted and beloved Mnufcaf 
Corviuiu. It b iiuid, by the people of the country, to hare been to magni* 
fiiotut that a legate of the pope'*, wlu> «itiit)d it, callml it a poraditiei, and 
the opiuioci of an Italian, in a mutter of thi« kind, must be allowed to have 
acana wda^ht. Now, nothing remains of it but tome sciinty ruins, rioible 
agwneCtne dear aky on the topmut ]>eak of a lofty mountain, and llun> 
guian gO*tberd», clothed in skina, viitit it< piis*-frravin cotirtu, in thu ploca 
of princH and Irj^ates. Tradition also atnj^iui to it, as an inhabitant, the 
uiK|ui«t apirit of u poor ^il. who formerly dvrell on the other side of the 
Danube, and of whom Kiii|^ Matthias became enamoured, visitinj^ her 
witliout di*do«iug Iuj mi rank. She rvpirdvd lum aa a *uiiplc hunts- 
mail, and hopvd he would n-[>ny bcr tender cnnlidfiK.'O by Ofte d»y leading 
ber home as his wife. 

It was, however, one day acddeotally conimuaicated to her that Uie lorer, 
who rowed acrofts the river ttt her at uiglit, wan ai> other than Uie crowned 
long of the country, and tht was no Icn tfrrifnrd llinn Piyche under similar 
circoinMancM. ijkc her, also, the maiden nudo a discoverN' fatal to h^r 
peace aod her loTO. The impaoaable gulf that separated tier from her 
Rival lover, the impouibdlity of eier beiii^r truly his, preyeil oil her miod 
till ilie bccaiito insane, and threw henwif into the river, acmu wldch ha 
bad w oAcn hMteiicd to her arms. Since tiica bur ntsUeae aptrit wandcm 
forever about the ruins of WIssehrad, mounung the ka* of Kjiiff Ibtthiaa 
and her unfortunate love. I must confeea, however, I watched m vain for 
a glinipsc of her white robe*, a> the detotate castle vaniabed behind us in 
the dariowas. As we Imt n^t of it llio moon went down, tho whole 
•oene aisunied a drrarier aspect, and 1 was glad to go down into tlie cabin, 
wbi're, with lampe, and tea, and converutaon, wc might imitate the com- 
fort of settled awde*, in the midit of tlic wild dwkly dushni^ river. Tlie 
company comasted mostly of Jews and Rascians. some of wtioin Imd paid 
their devotions pretty freely to the TMcAtUora, but in one comer sat a bojr 
and near him au old man, who spoke a dialect I had heard only once be- 
fiirr, und wlio proved to be Rwim ftom the canton of the Gri*oni. The 
old man was a eonfectioner at KanchAu, und hail been a* far as Menna to 
fetch his nephew, who was to be apprentioed t» hini. One nu^t suppoae 
frum the nuniben of natives of the Grlwus whom one finds eogaged In 
this trade all over Gennanv, Poland, lluuia. and Hungary-, that their native 
land overflowed, if not wtth mitk and bon^y, with vakfai and twcetm«ats ; 
but ilmbranchnf industry, to which they arc fo addicted obrfxn). doca not, I 
belifvcwxitt aiallathonic. TbelaiUon-. at tint. employed in kcqiingcAltle, 
and as they grow up, come out of the tbUc}-i of the Inn and the Ithine, and 

find their way to tbnr ancles and cousins, already nUfaliabed m Afferent 
|iart)( of Eitropr, of whom ihay lusim tiat, their raroartle trtdcu 

Tli« old mu). my fcliow-patfcttgfr, scrminj^ In tliink I miift know u 
little of his coanbr as th« Danu be siulors, informed mo ttiat it waf a small 
but my wideaC independent repuUic, which liAd formerly been allied to 
tha f^VMt and powerfid republic of Venice, and thnt they, tJie Alpine peo- 
plo. hod funiishcd tnmpa to tlic V'cnctuum, and lent Uicm ^-aliaiit aid 
Bgahut tli« ilangnriana and Torks, in return tbr wlucfa they had nrocived 
the privilege of establiehiDf^ lliemselTes as coDrectionera, coffee-hoaw 
lumiiii. ooa to fbrtli, in tli« givaC city> In consequeooe, however, of tvrae 
iiMmJiPftjirnlmg that liiul ariacD between tlie nsiniblici, tlwae nrivil^vs 
wen not rcDewed aficr 17<>6, and a period, iraa tiied witliin wWh thmy 
were to »ell their gooda and leave Veuioe, and thus it ha)>i>eQe^ that ibey 
were acattered ovef Eumpe. I have vainly eouglit for a voufiniwtMa of 
thii faot in thit variinu liiitunral vtnrkii to which I h»ve had Mcen ; but, 
to nj tnitli, it in liut (ruMom thnt hietoriatis cnnd^mrnil to br«tnw their 
attention ou such little epianden of hiitorv aa (he diapenioii of the «i^r- 
Iwtiin of the Giifonx, and yet tlieie little epiaodei ore often replete with 

or th« town of Wuacn our soug ta silent, for nvithcr sun uor moon gtyt 
lijlfhu as we stopped at its harbour to put out some pa«seiifn^n ; and the 
vml rif night covered likewise the remainder of tlie Danube, a^ far as I'esth. 
Towards (^Eevcn at nif^ht wc aj^iu saw lif^htt; tltey increased, g;littcrin^ 
before, behind, on every tide, and over tbo liiils and mountains down to 
the water's edg^. They were trom the towns of Pesth and Buda, amonpt 
whfw shipping we coat anchor, an^l soon after made our way to the hotel 
" The Queen of Englnnd," ou the Uauubv Quay. 



Buda (or Ofen) and Pesth axe, in fact, but onp town ; one ha* arisMi 
out of the qUivt, i\\v gniwCh uf one bos been promoted Ly tliat of the 
other, and ouc^h i« ind«bivd fur iu greatnetu to itii ooiinexidii witli the 
other. Tli4'y ojv uniu«d by a poiitoou hnd^ over Uie Dnnalic, aitd it is 
n pity that they Imve not been lon^ t^iacc uiiiU.-d under the eamc municipal 
govcnimcut. Of such a union there is now great piobahility, and it is 
proposed to distinguisli the one great dty by tlie name of liuda-Pealh ; 
Dud sopie Hun^ftrioa writcrf have even uodertaken to prove that the twin 
cities were formerly one, kaoim only by the name of rcsth, and tliat the 
other appellatiou was acquired by some German inbahitant^ of the right 
honk, n'no bestowed it on their quarter. 

In old times, before the Turkish con<]uest> it is siud to have hud a period 
of splendour, like many other Hungarian ton-ns; but tliv history of the 
present city can be dated only Irom the end of the Turkish dominion, far 
tt passed from tlie liauds of tlie Mo«Umci into thotH.' of tlie Auutnan^ as a 
men- Lvan of ruitu. The city lay buried in filtli and disorder, aiiii ilie 
i>ulv buildings now standing nhit-h were tbtrii extant, are xomi' )on huts 
auJ stables. There were no suburbs, and the town did not extend beyond 
the narrow circle of lis walls. Like Gran, Waizen, lielgratle, and other 
lluugnriftu towns^ Pesth wik, in the course of n century, bombardiil, con- 
quered, bunit> And ro-coagueted half a doxco times, and its aspect during 

that pcrwd probably ictembled that i>f Belgn^ and other citiM of th» 
Daoabe, on vluch tlio curse of Turkiali dcinuuiou BtJll rests. At tiie clue 
of this pniod. as retuarkaLle aiul md(U>n a riM took place in tnanv of the 
townf of Hungary, ab in thow of Riusia, aiW tlw dcetmctiaa of tne Tatar 
cmpiK. &> Inte lu the oommoucvmvut of th« eigUlveotli cvntnn', Pcstli 
coidd not bo coDiKlared ma frwO frum the lNirb«riiui ^oke, for the Turks 
Btill continueil to pxercue a ^u<i ileal of uifluonce in Unocsrian nfiiiiR. 
Dovru to tliat [lerioil, it iviiiaiiii>d oii« of Uu moat wrstdmi pJacvs iu the 
cm^iirc 1 but iu tlie eowte of Um last hundred yean it has become one of 
theslatolioatcif ci^H, not only of Lite luogdam c^' Hnii^^ry, fur it will bear 
ft compatJBoa with eome of too fiuMt town* in ibo wotm- 

We an aocuaUuaeti to turn always to AoiLTica Stt exanipin of the rapid 
growth atiil Jevdopment of cities, bat we h&ve bi Euro|iK •iiiiilar, uid 
almost equally stnkin^ «xainp1<e«. Iu JCoglaud th<TC ar« many gntit 
towns which a huodrcd^ or ovcu £ily yours Oj^ norc exoradiiif^ly looupu- 
ficauL Iq Germany, siooe tlut dose of the last war, many tontis uaTa 
ondcrgono Tcmarkablc improvemeiita and extcniiooa. In RiuNoa, Odcana, 
8t> Pct«nburg, Taganrog, and othcn, htxv« boon caojuivd into life; and 
in Hungary many have nscii from du»t and ruins to a considerable degree 
of OToipeiit}'. 

T^t wallr which encircled tho old town of P««th, Jo not now contain the 
ecvpntli part of tlic nnrfacc covered by tlio niodpni c^ty. It boa four im- 
|>ortant and «xt«urre niburbi, nani«d nfW tho tniit four Hnnffarian tdngv, 
and containing finer fauildtDSA than the city it«i>ir. Parth is rery f«gu- 
larly built upcn a ample and intcUi^ble plan, the old town fonniag s 
ouclsaa from which great l>road strccM radiate in every direction, and these 
sre again united mth «aeli other, by coaeentric cirma ttroetc. In the 
TbanM suburb alou^, tlu< plan hu not been regularly oxccated, and it is 
conseqneutly oat of liannotiy witli the rest;. As to Uuda, it canaot be said 
to have any plan at all, for tlie unfavourable nature of the gruund, and the 
ohitaclei to all regularity pi«iented by the mntintaini, would ncarccly 
hatt; prrmittcd Uio execution of Kuch a drsign, liud it been entertained. The 
wholp situation and locality of Buda-Peath, grpatly respmbte tliow of Frague^ 
but iu tfa« former the new and elegant predominates, in the httt«r, the old 
and vvuenible : iu tlior poutiuu relatively to the country surrounding 
thetn, tliore is also gre«t siinilnritv. TIw- hjrure of Hungary, as of Bohe> 
Bua, is compact, rounded, and alnio^ encircled by chains of mouolajni, 
vhtbt both countries are cut nearly thiougli the ceutre by the main river> 
—in Bohemia, the Holdan-Elbe, in Hungary, the Ihrnnk-. The right 
angle fumwd by this rivo- mav bo eonniilurMl m th« m-ntrid and niciroiio* 
Utas &tnet of^Hongary. Tho Mun!t, lluiignriAnt. snd otlm conijucni^ 
tribes eonung over the CarmnhianB, nukdu their first Mtclement on the 
banks of the TheisK, but Duke Geysa filed die seat of lii* govem- 
nMnt at Gran, and it continuod tlio permanent nmdent^ of King St«phon 
and his mcccssors, till the attacks of tho Tatars induced them to rcmore 
their coort to Stiddweissenbarg, whicli, however, was menly a loit ef 
VevssiUsa, a phea for oervmoniee and coronations. Siuhlwet&ieobutg «m 
then to Buda-Pesth much what IVctburg id now. Thi^- I>i«t, for instance, 
is held at the latter d^ on account of its convenient locality with rtrspect 
lo Vienna ; tt^vvrtlielcM, Pesth. as tlie reaidenoe of the Palatine, of the 
Kwnstes, and of all the principle public officers, as the focus of uatioaal 
sad sdeotific culture^ ai the scat of the uuivenntiin and acadcmiet, the 



priitdple sU)>1e plac« of titc fuTci^ anil iaianti (railo of tli« counir}-. anSI 
as ()m:iil«Uy tltc rStluMC nutl moiit |)<i|iutou!i Ittwn, caniiat fail to be cotiaiileiciiJ 
the r««l c&pital of tfa« couutrv. Tim uD«xai»pled npiditj? of it* growtll! 
ia a very necurate standard w^oicW to »tifflst« th» ^n«nJ (tcv«la}>m«nt| 
o£ Hunnry, far tlic increase of population, of industry, nnd of ;rtDerii! cul- ' 
turo aod lU'tirity thri>u);houl Hungnry. muit nntiiralty iuniiift-!it lhemselv«a < 
moft forcibly in the c(ntr« of th«ir action, from wtich then is of comw •■ | 
le-action on tbe surrouDtiing country. 

Buda-Pdtb has at preoeota hundred thousand itdtalntnntt, whilst thttj 
numWr of hutidr«di it pouoascd a century af^ ia a matter of diapule. Tb« 
IIuD^ariaiiH look wit3i pridu upoa thctr capital, and drcani that it inay be- 
come oDce more the Rndcmcc of kin^ ; nay. th^ do not dream mcrelyi < 
but they say and m&intaiii tliat it tniut be to. Tna town bMwmtis eroiy] 
year more magnificent, more cultivnted, more abounding in th« moans ot 
enjoymcuL Every year more and mure of ttie Magnate come from 
Vienna to fix their rendeiico herv. " If intr sovvn-i^n WDiild hot come and 
live amon;^ us," say th« Hungarians, " we would build him such a polaes 
as be does not possess in Vienua." 


As geognpluoiil centre of the ceimtry, Pfrtth is also the centre of 
Ilunguiau trade. It has four ^roat markets or fairs, wKicfa bum tlMUf] 
impoflauce, might be called tJte royal fairs of Huti^sry. The moab 
ooniideorablo is that bcgiuiiiDj; at the end of Ati^^t, at whirli time all 
the chanoels of coinmtuiicatiou z.k iu their best state, liie Danube frce^ 
the roads diy, and at this time it is that the great piirclia^«s are tnade 
for the winter. As 1 fortunately nrrii'ed at this inleivxliii)^ moment I will 
end«avuur to give some idea of the state of buttle and excitement tlMt 
prevails during a scene which diflm from any thinj; of the kind rvn seen 
among vs. Tlie principal places occupied by tlie fair nro— fine, the thr 
nube Quay, on which is erected a row of shops, and alonff whi«h tlic vee- 
seU lie i secondly, U)b Jews' quarter, where cvvrv corner swonns with RiKids. 
and btiyen, tuti sellcra ; thirdly, the niarkcl -places in the interior of the 
town, wluch ore covered with booths ; imd fourtlily, all the open ^paeea in 
the Joseph's suburb. 

The Daniilie Quay is very bnMul and a tiemiui mile long', haviuj; oa 
the side 0|^>n>ite the river a row of tartdsutne houses, the f^nmnd (loom of 
whieh only are used as shops. On the mominj^ of the fair it was filled 
with tltousatids i>f biujr traders, and tlie river was crowded with vesacU of 
all kinils includtu); steamers. TIiltc were vessels from Austria, or tha 
hiwer DuiuIm', as far as Belgrade and Semlin, and from different jiarta of 
the Theiss. To the head of each vessel was fastened *oin« article, audi 
A lar^ pot, a wuie bottle, a chuir, a table, a broom, a wooden troagh, i 
jpgantic f])oon, &'e. which of cunrse 1 took for a sample of the wares : 
witliin, but which I found were intended to serve as sij^s orcofttsef ai 
the only difference bcdnsi that iiulcad of a sigii-board mendv painted bjr 
•Mue nide dauWr, the symbols of trude were nmresented tliuK bodily. The 
largest and most aohd vess^s wen in tlie middle Danube, thi> portion ex- 
tending (rem Pmbur;; to the cataracts below SL-nilin, anr called '' Trhf- 
JoAaj/at," that is, complete or per&ct sliips. The}* carry from ten ihouiuid 

to Iwdvs tbontftiid Mttrer^ at wheat. Tliev kIso go up llie Thvi<s as (vr 
U SH^;«din, whrrc many of them ant Imilt. OthAn arc built at liliM-k on 
tha Drarc, where is to l>e had tlic fine hard onk, xhc maleriaJ fron) Uiif ftin-cU 
of Slaronia or Trauavlvaiiut, chiefly uitcd in their construe tioii. 'S\wy 
freneroUy last, with rc]Mitrs, an much as five-and- twenty «r (tilrty yooiv, and 
tii«Tc u every yoar oa vridciit iiiijiroveiiiMit iii their coiutructioQ. ficeidea 
laige Trancia, there are othcrv of a Eniitllvr »ixi-, broiul and llot biult, which 
cury furnitine and manufiwtured jfoodii lo Turkey. Amoiip the (ifniinnit 
livinf; here J oflm noticed tlic terms "hflrd" and " toK' apjriied to various 
kindi (if craft> and found ttukt they were ttiriuit lo distinguish the oak «cs- 
ivis frnm Szegodin and Eszek. from tliipni made of deal wliich come from 
BnTaria and Auctrio, and cspecia-Uy a vory ilifjhl kind of boat from Pauau. 
Thuw Lktter do not in f^nnl n-tura up the Donubv, but arc sold as woodf 
or K)ui«times repaired again and M-tit to fom« place fbrtltcT down. 1 could 
not moke oat r«ry accurately thv tvUtiw ])roportiona of land and water 
tmffio at Pestli) but I believe, that of tlic twoi the latter U at jireftcnt ia- 
cmnng' much mon: rapidly. The grealer part of tlie aavi^tioii of tba 
Duiubo, u I have slrvudy iiiKntioiiMl, ii in \\k hand* of tlip Ra^dniis. 
Noar tbo Quay was tho pottery market, and ni>Ter in my life did I see to- 
Celher ao many pots and paii.i and clay ve»cU of cvcr^- possible tnriety ; a 
deaeripticn of Komo of tfa«m may perhaps nerve to illustrate loino [lointE of 
Hunj*anon manners and tuMotat. Firit, til(^re wcro eiionnoiu pilc< of 
eipinuc uni-ihaped vcsseU, used for keeping the lard !K> much employed in 
nOBtdcMpinif. Then there were carthvn covcrvd pans, for roasting or 
bakinf; rntat, and there were others called Amitkciftrr, that were pierced 
throu}:h witli many holes, for the water to run off from tl>« NucIeU or 
duniptingi, which the peasants arv wont to boil in them. Then there were 
mighty \team of water- pitciiers of a niuet pt-enliar 8ha[ie, but ona in general 
w»e here. These pitcher* have a narrow neck, containing a «ort of sieve 
to prevent impurittet from paiaing into the. vewel. The hole, out "T which 
tb« peopli* drink, ia in the kanciU, wlueh i* hollow, \nA throuf^h thix hollow 
tiibe the riungarian sucks up th<> water, unA pmi^cfi th? while arrtiii^- 
Dient aa calculated to keep hia liouor cool and ptirc ; but h'lw sucii a 
pitcher U ever tn be clnju«d in*ide, in a niyjilrrv to me. There were 
•Jflo many thouaanda of a sort of bottle called uftitlnra, in use ever^ 
irlMn in Hungary, among Ma|;yara, Gerninns, Wiilachiaas, and Slavo- 
nians, to cany mtli them on a journey, or into the fiekla, when tliey htv 
keapinj^ thoir flocks and hordii, or dniitff farming-work. The Ishuttora is 
a round wooden vessel, of a corpulent shape, with a small narrow neck ; 
it is generall Y turned out of one piece of wood, and haa a hole at tlic top 
and aiiotlier at the bottom, ttie latter closed with a apigot, and decorated 
with a rosette of coloured leather. It is also fumiiliM with thongs, by 
which it can be hung round the neck, antl has (bur little feet mi ill tiro- 
portioned to its portly dimensions, that it hardly stands steadier on them 
than its owner does on his 1^^ when he li&s been too llre<iuent in \\\i an* 
pKcationa to iL There is no Hungarian house that does not conlaia 
tahtUUnas of all sixea, som« of them as big as a small cask. The Uun> 
gwiao magnates are equatly enamoured of the tshut(o^^ and taka tliem 
ynHk them on journeys, or nuiitin^-piirties, and all similar occasions, and 
they are filled with every kiitd of li(]uid, from the wme of Tokay to tlie 

* The Aiutrion swti is oqaol to II or a Winchester bosbeL 



clirtT or bnckiitti yrntet at the msrsh. la all tioags in wkidi tbe fna 
of UM Bparic&ng goliU-U or tlu> jiivial bovl wiKild tw hiiud umin^ u«, th 
of the tabuttors r«toiin<l in HmfttiT- llioAft v««mI( wrrv n^iufc' in th« 
Millest tinea exactly ma tbev «ra noir, and thBre b liul«- doak that tho 
nooudie Inlw* who waoderaa fint into Hungnry eniiw with tin; btbuttum 
TOaai th(>ir npcltn. 

Aimm^ the clav tmbdIb wui >!>■> ottc tiaed for baking a mt of paste, 
the tarJtoaffti, an iDdispensiUp article iq tlie ttej^m of Flimg-arv. It it 
flompoMd of tatad and soar miUc, wMch U eompletclj- dried and balced ovitf 
tbe an, and then raUMd lo powtkr. la thi* ataU it can be kvpt gwxl a 
wholfi Hummn'. nay, •omrtiiiiea two or three vam^ and ■■ a rcrj luelal ' 
anicln to fheplimd^ her^men, &nd others who lead a loneiv life, cspeoallj 
ai tiivy nrv ajit tu lire far too moeli ou aiiiitiai tl>dd una fat. A gooi 
faandftu of thi* figinacoowa {aepmmtion, thrown vrct tlivir dwh <-i' uatk, 
tendi, it it *aid, to nrawrra uiam from a disosM- very nn-valeiit \m%, 
called " uAmnor," uiif wtiitrb ii wppOMd to be oecasioDod hj eating t«o 
mudi fleah-nw&t. 

Tliii tiiulad^ it verj genenillj difTuwod in Iltuigaiy. At tbe iiii»n d 
tiinl. I nuuli' nRrjuiufitanei! mth tho pottprv 1 ttitva d««pnb»d, 1 also Mw th* ' 
Btil iDstAncc of a man affljct4?d with tsAomor, Atx old I [ungariau was aittin|^ 
not iar (ifT. He was vanning and stretching hinuelf, and looked wretobedljr 
ill. [ asked hint what was thn matter, and he auiwe-red in a vei^ 
tnolancliolv tone, " Ai, JeMU Maria.' mrffuSmortmrm." (Ah, JewM 
Marin! I nnre caught n tahomor.'i In ita most common sense ilie word 
notifies dkgust : but. as I say, it is also used lo denote a peculiar roalady, 
KUpaaaeA Ut oriffitiate in the conramption (>f t<:io much anintnl food. Tm 
jMtient n ofWn attacked by it Tcry suddenly. He experiences a f^BK^, 
■trkneEti and feelioc' of rlig^ust, loses his appetite, is constandv yavnung^'' 
feels his limbs weiuc find his ba^k stitT. »nd on his skin tlicre appears 
<]tuiDtity of |iirap!e» or U>il». Tin; pcopio will tell you that no phjsiciaa 
and iti) nittdicini; can nfFnrd relief, but Ltinl the malady must take its oi*m 
ooursR, wltieh .ilwBy« lasts three days at least, and this time, dm-in^ which 
titoy ahatnin as much as possible from food, ii mostly vpeut iu yawluBj^ 
To Tub the biurk and limns in almost thrr only thing ihat afViinLi relicbJ 
One peasant will even auk anrithrr to thiunp htm iikI kick him in tbaudt^or j 
to pull his arms about viol&ntlv, and from thi* uiigenllo exercise they p«^ 
fnss to derive ^freat solace. Tbe German -Hungarians, I waa tulrl, were 
not subject to lahoiaor, but the petty oountry itnbltw. who ^nerally feed 
hSj^h and lend a xomewhat idle lifn, are subject to this vintati'tn e^mut af 
tDtiL'h as the peasants. I was told of ooo of the^e little proiincial aristo- 
crats, who was Tery often afflicted with tslinimu-, lutii trliosi' wife bved is 
coiiittant dread of one of these uttiu'ks, as on all sui'h necasionji khe liad to 
mitkc up her mind to three days of uDintorrupted ill-tiuniour ; bcaidea 
which, she was certain of having her whole time oceupietl, during' thow 
three days, in rubbing the baek and kncudiug tint sides of a eroas and 
^Tumblinji' husband. 

I'hc ]>eopU! who came with the j^ods I hare mentioned for sale, wore 
moNtly Slaroniuns and Magyata ; but there were also many Gemuuis, oo- 
loiiistx from the distant parts of Hungai^'. Tbe weekly prori^oit* 
market of Peslli is almost entirely supplied hy <ircrmru>s, as there at*1 
many German colonics in its immeiliate ncighbourhond : aJid these mea 
are so di»gtiis('il in their Magyar costume — broad-brimmed li&ts, wide 

pjuk at pusira. 


Im am, nnd muEtaehes— Uut one doe* not iilw«w TMOf^du ihctn. Otw 
of tlium, c^niiii;; from (liv BtK-oaj' fiorect, wliom I addnMrtl, Bn<l who bad 
fcrou^t voiimM vpnciri) ivarc;, Kpoons, BboTfld, rakes, rain, &c., confimveil 
to me the s&tisfaccnn- informntioa rMpeoting the nulcivBtinn of potalOG^ 
vbich I had coUeeM^ on the Neu<i«dler Lake. Tli« people w becoming 
•rvr^-whcra leoooctfed to thrm, ftlthonf^li here, u elsewhere, tlicy wrni Kb 
£nt r«cri<red mth Tehement dislike. He told me, as 1 had Itpen told aC 
the XeusiedW L^ke, that thirlv, dav, twenty vean ago, the Ilunganana 
■ttrilititeJ tfvny iniaguiahle miBcliief to pntatocA, »(;arv«ly ileciiiiii^ llieni 
good enough rrea for pigs- At prmeiit, howervr, he added, they wen; railed 
crerywlm? in tits Bacony eottnCiy. 

One of tlte vaxmi abiadiuit artivlea ia the market, and ooe of gonuine 
Hungarian inanufacuire, wa* Noap, iif wUrh die quantitiei were tndjr aa- 
tanishinf;. Thu in all niiidn on tiw Htifigarinn MCjijie-K, prinripolly on thti 
Tbew, und in Debrotnn and 8sef;wli&. The b««t has much the appear- 
•aee of Limburg dievfle^ and cnmei from Debretain, wliero there are no 
fi>«er ihao a hundnd n»-boiliini. liiere aUo are made the true Huii- 
gkrian b4taoco^pM ; and, aerordincr to reeent iilntutica] tnbliiii, cloran 
millioiu of tfaem are manufactured every year, whii-h would ^vo one for 
.«m]r BikD, woouii, and ch3d in the IdDgdom. In geiiet^whaCerer ■■ 
TCgwded aa paeidiBrty HuBf^aran, » to be found about Debretaa — (eg 
TnttinrT. the finot and lar^it molons. Tli« cnlturc of thU fruit, as wcH 
U the taate for it, howercr. has prohnbly hem brought (riini the eounUies 
about the Illacb and Caspian Seat, the native land of all cucurbitaoeous 
planla. Th« unud plan of eatinr raelont li«rc, b to take one wliole on 
(Nie'a plate, and Moop it nut wiui a Bponn, irntead of cutting it in ulirea, 
and this althouf^h thejr af« f>nnerallj rny Urge. A [iriie melon I uw 
exhibited hy the Agncultund Societv, weighed sisly pounds ; and a llnn- 
^^arian from Debrctoa told me that m baa cotuitrv tfaej- soutptimea mached 
the weigrht of on* hundred poiindi, and romained Mweet, juiej-, and taMfy- 
flnvouitil. The poardf. nlao, grow to m inmnwe nna, ona of them often 
wet^hinK u much aa a hundred-wngfat, and oecasionaUy eran twice aa mnch. 
Tlie cofumoa people eat tiiem eul in iilirra, and mnsLed like rheHtiuts. 

The (air at P««h in not onlj* impnrtint to the diflV-rwit \*iitn of Hun- 
ffary, as gmag on opportmity for the interchange of comrooditiei amouET 
Uienuelra, hut ako to the neigbfaourin^ prorinces of Tkirkey in the touth, 
•nd of Uennaiiy »»d Puland on the Bortli. Hungary ia rich in tlir mw |iro- 
doctiooa of oatorr, and the Oonaau pnmDcea. aa well ns A»atns, Mora- 
na» SUona, and the weetem port of Galieia, haTe surmuDded this land nf 
TEW pmdtiee with a thaia nf inductrinl Cotnu, busied in the nianuractuio 
of leather, wool, eotton, and silk. 1^ prineipal nrticlcii which thcycomD 
to look ftir at pEsth are wool, tohHCeo, cotton, skint, com, wax, wine, and 
'Others of lem itnportaiMe. The penou prinotpaDy engaged in Pe«tli, aa 
■gent* from these pnwvinee*, nnt the Jews ; and uie vrenter part of the 
InnMn b tbersfiira carried ou in the Jews' (jnarter, which is p«rhap!i thu 
faviait seem in the whole fair. The Fkins an broaght tlutlicr in great 
waggon^ drawn hv four, m, or eight hof i ea, near whieh sereral foak 
•re often seen trotttnt: ; whilst behind comr* » rvverve team, citW Sat 
rvlief or be occasional sale, to the inner conrt* of the Im>u*«, wfane the 
I ire unpacked, is a -wene of liiter and dirt, and utiriMir and eonfuiion, 
ChU MDMt b« desciibcd, but which may be ooneeirea, if we jcflcct, that 

F 8 


tmnn^r tlio cVtef srtieles liarniiMd for nra titnkinf* bidea aud be(I-re«thers> 
and tiint the bargainer! are Slavoniuti and Folbh Jcirf. 

On tli« fini Jay of the fair, which wbj SuaiAy the 20tli of August, I 
nt out to toe tho fair in eAmpany viUi a Babemisn nuinufiicturer, an ex" 
client guida : for what the ui^u>h an in Europe, that are the BobunuaiK 
in tlm Auatrian doiDiaioiiJ, tho soul of vrirry industnal enterprise, and 
thn first tu tppty iu>d brinj^ iuto use all n«w inventioui. He jinused luueh, 
•a wo wtnt alonfr, tho indiutry of his native country, and toutrasted 
itmngly the rou^^h etaUt of crcry thiu^^ irv raw with wh&t, it. wnold irnn 
bo«fi ill Itoh«inia. In sam« patta of the city n)iic)i we |ia«<»pd throu^, 
eonto houMs that had been tnrowti down hr the inuudation, (till lay in 
ruius, in other* pretty Uttlfl row* of new ohm Ii;k1 bttii buUt in tlieir plac«s 
oil high dikes. Croswug tJm feather* market, wlicrc fcftth«^r» were flying 
about in nil din'tticn^ mid whii^h was covered nil uv^rr with htijje feaUiar- 
bcdn, w« t.-utvred a itrt'ct wh«re the diut wad thick enough to hjd« the 
afti^nii>i)n nm. Ahaiidouiiig (nirwlv«g uiiiv>i*tinffly to the [ireMiin! of tha 
iiia^e<., we were piish<Ml in niiil pushed OTit psiU'tly fu we wished to b«. 
ITie (rr«4l stream of human onimatioa waa at this time flowinjg out of the 
town towards a large open space, covered with inen and animals of all na- 
tions and race*— not Icks, certainly, tliim thirty thouuind uenifjus being 
prceent. The ground witc vny uneven, and on one little hill, «onie hiin* 
ured women had cstabliahod a market for etrga and hve fowU. Anothrr 
liill waa covered with droves of piga ; ou the plain were vast troops of 
hoMM, and the ralleys were Goverr«d with thenp. In soiiio ploeM wi^re long 
rows of linrn men'hantf frvin ^slavonia, and ou a glany dectirity, a show- 
nun haJ sec up a, llag and a barrel -organ, and was explaining in the llun- 
garinii language, to the by^tandem, four jia.iit1oil representations nf thefon 
last tragical p<:rio(iU of the life of the Emperor Xapoleoit. It i> no tnfliojr 
lenimciny to the giratiicsH of this mno, that nt this diftaiiccoi' time and 
place, he should be thought the cnly one whose ti'agicol moments were 
worthy of att(*nlion. At ihp entrane* of tho mnrtict was planted a cohort 
of dc&lcrs in Paprika, who had eneks full of thi» rrd pepper, so violently 
pungent, that a little on the jKiiiit at a knife wai enough, to oiir tnstc, to 
Npoil a dish, hut of wtuch airtoni«hing tjuuntiticit are vaten by the natives. 
In the hoteU. all sort* of Paprika dishes ore brought— Paprika beuf, P«- 
prika bacon. Paprika fish, &c; — but nmong the conjmon people thic Pjiprikft 
IS 6i> universally understood, that it is seldom mentioned. One might tliijilc 
thikt ev«ry thing in Hungary grew seasoned with Paprika, bread being the 
' only cxneption. 

Thin plant ic I believe, the m\tne as that called among us, Turkish or 
Indian pepper(Ca/M«(wniTnMUMnt); the kernel and tho bufk being ground 
up together for Piprilu, both coutoiuing t-ijually tho fiery pungent quality. 

The Storaks arc the principal dealers in linen, whieh tlioy manufaeture 
theiiiH'lvcj'inllie tiorth-weftXTu jarts of llungari,'. bordering on .Silwift and 
Moravia, and this bmjicb of industry ba:« spread tlieuco into other countries. 
As liie Slovaks are the greatest manuracturen, the Hungarians are chiefly 
oecupiinl in tho breeding of cattle and borws ; mill in the cnergj- witt 
which they devote the rnspl Yes to the latter, it would >eem as if they had 
not quite forgotten tlio ancient mode of life of their forc£athers on tlie 
Asiatic iiteppea. 

1 hiul opportunities enough to admire their hortcmaiuluf, in the feati 


hilntcd bjr those «1io were showing' off tbe uptbilitiM of their seTeral 
steeds, witb a. view to atlr&ct porchuen. One dealer, to wbooi it wu 
flbjedcd that hi.t Itorso wai not quick eona^h in taming, iiMuIc tt row CO 
iu )ui>J Ir^, trnd pirouette thn-o ttmra r\iTiiii»g. 

Sciiiiu aiitii|uariant have been of opiiiioti tiist llie preseat Iliiuj^ariaiui 
aiiiil tliL> ajidciit Poithians were the same |MK>ple. and, in fact, tbi; aceountj 
civeo of the Parthiani, by tb« Hoiuanis 'will almoit aUav) apply t(> both. 
Thfl Poles also, thoueh of an ccitirtly KC|iaraU> nve, arc in tliis rrtpcct 
striluQgly timilar to tD«m, and Eum[)o has ivroivod from these two nations 
two most important branches of her cavalry, the ht^sstiM and the luncers. 
It appears to ma remarkahlo t)ii\t tlie Tartara, Tolifs, aiid )Iitiignniin.s all 
nicfa excatlent hommon, should so iteidom have imHiurc't (limini^itihed 
fta&dtaU in the art of horsemanship i but it wniiJd s^cm thfti the bolter 
a people in general ride, the fewer mere show riden are to be found among 
ebem. On thv othor liniid, eiai^lly (hiutf- iiaticms which maltn tbe wont 
homcnien produca th* gtvatfM, niiiiiiH>r of tb(-»i' oxhibitOK, naiitnlv, tlio 
Dvlfpans. tlic French, and tlie Italians. '11k lialimi^ indeed, who have 
gircn a immc (Francoiu) in the most resowncd of the horaenuwsbip raoi^ 
are deddeiJly the wone hnntRineii in Europe. Thus it has been remarked 
that there are muiical satious who hav« no compofen. and poetical nations 
vithuut 'writcni. while those who have moat of what ix colled '* btmhommie^' 
have often the least of renl and triio nrtno. 

A« we passed thmuj^h the fiiir we remarked among the ^{oies, bjr whom 
it was Uimti^d, a p<ur coming towards iu — a toll yowstg nan and a middle 
■gi^d woman— both as black as Africa. The wonuw wai lumentiug and 
giMticulating violentlv. Wa accosted lu>r to know what nan the iiiaitvr. 
8hn to!d ti«, immediate] V, that the object of her digpteiuiire was her hus- 
band, a hWkticad and a sfH-ndthiit^, and a(fOod-for-nothiiir fellow, and 
ttit'reupon site bej^u tn cry iiioct bitti>rly, adding, that he had gone, with- 
out her knowWj^, and hod houg-ht himtolf a haadkerebief, for which ho 
had given twenty kreutten. The handkenJuef, nwrouTcr, was not uvcd 
• good one : the eolour* were not fast : and m saying, she leaped upon his 
neck and matehiHl off thflinndkt'rchiof.Rhowiiijj.whOTt his shirt wna stained 
bluv. 'i'hu f^my took all this very quietly, and laughed wlicu slic snatched 
ftway his liandkerrhief, and afterwards, without our asking for thirm, pro- 
duced his papers, hu paiutports, and so forth, which he kept carefully 
pwaerr c d in a bundle of nit^ The poaaassion of these certificates of legi- 
ttmadon oFlcn saves the gipsy from much petty tyranny, sin<^*, if he hiipp«>n 
to be without them, every one is apt ta tnink himsi-U' aiitboritvd li> ti«at 
him in the most anmnoan manner. 

It WW at this Eur that I first hi^anl the rcli'hrated Hiin^rian gipsy 
nuuie, in a bu;gv daneing^honth. wheni ttrjtvnrr», (liners, and th^a dan- 
isemU were going on the whole day. TIte compsny was whr>lly conipoied 
of peasants ; aud the iinrrowneM of tho spaoe tn nliich they moved, waa 
eomp«nsalHl ainjdy by tlu-ir uiatotu endeavour* to make the most of it. 
Ttwy lifleil np, swung round, Itt go, and caught np again, their lair ladies, 
in a most vigorous and piaisewoitby etvle ; and the noi»e of eUiuping 
I'Cqtudled that of a hiuidren thn'^hiutr-ninrliines. The hmt waa ovcrpower- 
iug, and tha dutt tutfocattng ; for, hccldos what was raised bv the toils of 
tin dtocori, doada cane in at the open doors and windows, irom the fair 
•alaid<^ where herds of Cftttle were moving iu all dire^jtioiu ; aud the sen* 



taiaout OMiMoaed by bw and diut tnm not iliminiRbed by the thngonr 
tit tile gipvy niinicUju, «ntli tbvir trumpeu aod c^nnb*!*- 

ThrmiKbout IIaa|pry the rausmm an afauM* oeluBTcly cither Gcr- 
maiu ur gipsies; as the ilungsfuM ihemMltra* have in f^eiKm] little tute 
or uleot for mttne. I do not moan that thc^ arc akolutelj biaensble to 
haniifmiotti MuiuU, for wbaC ueople crer iraa? but I tpemk only of the 
QOnpantiva BoanptibiKt/, auu ur ib«ir pradJol mnncal talentt. The 
Geraian muuriani of Hniinry hold, of coune, the hif;best rank, and an 
sm4 with iu tliv pcindiMl ueatres and chun:bc*, at the lalb of the tijrper 
daiaes,, and iu the finUnte boteb ; but the npneti till the (owcr epprnM- 
Buntt, sDch as tfaoae in the miall theetreo, dod in the imalW towaa tbojr 
•n th« aoU profiwtcn of th< art Th^ Gennuu m Mfkecal play none has 
Genoao, Frencli, or ItaUao miuic : but the Kipaiei me toua nattonal eout- 
■oikkM of Hiugu7, whkb biealbe a peculiar spniU. and lie dutiaguubed 
by eertais original tmnt and phnwa, which L never remenhor tn hara 
Mard aajarhcre eiae, 'I'hvtv is. Iioircvcr, a slrnng miM i M a n ice t>ctvc«ft 
all theae Kungariaii gipay iii«luclie«, and it is ean* far any oue who lias 
heard oiie of them, to recognise othen. Among ihe Tatan, aUo, at Uatc 
•mooz- those of the Ciimea, the gipvea are the unial monoaiui I had 
often oeanl tliein there, but could not rocolleci enough of Uieir music to 
IcDOw wlwthcr it nseBiblod what I hoard in Uongaty. 

I could catily undentand the partiality m an ifaeted by (h« people jTwe- 
telly fur thia mutde, for there is «Knethin|> in its character bo wild and ini- 
pasBiutiwl— ir. has tones of twh deep BsdaiiiJioly, aacfa heail-pii^rciiig pneT. 
and wild despair, that one i« invi^litntimly' carried away hy it ; nnd al- 
thougl), on the whole, the perfomiiauco of the j^peies a rude aiid wild, 
noany of them manifest so much of leai muncat lospiratton, as may weD 
make amend* for their dcficionciM in sctentitiG culture. There are seveTal 
gipsy baud* which uro cclohnit«d thnfUjfhout Hunf^r^-. and toine cf the 
patrurtic joaniEils vvl'D cite with rapture aonu^ perfonnt'rs of tlic huit cen- 
Oary. AiiMtdotes are aUo often aeeii iu thHe ])apera teDding to exalt tlies* 
eimy favooriu« abov« their niorv r«wwH*d bi^lhwu of the dirino art. 
TnuAi for inetaace, wo ar« (old of wiac pieces nf beethuvcti having been 
parformed on a certain occuiioii, atul recetrMi nith iuimanite uipUois^ 
wbeo eoaie gipsy inuudaiiB entering, and ptayiujif ttimt rimpla ** Hagyav 
Motaf," 6k whole oamnbly was siJcnt, ana melted into teara. Ercn th* 
German performers iire Bonietlinei cumpelled lo leani »«ine of these " Ha^ 
jarNetas," with which iIil-v will ofteit tiindii(Ii>,iti order la leaveafoTOUt^ 
able in^iessioa on the miotL- of thc^ir oudicucc, aoid " Effif Magyar S^'ota^ 
(Now play us soineUiiti;;^ Hungarian j, is a coninmn re<]ue.<tt at the close <rf 
more elaborate Ibreign compoiitiaDs. Theru \a, hnwrrer. inui^h monotony 
ia this, as in all other national mu*ic, uid the mon.' cultivated eren of 
ttative auditom are glad, aftr^ a while, to retuni to the greater variety and 
ujtellectual riclimss of our German comjiosilions. 

After I had refreshed myself hy a bath uid a nuppcr at our hotel, the 
OOndceceudiug " t^wu of Etit^land," 1 set out npiin for a lonely walk 
^ong the Ouiiube Quay, as well to mjoy the coolnt^s of the dear moon- 
lit rirwr, as out of curiosity, to discover how some of the multitudes whnnt 
] bad seen at the fair, were UWy to be lodged. I touiid the whole straud vo- 
vend with sleepers of oU age* and both sexes, wra{>)iediii hlonketi, mantlee, 
or only ia mat^ ttrctcfaod on the grouitd beside tlieir wares. Mint of thpiu 



fcaeamtd to be enjoying & Maad and icTrcsliuig «lc«!|>. Only a fow of tha 

I hioTC opuJrrit iir nuue e&iniB«ta< hmA let down a tent over tbeir alcepui^ 

dIm-ix. iitiil Uy iA-itIi tlwir goods nndpr iu protecting abetter. Tboae win 

Md bargp^ or wbo couM f^ta place in one, lay ornt ■iMpoojr about tlMm, 

rHBMtin« eVTsnag tlu; wl)i>lv '«i:!wi, wlicra • fixe wu usuiJIy biimiug. 

I alcpped ia and out, wlu-rvvtr I liked, among tbe rmumbeiit figum; 

now and tliEii, one ironld raise his lieeul, stare at me Iut a momcuc, and 

tboa let it £k]l again upon lus BbevpeUiu. Uerv uiJ tliefv werv ervufM 

■till awnlie, aail occupied wiili cuiiverutiun, tiiiginj^, danciti^, anu pUv. 

In the vicijiitv of tha now bridgw wut tmv purtv, mnre Dumemus anil aru- 

1 IMlcd. than tlie mt, whoM ohanctor appeaxeu » little equivocaJ. Then 

f V«M aonu tatny naaar Ma^ar^rls, perfanning a variety of gynnoatio 

I ksd daneea, uot of tlic iiiiMt dimirouii cfaamvti'r, but oiiduubtadly 

ScmctimM ana of tlicm would (p and rouae a tlMping; com- 

l^paiiioo who was mpporad to poesces peculiar skill in a particular more- 

Dt, and ahe irould juoap op quite willingly, nib her eyv$, and begin to 

ice with tha utmoat good-faoinour. 

A long flight of ttvyt laada down to the Danube fWxn the quay, and 
en tbm were corered «t^ people^ Slovmlu and Mag^orB, souie klecp- 
^1 Mine waluui;. (In the top mf tbe sbepa stood one of tli« (urmcr 
fantatiug a bai^ipe in a very comic uaaiMrr witli hia mouth, and having 
soooe article of clothiiifr tucked under liLi arm to repmmt tlto bog, bJoir- 
ing out his checks, and bringing out in a. masturlji nuinner, tbe nasal 
■ ofhisinstniment While he played hia imarinaijr pipe, he also danced 
.ward^and fonrmrds on tlie little mam allnwca lnn^andllisalllaioBerTed 
aceoinpaninH-nt to certain " pu txacntwl by Htme women, who rap- 
vtcd hhn occasionally witli their Toacea. Tlwm could be no doubt of tne 
rcomtry of theaetheatrKalaadcoaucbaniipo-pUyen; for betides the diSer- 
•nn ot eoBtuRio, and Hit rircuitutauc« "I the bag})ipe being a SloraL, and 
aoCnlUngyar inctnimrot, Uivrv is wmiuiltiog too stifT arMTterious in tli« 
duraetcr cS the HungariaDs, lor tlteM UtvIv cshibiuoni, but tha Slovalia 
•n in gmei^ a more gay, oonTersahle people, more giren to song and 
4aim vtd poetiy, than tnoir ruder and more loaibre ISfafn'or neigfaboun; 
At tha bottom of tho atepa on the »and«, wore a«etnbled a graup of 
Ma^^iir?, a.ninn^ whom an old oian leaning on hia suiF, sent Ironi beneath 
hia broad -brimtiiMl liat tb« melancholy founds of a popular natiuual in«- 
ledy, b) which h» aucUcnee were profoundly attentive, and when all other 
•onnde had gradually died swut, hi> low mournful tone? alone broke 
tbe ailence of tbe wioe tranquil nver, and the twin citiea lay buried in sleepL 


TIhi province* or eirelet into whidi, Gma the aariiert timeo, Hm- 
gary lias been divided, are called ComUatttt, or oonnUea, ov«r end) of 
wluL-h i» placed, as chief officer, a Coinea, or count, who ia a Magnate 
of tho empire and a peraen of great iniMMlaiMW, notwithstaiidJiig tlie nm- 
plicity nf hie iiumc ; and who H aMUtca by two depulte*, or ^tee Comtt, 
nnder whom again are placed many lubofdiiuiU) ofiioera, 

Tho wholti divi^oa and orj^ianiiation of thaae countiM nawnUea ranch 
tbat which was intjxiducvd by Charlemagne into Germany and Pranoe, and 
to luderstnnd mora cieariy tJioM remote tiMow, we need only study the 



•xinting tlntt) of tlilii^ iii Hungsn-. I b«li«Te thst an exact compsrisan 
of what wo haT« before our p_v« m thi« conntrv, wilh what we know of 
the Carlown^ian institutioni, would tlirovr inueh Vig^it on botlu 

Lik* the (n>utiU of Oiarlt^mngne, the Ilungarian Camrs kxk appointed 
l^ th« kin;» for lifo. In Gfrmany tho»o (^(luiifcihipi soon becaino BMvdi- 
tarvt and obtained piincclv and tvnitonal power. Jn IIuiiguT^, however, 
up to the present time, only tweke ont of fift^ hare become hrreditiuj, »nd 
CnaL not bv (gradual eiutoni but by direct roval ordinance. All otlier offi- 
oen from tlie Vice Comw downward*, arc ctiBUged every tliree J"**'^ »n4 
DOW elections miwlc hy the nobility of the county, Thi* iJiree y eani' |)eriod 
of lervii^e, and ibe choice of new officers by the nobility, v%iA» aloo in other 
oountriea otvaniMd on the bi^ of the feudal institutinr^. 

The election takes plfici? in an avtcnibly of jill the nobility of the pro- 
▼int'i', at which every prekte, every magnate, every uobleinaii, and some 
frw unnoticed anil iiihigiiificant deputies of towns, are riititlwl to appear 
ttiid vote. This acsentbly, whieli is vailed toj^cthcT for the choiev of 
defititiui fur t)ie diet, and iil.''o n>tridarly four tiiiieit a year for the regula- 
tion uf nmttort of police and ptiMIe ecM>tiOR]V, i> etilled a coti^ref^tioti, 
tliouf^h, lu a Ilunjr«rion higtorical wrii*r hue oWerved, it might bo named 
** Status praehici/p" since it stands in the Siune relation, and pcrfonns 
the same otlice« for the county that the " Slattu nr^Mi," or Diet, does for 
the whole kingdom. 

The trionniaJ elections for tJio various county offices ore called '* Restor- 
ations," and one hears continually tliat la this or that county, there is 
joft now a " Kextoration " going on. Thwie Rc«tonitif>n», and tlie Con- 
gngntiaiB, for the choice of the depiitios to the diet, arc tlii.- niuit animated 
■nemUiM that Hungry has to show, and there take pince Uinsc vivacious 
•eeDe*, sometiniea deieribed in our newspapeis, and wliicli bear some reseni> 
blance t" thi.- Liiglinli vlecti'>ns for nicmbcn) of pnrliftTuciit. At the regular 
■SSemhlitM i>f llu- principnl n<>blc>. rt'CiirrinK cverj* tlirce inontJis, things aro 
coiiducteit ill n monj orderly maimor, partly Ixfamtc private iiit(>n«t« do 
not enmft no mneh into play, and partly became the uiiedueated c\tt*» of 
peo^int nobles da not attend them. At the elections these always take a 
prominent part, for tlinugh they really care littln almut them, they an 
puOieil forward and made cat's-pnws o[ by the ^cut nolilcs. I liuve neter 
witnessed one of the elcctiniif, but 1 have often observed the afiahte coo- 
deecensioit of the liiph official nenoiiages, when one of theae periods was 
approach infr. With respect to dress, and dejMirttneTit, projmrty, (Hlucatioti, 
and manner of life, these iwaxaiit nnbin arc not a hair's breadth abo^'c tha 
COinumn jieiLtautry of Hun^iiury, niid their pride, presumption. rudeiie»g, 
and incapability of tmprovoincnl. plncetheui far liolow that level; whiUt, 
therefoni, the'iv priviie^s in the Cnngre^tioTW, place them on an cjualitjf 
wth the prelates and luag'tiati;.'*, ami tlicir yes or no has e^^ual power, thoy 
are the moat lUuigirroiu claw of the coniniunity in I lunj^iry, for they are 
privilegod ill thoir stupidity and ignorance, — an empty, presuming, pulTed* 
up Ochloeraey. 

The !lun|:arian [latriots of the day, neverthHess, take a different view 
of this matter, and aiserl that exactly tins cluss of poasant nobler, by their 
natural and healthy common sMise, and their |Kiwer of ateady rvaiftanee, 
fcavc often in momenta of daOKcr protcd the main support of tivedom and 
the oonatitution, and have hindered many abuses in ea*M where the royal 
prerogative has been ttrctchod too far, and whore the more powerful and 

better bred magTiatcs have often been influenced or eomipted. If thit be 
■n, it ii luuch ii> iw regretted that the Hungarian comtitution sliouid rett 
en oobfUcr fouBdation than tliis ignorant prasant nobility. An enl^^iMiMd 
middle dnas would fona a Inoi oquaJl/ firm, luid org fu more fiivotmbte 
to tli» nienta.1 and pli^'sical progrcfs snd deT«]o]nnent of tlie couutiy. 

Be thia u it may, it is rery curious to observe bow the manners of the 
pjcat nobility towimls the little, become more and uion: utiiiaibU; luid gn-. 
doui iM the day of rWlion a[>[innu-hta. Tbry drive tutu liitir villagers, 
visit their coiiana and bTnthens. fw tliey call titeni, on tertng of the most 
fiiendly equality, solicit tbeir "most sweet voice*," and gire no very deli- 
cate hints of t)iu nbundance of good ihinga to be pnipured for thi^ir biiii- 
aurts in the tovnaon the duvsof election. CarriiigM ara sent (o briti^ 
tne voters, hotues hind for tneir lodfpnf* find entertainment, and the day 
before the |>ull the candidates drive round to all the public-houaes to lottt 
up their coMKlitnenlx, tLiid nee if thev nre iia.ti<itiHl and in good-bumour. 

Tho different niirttc* are uituailv (liKlin^ii.iliiw! I>y wearing red, wliite, or 
bhic featlii^i'^ in tntir hats, and on tbc important dny tbey vie with each other 
in eeriy rising, tor it is above all thing] of consHjuence to be the first to get 

EDMuiiion of the cntiiity- house, where the ekvtioii tnke« pinee. If they 
Bvc not drunk too much over night, tliey «!^n tilt the hall as citfly m 
two o'clock in the nioming, and though they cannot exclude their rivaJs, 
many of these haJls are bo small in proportion to the numbers of the no* 
bility pf(^H.-nt, that a briitk active party has often entirely filled it, and 
effpctuallv pnivcnted tlic friends of Uic rival eondidnte from getting near the 
polling place. Wboenir is tlio nio«t f|uick in hi» movements, luiendid in 
bis pramises, and profuse in his expenditure, genemlly wins tlie day, eo 
that the coveted potte are often dearly purebued. Au eirctiou will cost 
B« much M tNvftty tboisand or ttiirty thotisaiid florin* and ujtwanb, but 
tlio pl«w ofn Vic* ComeH, by direct or indireet n>eth(Nl(, is |irntly sure to 
bring in Again, tui much or more. Tito rwididate is proposed by the 
" ObergetpoMtT or Comes, and kccejpted or refused by accuinndmi, Init 
should it not be ennly determinable by this methotl, the votes ore counted. 
On th« announcement of the nnmej each part)' wko their man, ral«e him 
on the shoulderH of bis friend, and exclaim '' Vivai ! Vivat ! That's the 
rif^t one— Wcllhave no other." The oppotite party of connedoits beat 
to inndt him, these insults are again resented, and such tiimtdtueus seenea 
take place, that the prelates nud orderly people in general ore glad to make 
their escape. E^'en after his etection, indeed, the *' happy man" ii by no 
means IHt to enjoy bis «ieee«s in (|uiet, for tlie coDgraiulatious and earesiea 
of his adherents are often most iticonvvnifntiy uprvariou*. 

1 attended many of the atting»of the Pr»th (_'oit forego tion. and was pr«< 
Rent at their opening. In the antechamber »( the principal hall serersl 
" HaiducW wcro walking up and d^^wn. They were toll, distinguished- 
looking- people, drrsscd in the h.-iiiilMitne Himgnnan ewtiinir, and fully 
armed. Several of theni are always appointed to attend tJio Coniitat. or 
county-houso, and they am also placed at tlie head of the otdinary police 
of the eounty. Tlicy allowed not only every uoblenuiD, but every de- 
cently dremed person to mtrr tlic boll, and even ftrangen were admitted 
to mingle freclv with the speaker*. There in indeed in eveiy Comitat 
boasu a gallery for those who arc not Co tidiv a pert in Uie pniceediogv, but 
DO oiw^ with the exception at women, and those who are s^bbily 
dmed, is obliged to confine tumaalf to it. 



Tbc lull u &Utd up in a aunner wbJdi, tboagh oniplB^ m perfectly veD 
ftilAptcd to th« pvipoMB it U iuUndcJ for, and deeonrtoJ witb fiiU-(eD|^ 
fnctum of th« deceawd polatiDM. 'Dktv m ibo one ntprewn tbig tfa* 
mMtitig of cranued beatU »L i*an» in Its 14, b«ieath whick u m iuoi^ 
tioD tbat tin»dy »«ttn* to bclung to by-goati timc*^" Domila Gatlotvm 
/eroaa uturpatiimi^tugme eoemUii Vmiiice* IHtriatit Ettnf* Fttiei 
Jadere Jmteti." 

'the hftU won b«^&ine filled with noUt*, y^^oag and old, oftenk sod M^ 
officials, nuitiy in nimfilu surtoute, but most in tba ^t"'*'** •^"'"* Ma- 
turn, uid all uf counw anaciL Thu: coDTcnatiaa sod moTemcats of tlie 
■mmhlj were pecf«cUy quiut, ami at Ivagtii iIm pnndtnt anUnd and che 
ttttio); tru opeoed. 

Tile Pruidentof the Coagrefsticn is the palatine of Eluugarv. who ii 
•bo ax-officia^ Obmopann of the Pesth crocuitat. The archdukf, however, 
liM not attendML tw •ittios* for tome time, but pcWbmu hU diUy by ■ 
deputy, or, as he li here called, ^' Admim^raior." Tliis adniinistntor. A 
Magnate of Huugan'. now entered, ^reetins the aasembly with the nnU- 
nary Uungarian lalntution, '* AlartatiM tsotffai/a," that is, " Your hainUe 
SCT*ant," of which ouc wldom Imnn much man: than a hiMiDg ktuivA, and 
tlien ttiolk his place at the end of a table occupying' the centre of the haU 
with the " Vie^eapann," seereUirios, and other odicen, on each iide. The 
other ngbles »t<KKl nnud uc walked up and duwu the tiaU. There were 
inikcd a few hcuclics, but tlicy wrrv uMxttl/ used to Mand on. Ntmr the 
pratdent lay a heajj of papers, diplomas of nobility, protocols, ami firiiited 
pamphlet*) tlic lattvr ou (h« iiuliject of nuxtd mamag^es, eonceiTun^ which 
a proposal waii about to bt' iiib«Iv ; and as thi- sulnect is jnM now esuiting; 
much attentiini in Hungary, all handa wen inunediatitly rtnitcUMl out after 
them. The iicetf^tpaitn could not reach to cive to every one, and whoa 
the (>tt«itun! Iwcaino too ri'eal, he BeiMil u vrhnit; ItuodlR of tJitmi, and threw 
thtiii over tliv lieads of lite crowtt into tlin tuiddle id' tliv liall, whvre thejr 
were Inuf^tiiijrly cauf^ht by llio byiLUiirli^ni. 

A* the dwcusnom were carried on in lluntfanan, I couM oot, nnfortv 
Datelyi uidcrstaiid them, but I wai informed they relatMl to aome propOMla 
ibat were to be made at the nest diet, relative to a certain govetiunentottonv 
who had defrauded the treasoTy of fourteen thoonnd flofini, nod to the 
neaiu of prcvenling Huch frivudn in futiirc, to the announcement of some 
patents uf nubility granted by the king, and to the taxes nii buteher'a 
meat, which in Hungurj- Ai'e of a^much conietjuenrttaa tlu brcndlaic wichns. 

The diploma of nobility vtaa written in Latin, and nn» of cxtraordiniuy 
length; containing all the long titltoi of the Kins of Uungary, und tho 
Emperor of Austna. then tb« ordinary and extraor^oary lervices rendered 
to tm «tatc by thu iodividitn,] to be ennobled, and then foUovcd the uiunea 
of the archbishops, bishop*, prctules, ohtr^tapann, aud viet^xpann, with all 
their titles, which aie put in ntrtly for the sake of onianu>Dt, and partlv, 
u I iios told, bei;ausi> thtsto high and mighty pcnoiioges are cuiuidured IB 
Kfm« racasurc, to guarantee the validity of ttie patent. 

Any person who wished to s pealc, called attention by exclaiming, " lurtmf 
kertm r that is, •" I bc^," luid then approached the president's Ubl^ oc 
•QDwtimvs spoke over (he heads of thoso who were between. Ahiiott all 
tim »|>«-akfr» appeared to me to be characterized by a manly and dignified 
buaiiuf ; majiy spoke with great Huency, and some with wmit sccmsd llko 



iBpMnooed wad Bery elocjurucv, WlMiDtrcr any tlunp^ wk said that sttumi 
{lOrticHlsrl^ to pleiM-. tbe ^Imr rvsonnded nith " f/yrn .' AVytM f* 

X'valrat to oiir " Bravo !" or "'VirKt !" AnoUicr word wliich 1 heuj 
9 r«DMtcd wu "Haytah! Ilatfunk T that \a "Iltv, IkkV bat 
DOt tuea prensely iu the tense iti wlik'}i it i* emplnyinl in t)>e Envliih 
|Mriiaincat, but mUwir in (hfr svon of "OrAetV or " iiileDoe !" uid mea 
continuiU itijiinction« of " nlcfwe," dkl not s UitJe to inovMc Uw nuiae 
always occaaitiiied in a Utmganan atvembly, by the iiKtving Aboet luul 
chtler of mbn< and spiira. It ww lamrtiniei ixo^iOHiUa to bear ths 
■peoktr for the Todf«r&tion« oi tltcM lorvrs of order. 

Tile b««t Bad most eloquc-ut tpcokcx aiiMiDg ihcnt was said in be the 
noUc dtputy, KoHiii, who acc^ajred «o much fanw at the last dieL B* 
was. 31 must 1>« known to a large portion of my Madtra, impriaoiwd for a 
coDinJiTmbIc time, for hating: made public lome discuHJoiM of the diet, ia 
now editor of the most pojiular Iliinj^nan journal, tb* ■' Pesli /lirinp," 
which vreiQ forbidden to be nrict^d, by distributiuf* a coiuidiTable num- 
ber of ti)uuii3cri[it co])i*». He waa mjjwnucntly libcniU-d, and it now 
tfw noal feartcsii and untiling ndToi^-atv uf all ihai tends to tba amafioriitioa 
and advancement of his couDtry, tlio boldest ajid most nnipariog denottmec 
of the erron and abuses in the conmtuHon and ffovcmm«Dt. He baa 
made it liia cvjiccial iNiri: to keep guard orcr what ho coasiden tin: weak 
■ide of hits aiuiitryiiioii — iiniiK-ly, thr liiibility of the judge* and other 
offioon to Gonwition and irrofniliu* itifluoDcof, and nvr*r fall* to dicrover 
and «mo*e olleneea of thu ocacriptiaa. Under tlieao circumstaiicca it 
cannot DO but Mr. von Kossut should burp many enemies, but he counts 
a (tr greater number of friends, the wlioht publio of Hunf^ury be'tau on lus 
fidci, ntul lie u the faronrite and th<' polttienl hero of the day. Ilia Uir^ 
lap is tlic oracle on all oocaaions. and during; my stay iu Penh, whenerer 
any public matter vraa disoiused I coDtiuuaUy hnud the eager inquiry :^ 
" What doea Koesut ay of it C" 

I iodccd nith much ijttert-nt at thia tnsn, on whom the eyva of all HoU- 
gaiy may be said to be fixed. He is of middle tiic, and very a^caUa 
a atcr ior ; his feature* are regular aud decidedly handaonie, but ftrai^j 
matked aad mauly. ile in lu tlie prijue uf life, with nither i«dundai4 
hainuid whi.iVrni, btit a mild and modest eipression of countettaaee. He 
was rutlier pole whim I snw him, and lits fouturM wore an air uf eameat' 
seae, sLichtly tinged by n>claaofaoly, though light«i up by luj fis* tUeKtw 
eyes. He «)olie fin- full half an hour, withouc a moRMml'a besitatiant and 
his mode of delivery- appeared to mo extremely agreeable. Ilii vuice !• 
as fine as might b« expected from m> handjtome a perton, and tlie unioda 
of the Hungarian language, powerful ontl energetic, fecmcd, from hii lips, I 
might alnwat ay, warlike, althoogb they came hard and harsh from tlie 
moutli of an uncultivatod speaker. The "Ktyenl Efyen .'" freijuentlj 
inteiTupled him, and the " Ilayunk /" was tearoely heard ouee, for every 
one was attentive and lilent of hia owo accord. 

National pride. oimI the tiery leal of patriotiam in Hungary, tend mueli, 
1 believe, to the itaproveinenl <if orat«ry, and we Germane miglit take 
nany a leaHW iu llicse tilings frum our Magvar soigfaboBn. I do not. 
bow nv er, mean to convey an impretdon that all the neoilien of the Pettb 
eongregation were oralon ; many reiruuned mule the wfiolo tinui of tba 
ailting, ood others walked up and down, wilh their plumed Kolpnkx in 
their liauds apprjring thiefly intent on tlie display (u ifacir eWgaot cos- 


tume. On« SA nothing bnt twirl ibnut lti« rin^, tati anotlmr devoted 
lumiclf to tbe unoManjp bxuiliine of hja hat, oiid from toftaj no mouaia 
vera beatd but &ii oocacioii&l " EhfrH /" ar " Ha^nk !" 

The office of tlio viovgcMpAiin it itnmellimfr liko that of a tpcoker in ths 
Eoslidi poriiaucDt, m h« calU to ordor tliow who require lu« intciferoncc^ 
Bod, in au>r»f cnntumar^', boa the powM-to ioHict pecuniary fines, or errn 
to exclude tlio ditnrderiy uersoii from the hall. Among the anomalies whieh 
He emr^'hcre dUcovcnble in th« Hiin|;«riAn jioliticnl edifice, is alon iht« j 
tlist if tnc oHvudiM- ran; makf liia esnipc fnim tbu hall bi-rnn.* tlio rioo- 
geapann has had time touttpr the noraa— "For this oflvnce I i;entence 
yott to a fine of twenty-live florins," he oieapeg also tho punishment, 
should tiiv Ilwduck, huwevi-r, ut » »iKi> from the vic«gv9|iaiiii, placu Itim- 
M-tf hi-fori' tlio Aociv, tliv otTeniV'r mtut Triiiaiti ami \^y; iind if hi" hara 
not M muoh tnoiioy, nnd that it is noceissar^' to senA tin ofBocr borne with 
him, h« must pay double. 

I was told tliat one of iJic town defxiLies would very soon find himself 
subjected to tliiit finc^ if he jire^itmed too fnr in his ivtiiarlui on aiiy privi- 
lotfc of th* nohility. "for we deputies of citie*," «aiH ono of them to me^ 
"nave a seat bat no lote it these congregations." Upon this topic we 
were soon enf^ajccd in a wnmi dUcuuion, in the coune of which we found 
meana to withdraw from tho hiJl. 


I know of no bridfje concemioK wliirli »o much hai Iwen in modem 
timi>>i siiid and wrillcn n*i tli»» now nun iitiw biiildine^ oi'or the nantibe 
between Pe6th and Buda, and lliore aie cerlaialy few worlu of ttiis kind 
whose execution has been o[ipo»e<I liy so many oh^tacle-i poliiical and 
physieal, Thi* truly gifi^niic work iii doiiervwlly rc|^Rli'd with pride hy 
the Elunniriani, and i», aftor the bridge of Tnyau at Owova, tiic only 
cons trurt ion of the kind, the only permanrnt bridp;, to which the middle and 
lower Damihe haiip Wen siibje(?ted. With the exception of the Kuasian 
(ivM«, tho Danube is one of tho poorest nvnn in this respect in all Europe, 
for whilst the little ThamtM ooiinto ali»o»t tidy briJp.-s, the mi^nW^ 
Danube from I-Tlm cannot iiiimWr a dotpn. The p.ilraordlnarv hreadtn 
of the stream, the rapidity of iU eum-nt, iti) irrpgular course, and tho 
gTfcat inuadftlions to whi<'h it k liaWe, have Iwen the d lief physical im- 
pediments to the erection of a [>ermanent bridge, hut norat' thing «Ifo must 
De attributed to the want nf energy and activity in thd j>eople inhabiting 
iti banliJ. 

BctncL'n Pesth and Ofen (Buda) the Danube is about 1B0() feet hmad, 
•nd in early times when there wat leu Inti-roourM! hetweeu \\w. two citiei^ 
the want of a bridge may have been less fc!t, Sorap barges tied together 
with ropM aiuwcrvd the purpose until iicvciity-JiTc yean :^, when aboat 
fifty pontoons werr subsl-itittril, and thnc. diminished to fortv-two, wore 
moved to tlwir present iHuitioi] by tho Emperor Joteph. Thit con- 
trivance, hoiTCVcr, id very insufficient to thepn-Mnt n-nnt* of the inhabt- 
lanta, and in winter it is nf no use nt all. ppjnt Di-crinher to March tc is 
laid Mldn, and the OommouicatioTi iHitweon the towns wholly carried nn 
Itj boaCs. This b occa^ionallv by no mcfinn wife, and th^r*- occur days, 
mm tiine to Umc^ when the Iniu cities are wholly cut off from each other. 


Tht) bridge in, iMidee, mitoli too nanrow for the puM0« of great hcnk of 
cMtlv. Ivge heavy waggoTiB iw bodies of troops, niid on somii ot* th«ae 
occasioni — th« kttcr for inftaiiro — tlio hri<ig9 » for the time rlo«ed af^ninrt 
oUttrr poMeogers. In mimmer when tlie vnter ia veiv \ow, tht bridge 
sialis »oinucli to tlie iiiitlil]i;, tluit hnrtes are expoMa to the Ubonr of 
toilinc up ft woodeu liii), xnd it liiu itonietiiiiis h&ppcood tbftt waggons 
hivc> brofcen throiijjh uid fiUlm into the rirer. 

These evils nod incnDvooicnccfl hod oft^n. hccD mode the subject of dj^ 
«uinon, more isspeciaUy about fourteen or fiflcen yetu* uffo; iununienbto 
uticlec hod appealed in Uie newapapan, and debate* lind talc^n plnre in 
tfae diet ; but tbo matter did not bcjefiii to wear a hopeful aspect till the 
sealous, patriotic, aud iailiientia] Count Szcchcnyi placed himself at the 
liead of the undertaking, and made a jounicy to England tor the purpoas 
of coit*uIting the ablest orcliit^ctf. Au otlicial report waa tlicti pub* 
lulled, and at length, al^r many and viiilciit discuuioni in tbc diet, it 
was dHercninGd that the work should bo begun. 

It id hardly possible for u» (o iiiiu|^ue how tbe mere building of n liog'lo 
bridgr ln'tweeii two towiid, nlxiuld Ite ft matter of audi lioleiit iiilvrcst tO 
ihv H')i»lv kin^lom. m U> givo rite to todioualy pmtracted dvbat«s in the 
evnerai diet, but tliis nay be exptninod, partly by reference to the real 
uuportaace of tlie undeitiuiiiig to the whole country, aud ita great cuft* 
wid iiartly by certAiii eiisling political etila. 

Tfio iitiporUuice of the uudcruikin^ ii evident, not only for the two citioi 
immediately coaccracd, but for nil liunp^ofy. unce, for the cx-tcnt of a hun- 
dred German miles (more thun four hundred and Hfcy English ) chf^rc is not 
a oingle ituiadioff bridge : those of Koinom and Pet«rn'ardi'in being bridges 
ofboat«, (Lod tnoae at Presburi* and Gratit Hying bridge* ( anofat tha«e 
periods when the Dunuitu is full of ict-, or the countries bordering on it 
innadatml. so as to rvndpr llie ]ia.wiif!-i^ illilicuU or cvm impossible, the 
whole kingdom ia rent into two parts, cut. oil' from all intercourse with 
eftch otiier. The whole kiugdom is, tliervfore, itit<>re«ted, tluit, fumewlicie 
or other, there sboulil b<- a certiuiity of uitoniutiicruunn, luid tlu« is «sp^ 
uially desimblo in tliis heart of the comitry, this central artery through 
wfaioh pours the great tide of It* comnaerciai life. 

Tlio expense of the erection is undoubtedly a ilifficiilty, for it t* not cukv 
to mine such a win mm i!JOO,000 sterling, in a country i»]iii>ti thinigii ritxi 
IB prodooe is so poor in money a* Hungary. It has been aocordioffly 
found neceMaty to entrust the pecuniary part of the biuiness to a Vieims 
-ciqntsUat> the wealthy hauker Sina. Many over-iealous patriots have, in- 
dMd, uttered grievous outcrien ou this octuuioii. '*Ohnearctu, why did 
they not rather moke a subscrip^on tlimugh the whole country ? Tlic sum 
might have been easily raised ; I myself would have gladly giTcn d hun- 
dred dorini, and 1 know many who would have given more, rather 
tfattn bare tlte whole country made tributary to a lorcigncr." It haf 
been agreed, if Baron Sina adrancca tlic ntouey for the bridge, lie shall 
be allowed to erect on it a toll, for tin* sjMce of eightyfive %-ears. 

It is poMibte that the p^lriotic plan might succeeded, but whoever 
knows now little diMpiMuule capital there is in Hungary, aiid how ycrjr 
difficult these rosy things arc sometimM found to be wlieii init to tlie 
test of experience, will not bo disjtoKetl In regard with a jmloug eye a 
plui by whidi so greet a benefit has beea accnivd to tin country. 


Anodwr iHAGraltjr by wfaidi ilic mtiiect of this bridge wu boaglit be- 
£m the diet, coosuted ia ««rtato privil^^e of the nobility wbich it woold 
hn neowatgy for thcta to rtofruncc. Tbc wLulc bodv of Hunirariaa 
lH>bleat namely, iwrv lii-cn hitkerto enUllMl t<> fnaa i-itlti^r on foot or linnv- 
bwilc over tha Poutonn briJfj^, without paying tlio tcdl donModed nf nil im- 
uivilfrgvd fuamgtm, lUron Siia prot(«t«d aguiut snyaDc)) enMnptiooi 
ui tlm ca^ of the new bridge, and refuited to advance ttie aum requiredy 
iinl*wi all [wvKMM wbatevnr wvn >uhjfici to the toll. Tlw aid pnvileg«, 
bawevcr, t« «o intinuitrtly cnnnrrtitd witb tbnt of nnMitig fro* cnrar ail riMudt, 
Iridgca, and birbwoiy* of tbo Idn^om. nnd tiadin^, " I am a nobleotait,'* 
aoeepted at alTtuit^kei instead of a ccrtaio amount of kreutzara, diat 
thaprivUwedoidendfead of all things tin ai tack upon thiirif^t (or wrong) 
■■ CM ItntDreM^ in tbnr gruid ariitoi-ratic drcumvallatioD. Hony of thorn, 
-tttrafbfVt ToBned loDf ud obttiaateiy to make tbis conocuion ; but thotr 
WMitapcB «u St last o w irp o warcd by the exertions of mor* liberal men. 
Bad the undertaking &irly commenced, fbe first shot hai been fired, 
iberefbrei but it will be lon^ yet beforv tin- biriu-li in ^ttTiciuntly wtdenedi 
For my 0«it ]>art I own I could out witne<c« witliont diDgfust tin exerciM of 
duB petty but insolent privile^ at the old Pootoom bridge. Let the reader 
"^g*"" a row of muatachdd fitllowit, moal of them (alu) speaking Ger- 
man, opening tlieir luurier not only to every uoble, but, ncctnding' to ft 
euttoiii whiub hiu Klipped in, to every well-dr awo d num. and Msidng dj tha 
arm, *nd Twl«ly demnnding the toll of every poor working mcchanie, erety 
Jew or {teiuaiit boy thnt pa-tned. The*e bndge-guarda, by long practice 
of their cmile, have snjuirwl mii^h n ljrix*«yed dcxtitrity, that even am 
Snadaiyt and bolidayf, when the mechAnic is ofcen v <-li^;:^oiiUv droMed aa 
diD noble, they are never deceived, lliey know by dgfat almost aU th* 
inbabitanti of ]*etth and Budi, aa well aa their children and the inmatM 
ot their houu-^ and okn tell in a tnoment who docc, and who doe* not be- 
long to the privilc^-d ordcni. The rich Jew* f^ncrolly pay a certaia sun 
yearly to avoid tlic annnjTiDcc of being stopped whenever umt pass, and I 
oave btien informed, that, curiously enough, t)ie gipaiea enjoy the Kune 
«Eemplion aa the nobIe». " Let eirtrtmet »t toucAenl," or they an> per- 
hape regarded an mch eumpK'ie nuUilies in Miciety, rbat they arc allowed 
tiliD the fi-ee commoDers of nature, the bird*, to fly in and oot as they 

1 oaunct coDceivD how It happem that tlio iip|if r Ha.t«r3 cannot mastor 
jnagnauimity enough to irubJM^t themselvt-s voliintariJv to this trivial tax, 
if it were only to avoiil thn diagrat'e of tho thing; it is 8trftng« too to 
think, Uiat any people should long submit to such a nuMroblc spoule* of 

Many abases are no doubt nf more importanre, bnt this is of to open and 
b»ref»eed a ch*raclcrl Tlie great man wiJka by unrjueetioned wich hit 
purte full of dueats, while the poor one, thi; verj- iK^ggar. it forooi] it) nnn- 
mage among his rag? perhapi for hii lout krcntjtrtr. Wpjisod, therefore, be 
thp iii?w e<^fiw which is to iutroduct^ a better pystem • BI«8M>d be its 
finiftdation-Ntoiio, which it to be at tbc same time tbc foundation of Hun- 
garian equality and true Iretpdum t 

I Tinted tlie works several times with n enrd of admismon which I ob- 
tained at the '* Hridge Office," for the CTnrspoiidctice, the mariagetnent 
of tlie money, and ntlier matters connected with the building, have ooca- 
uoned so mucb businea?, that it has been found nccGssary to have ta 



oSm, and t pretty niim«n)u« ouMialnnait of derics uifl offi«M» derot«l to 
it. In order to i'M|i|Mm Uic wMftht of tlw bidge, vhich is toctmnA at 
asTBtem of iron irliaim, four pSen arv iM>(>r8!Uir}-. two nenr the nhorc, uid 
two in th« tniddlo of the BtrauD. The f'vur mun chuiru which ftra t9 
bntr (he jmsleat bunleo, »re b) wei^ 24,000 cwt. ; they hare been 
maJp in Ei^and, u tlicn* di> not cxUl in l^Iuii^ari,- t^e machioes ruqui- 
aite to trv thinr straagth, and xulijcct ovurr jkart to a. ri|^d csaminatioii. 
^lis triaJ iiiacliiiMiy u enorinoudlj' rx|M;ntive ; bat iu EugUud it is ofbeo 
■siitrd. whereai in Huoganr it mi^t never be waiit«<(l a (wocnd dm*. 

Tlw bridg* naa bef^nu on the lit of May, JS'IO, acid the put mm 
«KCled, CKuict* only of the cnSnt-ismt, for two oat cf th« four pert. 
The cnostructiDO of tbew cotTcr-daau is in itself a ^pantic work. Tlicy 
nn! tumformrj cwiloavM Diad« In the river, hj ilrivin^ in a doubla 
trail of (hIk, pumfrinf; «ut th>c sand and watM*, ai>d filling the entp^ 
apace with walcr-ti^ht clay. In ordiT to t^vc tlicm tiic necewarr aCrengtn 
Id rcsn the prcMure of the ice in thr Danube, they are foHilit>d by a 
tytUmi of eroM beami in the interior. Fur the whole brid^, in tho coa- 
Struction of tbew c<iffer-da*a», t»i> fewer than 7000 pilci arc required, 
each tJiL* tnmk of a mi^ity [litiC'Crer. Each of theso piles ia funiuhed 
with an iron point, weigfaine near a hnndnAHVcigtit, so that for theM 
point* only, 700,000 ponmu of iron nwut be tank in tW bed of tb« 
river. Evrr^- |iilc haa to be simV vighteea leet deep into the bed of the 
nver, and lint i» ofleotod by th« •troke* of an anomflw block of iron, 
ererv pile f<oqniring about 4(X> stmkvs ; yce all tlitu toil ix of coarse only 
to Aerve a tetapnrary purpoM, fin- aa aooa w the pieni are corapleteo, 
tlte pilM are unii awny uind'er the water, learing only what b deep tn 
the giooiul. 

A ateam-ciif^iDO of twenty-four horvo power ha* been erected to pamp 
the sand and water out of tlic cofTcr-danu, and if the work proceed only at 
the Mine rate va hitherto, wo mav calculate that every suaunor one of 
thc«c prvpuratory labours will be eompletcd, and the peogtie enf^afped on 
the workj muy foel tolrrably HstiBfied, that far maiiy years to como there 
It no £ear of their wantini^ emptoymLiit. 

Sorne diilieultiM liiat euat^. howewer, with reapcct to eertain bwldtnef 
bekjnf^tif; to tlit: t^tvrutncut, uud nhtctt t^Mteucted the workn on the Butt 
aide, hare been arrang^ed, and Hwy will now prooeed more rapidly. 

1 accompanied the principal architect to tJt» place in the middle of tho 
river, where tbcy were preparing tot the tniadle pier, and waa much 
amused by the gabble of Bnglbn, Qerman, Italian, Magyar, (uid Ktavo- 
aian workmen, sw'&niiin^ like nnta over thn genff'itlding in ilw miiUt of 
the nug'hty atnarn. I count<^ above twenty machioee at woric, driving 
in pilee at this one pier, and thowh it seenu a ninple thing enough to 
kaap ooa'a hand* out <»f the way of a nuehine we^^in^^ ten bunored- 
weipht, and falling tliirty fiw^ vH thn penpla arc *n earclAta and tiiought- 
leu, that accidents are reiy nequeal, and the loss of tlirir faanda and 
flngttn ta often the cO[iMi)nence. 

Thn number of pennru in the Iwvtpital of St. Rochus, who have been 
wmiudcd and injured in this way, amounted to fifWn. At thit nte in 
may calcnlate on seventy or eighty perwns being more or lesi toured, 
befi)WJ the bridge i« noinpleted. 

The Engliib workmen, whom die arrhitcct liad brought with him, tahc 
precedence of the rest ; aeit to them an the Italians Eram Trieste and 


Vfiiuoc, wlio hsv» much oxpenvnm in siilMiqiHTniK btiiidiiii;^ ; and afW tlieie 
oomd Ui« GffnnMi, HungsrUn, nnd Slftroniftn worknien. There wu miI j otM 
of the nftUrea with whom the Enji^lish &n;hiteH profesBed hinuclf sBUsGed, 
uving they wen ta t^iirral "ntniitil [Htoplt-," but of thU oue he latd, 
" V«,^t(, he isMmetnin^lilcA an KnglUhinnn — th«rc'« some ipirit about 

I climbed tipoa the eitreme point of a »rt of bulwark erect^Kl to break 
the farce of die ice, aod cnjoynl a tnftj^iificvnl |)anoranui of the two exten- 
•ivc cities atii the tnountaiDs orouod, trom the middle of the inajvrtic hrcr; 
indfcd I cwuld not prrvai) oD myself to ieave the place till tho evening bcU 
aouniled across t}io wat^r. 

Cii«at anxiety prevailed in Pestfa lut winter, conccminf* this iee breaker, 
&nil it ivoa tlioti^iC it must bo swieptaway. aa well as the ofTcr-dnni iCnoa 
intend«d to protact. Tu the gnat triumph of tlie English, liowerer, it 
r«nuiii«d onnijured. 

A» it na» Satunlay ni(;lit I mwid ashore in the ciini|«u]y of a. ciuwd of 
the wiirliniifti nvhn wi-m p>ing^to gvt void. Under a. wooden shrd, in the 
eourtyanl nf tlic Brid^ Of&cH-, wher« uty vast h«ap« of building matcriaU, 
there rtood a lon^ wooden table, vo^-«r^d witli l)ca>ps of money iu varioua 
coini, of great and small value. " Pn^iouH burden !" thmi^lit, dnubtleM* 
the workmen, B« they stnoil nroiind coiitpni[>laling it wit^i eager gUneM. 
Iliev were called up vno aHcr another to receive tlioir we^'s wages from 
the liniids of a smart caaliier, whn counted out the mniiey with gruat ra- 
piditv. wliiUt a clerk s'lUinjj by entered it In a hook. Oiu- ini^hl tratw 
noirmtliinif of the chamct^r of oftcli mnii in th* manner in whiph he i*cftiv«I 
hia money. One would clutch it eagerly, as if afraid ii mi^ht be lakca 
from him again, auother would come up with a aancy air, with his liat oa 
one ride, as much lui ta «ay, " ("omti! (jive me what brlfltig* to mo." A third, 
with a fullvn and siaistor look, would glnncD round at tltc cashier diatd- 
buting all this money with so much indiHcrence, as if he thought, " Ah ! 
you rich rascrols, you have money enough, but you give US poor fellows OS 
little M you coji — if 1 had but an opportunity ! — " 

1 noticed that thrtitgii tlicy all tisnK it without counting, probably out of 
mipect, they jttopiR'd oiitsid>(^ and ojuntefl it carefidly two or three times 
over. Some would immediately begin to discharge little debU to thwr 
commdcv, fomo would give it to tbuir wives who ni;n* waiting outtiidei and 
otJiers would go sin^iig and nhoiiting along, ili!!i[)nti)ig as to wluvh vrns the 
best public-house to spuud the evening in. 


In the beautiful picture of Biido, on the oppontc side of tho river, pre- 
sented from the windows of my hotel, I wax particularly xtnicL by a part 
of the town lyirig between the Observatory luid tlif Castle IliH, co\-ered 
with its churchM and |)tvliicijd. 'f liU wiu the district paiticidarly iiihabiled 
by tho Jiasctaiu or ScrviiLm, cniisisting of about n thousand small houses, 
ocoupying the side of a steep hill called the Bloek^berg, with teri'aees rising 
one above the other. These horizontal streets, of which there arc five or 
aix, are connected by little stccp Innca or flighu of fltepfl> and from the dis- 
tauee, the houses appear to have but one window each. The whole had 



wry inuch the appeoraoco of a pwnt ampliitlrcatra, in vrbkli the Iioium 
represented tho Ixuet. ] uxpressecl to & IluDfjrarian aH|uaintaiir^ my ni$)i 
to take n ncnrer view of thu curious quarter, au<l he nnin-vml kccordin^ 
to thv odd vxpresaon much in use here, " VrVll, dear thint/, if vou would 
^^ to go^ go, but I dmll not go with you, for I know there is nothing to 
bfi tem." 

I may rctnttik, en patsattt, th^t tim word l/tUiff is iuihI in & tnoro ex- 
tended wtue, and made more miivenally irrvici-Alili.', tlian, I bcrlicve, in 
Any otlier eouittry in tht! norlcL Tli<*y not only ttso it bs wo do our- 
«eTre«, to xignify any iuEUiioiatc objtct whatever, of wliicli w cntiiiot ini- 
luediiLtrly rcrolli-ct ifio name, but even eitead it to pertoni and abstract 
(^iialitiiii of the mind. 

Tlio Rasciani have iproad all orcr llung-ary from Sen-ia their nntire 
pTOviuue, principally in the Banat, the BaLschlia and Syrutia, which we 
iiiall have occasion to speak of in the ge^^uel -. but in uorthorn Hungary, 
ihe land of the SJovaka and Kaxniolu, ihera are but few. Tli^y have «ata- 
hltthed tlienuelvet aa bar^^ranvn and tnulers on the Dannlic. and aluitul in 
every town ou ita baidtx a particular ijuarter is appropriated to them, as 
in many G«imaa towns to the Jews. 

These people have been drawn into Austria by tlw spirit of trade, but 
also fruijuunliy dri>-Kn into it by the op|iiM«ion» mtfiVred from the Turk* in 
their owu country. Thi« mi^rratioii of tho .Seninns has been eonilnntly 
taking place tiacv the first appearance of the TuHi9 iu Europe— frum the 
limr when their first princes tied to Buda to seek the nroteotioii of the 
Hungarian kiiif; ^igixumiid, to Ihe day when nnaco Miloseli canio to 
Vienna to solicit ptrmif^tian from tlie emperor to buy land in the Itanat. 
Something ainiilar has tnlicn plaoo with the Anueoian^ wlto also eic&ping 
Ai)m MuiaulRuui tyrauny, nave apread over tlie southern prorinces vf 
Ktusia. Tlmy were Kasoans and Germans, who, at the close nf the sc%-en- 
t«Gnth ccntim'i wcm taken as colonisb to repe«plo Pcsth, juft fiiatchcd 
IVoDi the hands of tlic barbarous Turks. The Raseians chose the Blocks- 
ber^, the Germans fixed themselvei on the Ca^llo llilJ, but thtfsc nou' ao 
far e:icvcd their fvllow-lowiuuten in nuiabcn, that the ivholo nty may 
be considered a Gennaii one, — the Rswaaus tliemselrcs bcliiy hali-lnius- 
formed into Germans. 

The <{uart«T wlucb tliev inhabit has no vcrv attractive appearance, nor 
ia (he vpcct of tho hoiuwa much niorv inviting;. On opening the door 
leadin|^ into a little couityard of on« of them, the first thing that met my 
tf9 wiu the E»g«ty, over which, as well ns orer a shed near it, a piotn* 
waa nailed up, confirming wluit 1 liad heanl of tlic foadneu of tlicge people 
fi>r all kinds of ]iictnrial rc[ire»«nIaliorM. 

Tlie owner of the Imusu, whose name was Ba^onoviiah (literally 
toaaalitteil, — tlie aon of the one aent from God,) was not at home, being at 
work in tlie Tineyard of a German neighbour. The roonu were vcnr clean, 
and on one of tha wallo hung [iicltir>>d of our Saviour and serenil saints, 
altJiough the general character of the Baanuis u by no meani of a saintly 
order. Tlic opinion entertained heie of their cunning and roguery ts 
preitv woll ecpraMod by the common saying, that it »ill take four Jews 
and b>4 gipnw to make one Rascien. In this condemnation are included 
the modem Greeks and Macedoniaaa ; and then ii probably some trutli in 
the notion, for the very same opimon of them » eotertwoea by tlie pcoiih) 
ai OcUmo, and ta other plocca where I have heard them epoken of: ana it 


8W THE KJieciJLK towkj—tokkius baths 

ii pmCty much in the nnte trt^-**" that tb<<T wriv held fermerly by the 
Veoetiuu and Gmioam^ with whom ttwy were 0ng;Dfj;ed m inarcuibln raU- 
tioiu I Rfty, evo) tlia RonuM bad ^t fsovcrbul fffmri wa ** GraeaJUtt 

oaUafifttn " Oiw rout not, howercr, luffer odc'i opimoa to be infloitgDeed 
too nuoh by Mvinf^ oif this kind, lor if m rint uid obiene these people 
ia llwir homce, wr tiud at lent as mutzh to excite iatercA and nympothy, 
M to awmkea oontcnipt ar dulik& 

The nputstWD of the Rescian town, id Bnda, ccnespaodi eixactly -with 
tliat of thrir countryman tfaroogboac Htmgvy. If any tnc|uiTy ii made 
coDcenuDfC the conduct of its iiih^nlant^ tb« usiiol reply >>, " Well 1 
haven't heard of any tiling lately, bnt il'^ a bad place to ^ to at lugtit ; 
one** life's iiot nfe (here at niglil :" aiwl niv own oxpurieoce did not tend 
ontainly to coatndict this unibnictrable joacmeBt 

It tiappt^ncd onv rveniog that I waa etroUiog rather late up the Blndu- 
b«x< "■' which, as 1 have already said, tlwobaemtory is situaUsJ, in nrdtir 
to pay a viRit t>> an ndRWuuKir who had ipminiwd to show me Bomt-thing 
I wisdcd to sou ou the diik of the moon, luid «d I ciimixTd up tlie uanoTr 
crooked Unci wid dirty paths which abound in it, I cvnild not but call to 
nund. Bome rtoricx I luid beard of its peculiar fiT(i[H'iiKities. I nroe bade 
^■He Mb and sound, but early thc> next mOTDiu^, having occasion to !%• 
tnoe my Meps. i saw the body of a murdered man iyiu^ exactly in the 
patli I ud UaWfud the ni^t before. The police wnm oecupiod in con- 
veying it into a hou«c, and in aiuwer to my inquiry [ waa told, " y<4, th« 
Bffwyn^ killed a man last nigiit! £Ic was a dealer in wood, who used to 
hnn^ SUvoniaa oak for the new bridg« that'e boiMiiv. lie had just been 
to goi bis tnoney, and lay down in the moonrinaa to weep. Silly enouf^ 
but they do it continually, to aw the vxpcnM of an uin ; tiie moouy'a 
ffODC, and thcro'a the man, and a pretty picklo lie is in." " But, goixl 
God! how it it pMsiblc? here in the middle of the 8trec<t, nxrmimded by 
bouKMl" " Ob, there an.- people here who aeTer hear any tluuj^, aud theM 
tn plenty v£ barzcmca or c^e-driren that nay have tlmo it, mid be far 
flooni^ ate by this time." I pitied the lata of the pxtr wood-dculi?, and 
could not but fed that I hnd had an ojitape. 

On otiu of my tisiis to the Itaacian town, I enUred a sort of eating 
house, over which was inscribed, " This house is In the hands of God, and 
ia kept b}- Maria Leitherio," and the Maria Leithertn was a limnan. Th« 
inttmabe aseocialiou into which the Gennans and Kaecisiis arc brougbf^ 
baa. Iiowever, by no mean* tended lo abate the feeling of jealousy existing 
between t^em, luid this jealousy is never more conK|iicuou3 than in the 
diurch, whRTcthft termonaaredMirereddlemateiy iu GL-nuan and Servian. 
In the pious processions tliia feeUnff of nationality oftra breaks out into in- 
decorous squabbles ; bh each party deure» to li»« the jireeedcnce, and both 
tlao Epiiitual and ti^mpoml authoritttM am Eometimxri obliged to iuterfw* 
to settle the disturbance. A grrat number of the Scrvluni of Buda do 
not belong to the Grerk but to the Catholic chitcvh, lutviiig bc«n eonri>rtt>d 
by the Franeisean monks, but the Servians in fjaoeral eling with |;^at 
tenacity bo tbcir oiifrinal fajth. The Kascione or Serviaas (for thcsu terms 
ore in fact nearly synonymous) arc said to be more devout than thair 
German nei);hbours, and mora rifpd obaerveiB of fast-days, but at ihe sams 
time iar mora addicted to brandy. 

The Rosciaiu liaru, like tdl orientals, a passion far warm liatfcn, luid 
it is not unlikely that they were ioducod to settle oo the spot they now 


oocuiiy In- the tempUtioD of die aAptmr spnngi, aaao tliree out of ths 
Qv* whieh Ofen pcMseaws, ore Ui be found iu tlie RsmUh town, the King's 
B4tli and tlie Kmpcror'a Both only, lyii% futbcr up tlw I^nube. 

Thcwlnthi woe known utd uaccl ctcu in thu Ronuns' timi^ sai the 
Turks, H Dunr be nppoMd, i&irly levelled to tb«aii. To tliem, indeed (I 
iDMn tbe ISnlca), moM of tfi« improremetrt) Bade in the bnthi nrv oniog. 
They an fmiueatcd hy nil ciutM, utd m&ay Tisit them c^Yn- day, m.ud- 
teniig mwitv much vt ttif ir lime eAxnrudi in the tlimtnis and co41'L'«-bou!>ej 
of th« nfwtibouriiciod, or in loitoiinp ebout in tlic eunshine. 

A RpacKHU huUdin^, eueloiiag: >e?«T^ courit, hw boen erected orcr Uio 
^ringit from vhkh tlie water it ctijii-tl tti pine* into a fjvai nunilier at 
nore or lew cUemnt Wtfainj^-ruaim, aiuL finally into a grv»t bodii called 
the CommoD fiaUi, which ia precisely in the ttate iu which it wax left 
by the Tnriis. Some of the hxtha cost as mueli a« two flomu tlie hour, 
bnt in the comninn bnth one may uC the whiilu day for a |K^niiy. On 
viaitini^ thi* wc had Ia paM thKvn^ii t«r«ial luurcw paMagvi bcfoiv enter- 
ing; the durf apartmpnt, where such a dim liglit prevailed, that for 
Bonte time we could divtiapdik Dottun^ erery olject being- Toilod in a 
thick viLpour. \iy dwreai env ajei tteeane ueoMMied to tbt Sgfat, or 
darkaeu, and Wv cotud peroctvo many naltird fii^urcs, sitting or iwimminf* 
about in tJie iratvr, wluch flowud tlirongh llic middle of a high-vaulted 
ifember supported on pillan. To the mllan were attached a. few dim 
hoiM, and two or thrM ver}- small wiDOOWi, d«<^y luuk into tli*! vvry 
thicK wall, iidntitted a at-anty gleam of dayfigliL A biond iitnne pave- 
mvut ran round tlm biuin, and *l0Be bendivti roiiiid lliu w^U. Men, 
vooueo, ^U, and ehildr«n, of all a/i^^s "'^'^ i^pUtbing In and out. and 
dnasing aind uadmaaing theniaelvca in varioua comcn, and the boys were 
■annnff theroselTM, hy ilipjHng about on the wet marble floor. My con- 
dodor tnfoimed mit that hit lu>cw a pisinter who oft«n cunc hetr, to smdj 
tbe " human fbnn diTiae," and it murt be Gotifctaed there was plenty of op- 
portunity. No one appeared disturbed by the pmenoe of !□■ neirhboiin^ 
but peeked up hia or her clothea in a bundle, and i^wsw tbmi m a dry 
place on a bviKh, wry quietly walked into the water, ana after vplasfaiag 
abuut for a wliik% sat down tnider one of llic pillars. 1 was particnloriy 
struck by a joai^ and very pretty girl, who undrvesed herself m a distant 
and ralner aaifc cvmer, and kcejiin); on nothing more tliun a little nliort 
trndor petticoat {a rcmnrkablo instanee of tDodeity by the bv ) vrr^- rom- 
poiedly jumped into the bath. Ko one of the tnon oflt-reJ to npjmioch 
her, evorr one keeping within the limits of his own domain. Ono only, it 
might have ht-rn her brother, or peihaps a hhdegrooiii, did not acem to 
relish tlie cario«ity with which wc were regarding bcr, and eame ■plas lm g 
up towards ber. By the feeble light of the Ivnp wo could see the gin 
looking anuou«ly and timidly in the direction in whi<di wc were (standing, 
and the dark steamtog face of her friend, whoever he miglit be, emerging 
bom the flood, and paang hinuelf between the girl and us inquifiUTe 
ftfUgen. I cannot say, howercr, tliat I believe the giili who nwincnt 
ihew baths to bt; generally of immaculate character, but povL-rty and tbe 
paauoa for baths, doM oocaaionally tempt even these to visit them. 

Tbo Imperial Batbc, at the other end of the town, immediatoty on the 
Danube, reacmUe llteso in nntt respcctx, but am still more cxt«u»vc. In 
the centre of tliis building is a kind of garden, where, when I visited it, 
BORieroni bathing guests— Servians, Germans, Uunganans, Jews, and 



tnm TaAti wbo oft«B conu to titaaa faadia from great di>tann>«, -vtm pro- 
mcnaclit^ ftboot, mlivened by tha vmuAc of « ^pny band. Tlin KkUu fti« 
as inucli rr«r)iient«(I in viiiter oj in sumtncT, fur tiioiiy of ihc poor ire rfaid 
ai Buch xii oppnrtunity to get thorouglily wanniMl tbrDiij/h, for ibree 
krvulx«n, or r&th<T mora tluin a penny. I hiLv» hem tald that fidi arc 
DDinctittMrs fouud in the narm iriilt7 of tbcM batbr, biit I acvor tv» any 
tlunc hut tome frog*, and that iras in n jnitiriiJnrlr cool part of them. 

Tlia wiitvr flowinf^ out of these baths £«nes to tuni a mill, and a little 
furtlicr on, nhvn it f&Ua into Hai IHaubv, \ias mill wannth «^nougti Jcfi to 
indiice the laundraam to talin ndTniitn^ of it tu wiu)k ihcir linen. These 
spring* never fivew in th« coldest wititer«, niid flow uith equal nbtindaoce 
ID tlic driot flumm^m, for which rvn^ii the mill, an old Turkish fnrtrrtl^ 
»ilh Toot towrra, pa)-* »in thnusniul Jloriiis tmiI, and the inillcr iis fuiiw 
f|uently, to be consiJfri'd m hji opuU-nt i»fnnii, Ih-siJw havinjj « vpry 
«ffr««able, though ratlier oorpulcnt wifo, and some vrnf rirctty dan^liters. 
i tuiTCi I mast con£ew, an old prcjiidiru in favour of the [it-aiity i>f millen' 
dauditcnt, and it- wa« ccrtsitilv utrciij^honw! by wlia.1 I ohtM-md hi-re. I 
made acquaintaiico with th« lamily, and pmitiitvd tu pay tlii>iii a ristl in 
the eremaj^ nfter r«tuniitig from a certain MaKomctfln bouse of prayer in 
the iitNj^hboiirlioiHl, Ti^*[M^rtii>^ wlitch many strange, but, I inia^ae, fabu- 
lous tt^^iriet^ had Lnm-u told iik-. 

The keys of lliia mostjuo are kept in Constantinople, and tlu) pilgrina 
who vi.iil iitf. spot every tivn yeara, receive tlif keys on setting out upon 
tJioir pilgriiiinfjc, for wliieh tlify ate e()uip|»ed by some religiou* soeiely in 
the Tuiiiish capital. Tlii* monqiir in, mon'ovcr, the most northerly poiiit 
of Muhonit^tfin jiil^iniaiifca, Wc necimdcd the hili n(VcT piisiin^ tho last 
ftriijTgWn'i huu«e« of Buda, and Icavin); the broad roud, cntprcd a foot- 
path, which led tlinrmgli the yard of n Buda vinc-drewer, up a little flight 
of etc|><, and jo cImc to a pigsty, that wln-n thv Muisulinaiis piua by 
they must have !om« trouble to pnwprvc tlii-ir Hnwing ganncnls from the 
contaminating touch of tlie unclean animal, Tho sacrwl biiiUiiiig it«elf 
is a solid octagonal stone mauaoleuin, such ns ia ofteo seen in Mnhnnietan 
buiying-grouuiia, and is tlie toiub of a distingtii^hed pacha of Buda. The 
vine-di-esaer's wife, a worthy old (lennnn danie. whfi was in tha Imhit 
of perforniiiig lilUe sprvitM fr>r ti]o pilgrinw, *«cli a* briiiijiiig tlivra 
irater to woih, iiifonnrd me that there si-Idom came more tlian three 
or four in a year, but that this year, she liiicw not whv, tliey aniountpd to 

Jdost of them appeared to be poor [Ko^de, but some few brought ser- 
wints with them, llicy all pulli-d oft" tlicir shoes before entering the 
inausi)leuni, aiid thom wlm had their Kervaints with ihi'oi, had their feot 
nl<i> fumigated w-ttli a costty incense which thev broHghtwith tiK-m. Th© 

Iiilgrim.i all appeared (|uite well aci|Uiiin1i;d with the locality, as if it ha4 
leen iircviiiiwly ilescribi'd to Ov^tu m Turkey. 

When they ciiUt ihr door, thuy pliiee nn« foot clniirly before another, 
so as to ci>uut their stops t'U 'bey arrive at tin- spot where lies tbo head 
oftbesnint. They then fall proslrale on the gruiiiid aiid pray. — many 
with such dtfvntioii and I'thauxtiiig fervour, that tliyy are earned out faint- 
ing, when their couponloos or attcndanta rub them witli a eertaiii ointment 
wnich rv^tlnres them to life^ They come not only rroni Constnntiiioplp, but 
nlso from th(> distant part* of ibn Turkish empire, ftoni Asia >lin()r. Syria, 
and «von from tbo Persian frontier. Most, a* 1 have said, orfi poor, and 



irel on foot from place to plaoe, ud arc moally kindly and lioiipitablv 
reoeiteil Uy dip cjtli()tu> primU of iJie [iliu-p, or l»v the P(>ii\-cnt». wIucd 
libsnlly lAbrd tJinn sh«1t«r tuiil support. Tho f^ntor tiiinibpr iif these 
jtilj^rimt arc mod«it and wfll-tn;Luv«tl people; liut it occiuionAUy liupfjetu 
lltat some nr« lmtil>li**oniv. ftml iht^y itrr in nuclt cases conveyed, at the 
expcHie of llip city, bai*k Ut tlic TiirkUh fmiilior. 

We cnuld nnt enWr the maiMolonra, fi« it U kept locked, hot oar con- 
dact<}r furnished us with a ladder, hy help nf vibich vc looked in at enme 
Uttle ^icd apemin^ at iIih uppei- nart, by whicb it wa« feebly lighted. 
Tile walls wero wliitewiuhcd anil hiinff with ruriMis nrtielM, — a iworH, a 
iMggcj, a banner, S mi; of block doth (probably fracn the rrnoniicd black 
mantle of Kanhii), aiid other tilings. I vras laid iliat there was alao a 
ebme suspended tlii-re, although fnmi wlwrc we *tood [ could not see it; 
and tliat it wai lialf-tnunpoKtit and n-ritteti wvr with ventmoca from the 

It beoatne quite dark and we wcne still linserin^ round llie maitsolsum. 
And among the Utundli-at stn-tch of vitw>'ardii by wliioh it is surrounded. 
Times wme iodeed cbatim] siiicc tlic Turk) pourtd their eouqueriiiff 
annie«, with the lulton nt tneir bend, orer tliMc cnuntrivs, nrhers now comas 
only n. golitary wandering pUjin^m, indebti^ for htn biMrv t'si«tftnre to Uw 
dcecendaiitn of iliuM tenr ClinAiaiu, whom lii* forofatbcrs regarded as 
tbcir ilaves. P«r{ia|M tlM (onely slirine bears nianv a feri«ut prayer 
tiiat Atlali would bs nbaMd to mtorv tliis bind to t'hG doounion of the 

Our Iioftess of the mill inrormed me iliB,t a Ttiriibli dervish wiw then 
living at the Imperial Balli, who after hit bsd perfonoed h« prc«cribed de- 
votional <lutio« ftt llic mftiitoleuni, liftviDg bad a desin' to vitit the far-famed 
city of Vienna, had set out In travel on fnot in tlinl direction i but, on 
acooant of some ii-regularity in his passport, the iioor innocent demsh 
had Bmh seised by the Aiutrion [•oMum as a ramieiaus pcrvon, and moat 
itncervnioniouslr morchad bock over the lliinjrarmn frontier, u if he liad 
been a penton tuogeratu to the peace of tlie etnpire. 


I bare often had ocoaaioii to be surprised nt the inimrme number 
of hotel* wliich luve «prong up in Gwinany during tltcse late " pijitng 
time* of peace ;" but 1 roiwt confwxr, that what the bwt twenty ytwrt liava 
done in this rwpect for Pesth, far exceeds any tlunc of the kind that w» 
have to show. The grand ttyle of these eislabli^bmnit^ ntrikes us the 
more, when we consider wliat the town wn« even a few ynaw ago : and it 
may Krvo alio as a stnodord by which to ertiniute wluit it probably will 
be foiDO years hence. Tlioic of Biida. althoTif^h twenty In number, can- 
not be compared with tboK! of the sister city Iti elefrnnoe. Those of tlio 
first class in P<ath are usually built roond a. quadnmgte, with two great 
dinin^'ludls, one below opi-iiing into a garden, furaulfcd with an or- 
cliestra in the evening, oiitl another on an uiipt^r floor, more pnvate and 
nore frequented hy guesta of distinction ; the htting* up of both apartmenta 
being equal to any thing we »hon)d rajiect in Paris. There is alwayf a 
cofleeroom well lupplied with ncwsppers, and (as far as I can decide th« 
^pMtioD) the cuimM is unexoeptiouablr. The ttaircate is generally bnad 


■od iMndlMM, l>«V ntin^ of nttiUe, dwontrd, whorprMr it in piMnM^ 
with th* Hw ^ miim mtiBWil oatomt—gnva, rrtl. uid wbitc, itw giMB 
Ui^ undenrtrood to Jetignilli the in*e«n hill on wbtdi die uicimt kingi of 
HuogWY Bt their eMO Ot wm were wont to hratxlbh th« strord : whita for 
th* four pritidpsl rirvn of tbv Itii^tloair th« Danabc^ the Thc)H, th« Drarc^ 
•nd the S«Tc, and red probablj- to indicate the mjnl di^tv, TWaa 
•doun nwK one it emy turn in Himsuy : the chtin and sofiu ue 
irf m d with nd, pv«n, and white ftuff, tad the niys of the mn obIv 
Aro ngh nd. green, and white blindx ; tJie te ma t m in ali pahBc iinlilD* 
tioas wear thim coloun in thor tivaij,^aDd in tlte hotels and <x>froe-hoan> 
whcfe patrioCi«D is " yofo- only wear," they present themselves in vtmrf 
ymtty ti£ form. I had some curioaity to diacover tla- dat« of Um cgai> 
neaccDMnt of tliis Gervent DBtionalitv. Mid lu tlu- {whlir sbootin^gaDary 
of Paath, whn» tha tugata fi<r a ivrrn nf yean are hangin|; ap, I par> 
c«iv«d tlwt tha appaanmoa of ihr Iltuignnan cvluun Wj^aii viith tike jaar 
1829. On ouc of Ifaeai^ two oagels were introduml, and they had tiai 
lim oontplaisanee to mpftat dotfaed in ntd, gre^^L, and whiu-- 

Th« new private houMt in Peith, heloi^ng to the v«althiait dttMBSi 
are, like the hoteb, built in a very spleiidid Myle, and ihroueh the open 
Iionw-iloor. the long I'ista of columoi, and fonnlaiw, and Iteds o£ Aowen^ 
and tnaj*iu(u>ent najrcajtea, foroed oat of Uoclu of T«d marUa^ ia aoaoa 
timei really furprisin^. 

This peculiar inuhle, which u Tery alnindaM in Peiih, ta brougiltt 
down the IJamibc from the tjuarnea nesr the nllagea of Nuiulorf, Kiih* 
gnai, and Donoaloch ; it it lued br vnry varWty of purpose, from the 
pihfM of tba Hving, to the momunenta tat the dead. It is rather toft, 
and doai not admit of a very briltiant poltih, but iteontainamanytlulkBa' 
fiwiiK wlueh often anmadetoptoduc^a very beaublul aftct. Onepieoeia 
panicntar. I recoiled hannj; aeon preparing Set the headateoe of a S™va 
A Btoue-eutter waa jufit thmi employed in etrvin^ the outline of a mtely 
4ntwn «hell of throe feet in eircumfereoM, and what wu once the hone 
ot a »u;ti1, in now proudly viithruued over the mnaina of a hamaa hetitg'. 
Tliix iiiiirUc appenrs to hit ver>- eanlv worked, for the letters " LoiUM 
Amatie Friedr ' (I did not w&it fo^r ibt fiunily name) were cut while I 
stood looking on. 

Seienil architiicta in Pvitli have alreadr guned a conndeiable reputa- 
tion ; Korne Btr the rolidtty, anil iome for Iju eleganM of their ttructiim ; 
and in gonaml, it ti to be ohMmd, the city has been indebted for aO it* 
Inprommenta acd adommentR, not >o murh to the m.-ignattfi as to the 
coniuienrial clastefi of her itilinlittanlx. Tlit? finest house Iwtot^ng to any 

of tlw latter, if tliat of tliC rich tohaeco luooopoliiit, V n, and th* 

Boat pirgcous of the palaces of iho uohility in tliut of Count K . Th* 

Eungnnstts just now tliiok nutliitig gnod enough for their capit&l, and a 
conparifoa of both pubUo and prirate huildlnga of fnrmfr times with tboas 
reecndy erected, wiU euahio us to form a correct eeUmate of Uieir pivgicn 
in the arte during the last twenty yean. The laat tremendoui iuundatiiMl 
haa, in its oontei^ueDees, proved of no little wrvice to tlio iniprorementi^ 
by tweefHi^ away uuoibera of nuoll old Iioum-s and hovels by whUk 
tney were obstmrted. Till then Pesch nsemblrd a Indy decunuin); bsr 
htsad with feathen and diamonds, wliite her fe«t wv>re naked, and ])erhapt 
not over dean. The inunda.ti>*ti has vruhed tfaeao foet, with a rongh brooea 
iDdced, that tii some placua earned uway the aldo with it, but Uw wouuda 

Tira noTELs Ain> the CASTTO 4T festh. 

mre naw niArtljr limind, aud in place oT Uw ouMnble cUj huts kod wooden 
•Imls that bsvc been dntroynl, lliera 1ikr« qmag- up nnri of netU pre(^ 
houMt. It were to b« dwireil that ttu>«i> dweQinn miglit retain this clw- 
neterutw «f nntnoM ; bat if wv caII to miod ue d«acripdoa giTm by 
Count SiwlicTi}-! of the manupr in which a new and eli-caiil stcunbmt 
WM dtrtifd and destroyed by Hiuigurian travellcn, we duUI twel do conli- 
dsnca in the ito»t>aQ of th« pbann^ npip wH Bic*, wi)m« we nippw* tb«t 
Um h&lut» of the timvcllii^ Hangarion ififier Btatnially from thoM of bis 
coiuitnrRicn m their own homM. As tbia u not likeljr to be the cue, it u« that a new wwbinf^ will bo necNMiy before ung;, tbotif^ luudJjr 
U rough a ouc aa tbc town received on the Uct ocouion finm tlw Dsoiibe. 
Xatwiilutandin^ all wr have siiid of tlic beauty of tho citv there are por- 
lionfl of it wtueh make a very un&To«mble imprMHioii; w^ieh iu aumiiutr 
AM noothered with Juitt, aud a> wiiU«r balf-burii-d in mtul : nnd many 
p«rta, ev<-n ini'tiidiii^ tlie |)aliice«, Itave an mtnjmfurtnhlr nir of tii-wness. 
nwncflf, and wunt of liiii«h. Another fault also, that thoiUd oot be pa«ed 
orar wlule we ar« epeakin^ of the new btiildiiigs, 19 their fr«quent vrant oC 
•oGdJtv, and the liaate riaiUe iu tlieir miiHtntnioii ; bnl it mvat bi; <iHinitt4>J 
diat tmi it a fuliiiffesctrediiigly iinTvalcrii inonr timtn. [ lavo tveatiew 
housed Iwnt witli craeki b ibair mam* wide enoiajfh tn put my hand into. 
The oi^hc before I left Prague a Ibvcb >ewty erected mansion fell in ; and 
tlien: is at this moment an extaosTe nuldtnif in lleilia with such a split in 
it* walk, that it u a oncatton whether it will be held up bv the oeif^hbour- 
iog boQMs or dr»w tiim with it into dettncUon. 1 pointed it out lo ■ 
Aakdman, and be told me that thew nmtton were not a wfait better 
■HUHgMl in France. 

He new buildui^ in Peeth, the R^doMUaJtauM, devoted to balb aad 
a neimn iei^ wohiM two such am^ilin'iit nxinu %a a» not often to be 
met with in onr w^thieit and most luxuriciut fajiital*, and the dancii^ 
room has a rhandclier. reqtniin^ thrco thnwtand w&«-lif{lita. Thmj an, 
however, never all liebted at oooe, as the heat they w»tdd occacion would 
be to great aa infalUbly to melt theia. 

The moot important attd iatero*tin|f public bnildincr, bowever, it that of 
the Perth Cwino ; whaeb, a« I h*ve before ob*«rved. nu pven occ^sioa to 
many guntlar instJtutiona alt over nuuffsry. This e<tabli^nient — I mean 
the noble— or, oi the people hero tay, the Magnate Casino^is devoted, in 
tbe iinrt place to •oeinl ueetini^ tueh a* baila, (loncerti, and dinners ; and 
•ceondlj, to the purpoeca of a hbrary luid rending institution. It contain* 
■evenU comforuhle and even elegant rooms, in which all Hungarian [ml^ 
Keations, without any execntion, are taken in, as well as the be«t Germao, 
and (cvrral tuigliili, Frvncli, wid nvn Anivncau paper*. For the hbraty 
all bunk* piibliahcd tn the iiunnnoa lan^uuge ate pracorcd oi noaa as 
th«y leave tlie preaa, and ao an aU lluH having any reCennee to Hungary 
that npfiear ia foreign roiuitnes, beaidee many other* of mtereit on general 
•nbjectx. ImiBlowi] tjiat I conaiiler myself aa under particolar oUigatioae 
to tim CaaiDo, for 1 genemlly had the tnn-e pl«auiot and conrement apuW 
mcati tot my >ole nee and becelit. The titirty Inrge handsocDe lamps 
Abu» Sat my aeoDramodatioo, and the bterar}- tmuurca »f tbc b o okcae M 
wd uUes oppeand to be bud. out aa tribute at my frrt. Now aad then a 
single n«d«i Msidca myself would drop in, bat be was son bcfose long tn 
begin to yawn and spee£ly diaappoirmL 1 cvukA, however offirvs tlwt I 
ehouk) at all timea have enjoyed eqnal opportunltiee (ot thin luaunous re- 



tiremcQt among- bookt, tm peculiarly to my tasu, without being dinturtx^ 
by the iutnisioii of ■iiy *i»itcri ; for I g^Jiprallv went tlirrv iift^rr tho Uit-atre 
wat over in the cvpniiifF, and it uut tlm litriH of the ^csr wlieii many nf tlis 
but fanalim are out of town. In winter tho ioititutioa U probably more 

In one of tlic ie»Jmg rooms tli*!* »tood alwnys twenty pipe* nmij 
filled, and 1 enj<n"«l ('•v mnr* n^rM'itbln momonu during mv »fny u PMtl^ 
tlian wlicct, kindling on« of ^vhat [ may cull my twenty pip^s at 0D« of 
mv thirty lamp*, ojllectinjr a packet of iiitf rioting bimlts nnd papers, and 
lettiiifT my^vLf down into one of the luxurioiuly uiMliioiied bunging-diun, 
I pn>[Kieetl U> drfiam over wlut veiu pBuing' or had passed in tlio past or 
pnsent world. 

The great work of Count Marsigll, " Danubitu Pannonico Mysieus^ 
containi such exBft. anA minute detniU of cv«ry thin^ eonnMtM with the 
ximre T!ici«a and Dnniibc. tlutt 1 nns c]iiite altu-mi^ to find tltc field had 
been so laborioiuly uUed. Min Pnrdoc's book on Ilunfrnn-, liko tnoot 
£nglish works on thia countiy, is far too laudatory to be of much Taluo ; 
and I do tiot think the lady can po«nbly be acquainted with tl)e wHtinj^ of 
Count Sxcclieuyi, thv ili-cen-icd Coimt l>esG«Hy'. and otiicr (tistiiij^iiahcd 
Hunmriau pabiot^, or with tlw manner in v>\av\i thev have pointed oat, 
elwiriy and boldly, all tho evils and abuses of their n&tii'e eountn*, else ah* 
wnula Krarecly have rcnturtid on tlic exli:lritii>ii of Kiich an f ttn^iuely tl&tter- 
iog portnit. To »In>w •.•very tiling in tins deceitful " roufeur de roi^\ 
tbfi% b to do no true servico inther In the natt^ij or the foroignvr. 

Tho Gn;;hsh ftvmpathUe reai^ly with the Htiiiffariant, not only from tlt» 
OODiniDrt-liil rclnUniu betw(«n tlie two citiintrliM, hut far more on the lii^ter 
ground of a similar enthusiastic love of politicid fn-edom. Tliey art- apt to 
overlook the vatt differenees betw««n the Hungarian and English constitu- 
Unns. While the potvi^r of the airistoomoy in England is iKilniirrd by a 
nearly etptal power in the thinl ««tat«, that of the arintucraey of Hungary 
hsa no ninilar counterbalflnctng power at ail. The nn^bihty in Hungaiy 
^1,000; the pcoplc^O. In Hungary, indeed, there are counted (oae 
d— Ofcrartatea. as coustitufing the diet,— namely, the prelaloa, the mag- 
natei, the knighta, and lattly, lh« deputies of tlie tnwns ; but the three- 
first tiAV« no iutcrett in common with the latt«r, who may be confidctvd 
to have n seat, but no voice, in the a«ct)ihly. Mv ^vourite book how 
ftrer, was the CoUection of Acts of the Hungarian lliet, a handsome eopj 
of wbieh U nlwayi lying at the Casino, ready for reference, on a table ap- 
pr<7priat<:d to it. Wbatvvcr may be the defects of the cotutitutiott of 
nung&ry, It nini«t certainly be » great advantage for the people to be aU* 
thuB (o make out wlmt is the exaet Kale of the kw on any subjeet. lit 
titlo of thid book b Uecrcta, MOttiititiona et nrticuii strtnisti/nornM et 
apottoUeoruM Itnjnm ac incifftorum slatttttm et onlinuiK /frt/ni Han- 
fforiri. I aeixad oo it «ae«riy, wi^i a view to emraine for mywlf, n-hi» 
titer there really railed that remarlcahle hiatus I had heard of between 
tiia acta of tlie gnvemraent of Maria Theresa and of Leopold IL, 
and I found, indeed, blnnk Itanw in jilaoe of the decrees of Joaenk 
II., from tlw j-ear 1791. It is well Known that by a decr«« of tm 
Diet, nil tlic acts of tliia emperor wero annulled, after hts death, as illeftal^ 
on account of his not having been a crowned king of Hungary ; and this 
Bpaoe in the Iiook was, in eounequenne, h(i empty. Immaotately afti^ 
Uw decrees of Maria TI>cr«Mi, followed |hoM of Lt^tl II. lUi 



tlie IIun<|^ADa tnerclv objected to the form of thew acte, wUch wm err- 
tainly itlegul, they might iint lutve iweii tu hlamo ; iwt, ei|)MiBUy nflerthe 
tdvice given to them on thi» poiijt bv tli^ <lWnfr J^^ecph himM-lf. tlicy 
■hottid Dot ba^'o (hron-n sway, alon;; with the Tnulty tmscI, ho much that 
mt eicellsnt iii the contents. Is it not to he regretted iJiat there xhmild 
rem^ii in Hungry no tnee of thU eieelleut and ndniiniblc ninn ; who, 
notivithstiuuliii^ i9iiiv occassional i-rroir, r^-u one of the moet dJstui^;vi4hed 
tOTerngns tlmt ever rcijOTiMl over the country? Nowhere ii ha nuna 
bnatlwd. It is us if he luuj never eKiBt«d, or bb if a curse li-y oa hia me- 
mory. Will not (Mftraity xsy t1i;L[ tlify hnvc »triwn to nniiihilntc tiie K' 
inemhraTia.' of the bwt and most cTilis^fiU-ncd ruler ever f^rantcd to them ? 

Th* •xCnonlin&nr, the prcpotiteixiut value set on the ecoHn, is (me of 
t}|ft most curtoiu pheaoiiKHit in llunganan history and lcgi:»Iat)«n. The 
'* golden rouiul" of Uie holy St<'plirn, Miitldcd a? it it with jiciu-].-* and dia- 
mondu, I* after nil nothiiifr moru thmi th» outward »yiiih»l of that ideal 
crown nliich ia the key and romer-BUnie of the whole edifice of the ettite. 
Thew ty|ica of M>rurrigiity liave a. kind «f (lurredness even among oUier 
nations, hut among; the UungariiuiH thj> reverence fur tlie tantrihlc niut^rtitii 
orown U ejtrrird beyond all rouciiiiihli' luiimdi. It Ii not nntv tig^mtivelyf 
but fibtolut«ly ill itfidf sacred, itnd a eoa^ccratiriK pawcr is supposed to go 
fortli from it; it ia caJlecl " Sacra HegRt Corona cum CteuodiU tuis," mid 
acrunling (o the law of the kingdom, whoever tiaa not tilerally and cor- 
poreally worn this metal ring on \\i* head, i< not the Icing. The principle 
thut the king never dies is noC reeagniscd in Ilungnry ; Uic king id allowi-d 
to di«, but the crann which is spoken of hy the Hungarians m a living, 
ByMeriona king, rulei then alone till a new sovereign has united himself 
wiitli it. Ue dues uut receive the tjtl» uf " Sacratistimn Myestat^ till 
he has had the cmwii on his liend ; lufore tlmt he U tiioken of «• '* iV<n>> 
eOTonala tarraiistitnn Miijestas." 

The Dute which the Uuiitcanau projects of law hare to past, tlirougfa 
all llic dchat«s and ittormy di?icu«iioii.i which take place hd'are they i-ari 
reaeh the traiwjuil black and whitn of the natter code, is a very long and 
circuitoiw one. First comes the king with nj* poitnlatea or " Proposi- 
tioTKt Rcgiir" and distiibutes theia to the vaiioua csCatea or clossea 
iMctnhled round liu throne, a* the Hungarians say, " with becoming- 

TLgm prapoMla are now tnken into confi'lcration by the two tablcfi 
thai of the magnates and prelates, and tliat of the kni);hls and town Ac 
nities, who dtiKMuu thorn nntotig tbemtelveit, and consider the tlifticulties 
[gravamina ) which thoy mean to nnpoite to tlie royal demands. The two 
tables then acquaint each oilier with their rcspcciiTe rcaohittona, and hold 
general sittings {ustiones mUltF, or ncm mixtm,) until all, or at leoata 
nutjority arc agreed eonceming the answer to be made. In all llie«e Sa~ 
OOMKilUi however, the deputies of the Unms are entirely innocent, let tba 
iime be what it may. \Vhen the king and the states are not of the same 
nnod, and at the beginning of the session, at all events, Ibia is generally 
Uia case, iherc follow iniuimerahie resolutions and rtj/resentations, and 
negotiations inter«p«rse«I wirfi more debates and monj ttstitrnt* mUttr and 
arparatte, until at last tliey agree on »ouie points, and agree to differ on 
oUieta, winch are then p«l off till tlie next diet. 

At llie end of Ui« SMsion. all tbat has been agreed upon !■ mmmed np 
in a paper entitled, ** Arliculi Jomiaorum pnrlatonaa, bamnum m<Tji> 



TUB norrxa axd the casiko at pestb. 

iirill"MW of Honguiiuu wlw ore not noblet. 

Then utielM us tlnen tvad to the king, and )its mmnA iwjuired in • re- 
Hwc tful numer, bat this he does not mxA til) he hu nib}«cted die paper 
to anotfaor rvrnioo iu hi* oounol. ^OB]d it be entirety ancon;!! vi. bo 
Aan luM it pot bto tJto form ot a drane, to whtdi be ftvea bn f:tniml and 
•pedal Hit«tuMi ; dedsring- thtut be ucaptt, ap Brow, aiul conSnns nhwt 
H eoDtnina, that be nill oUcrra the mum IuidmI^ and will f«qnin> it to be 
olw er i ii d br otben. To the»c decrees {dtertta mmtmimorum apastnH- 
«nMi 4^) ^'^ nty^ «val is tbvn itAiip^ and tWy an pmerU«d to the 
SUIca with tb« e%me pomp with wbicli t]>c«^ luid NA^ivMl the royal jno- 
mab. Hlwae acts ant then mule public in ail tho ca(iut«ti« ami from 
4at tima they hare the foTGe of Uwt. 

j*——j alt tba booki, howwcr, which ncciipied mv at the Casino, th^n 
van nana in whiali I was so much intcrrstcd a* in tliu nrititijra of Count 
fixcchf^nvi. Thii imwrsried Dabte-minded frimd of his eoiintn- \\i* been 
the author or promater of almoit every useful and v«liiabl« uitdprtakil^ 
iLat it bw witsnsed for vemn past : stcmm-Bar^^ionf the makiog of 
mads as far as the Turkish froDtier, the cstaUishnKnt of the [Jteraiy 
Socdetyof Pesth, of the Casino, erary deeirsble iinprorement brin^ the 
name of Cmtnt Saeebeayi pruminently forward aa a duef s«tor ; lie has 
iiaund Ume, onccthelaas. fin- a fcrin of writing*, all tendtnic to the rame 
SObie «nd. Ilie tint, and most eel^brated. is cslM " Credit," and under 
Ifeif titie be tnats of Uun^rian aflain in ^neral, of the Mcrttdnem «F 
pahlie dutyi of aj^ivlturv, i>f the cultiTauou of ilte vine, i>f the wine trad*, 
of trade in funeral, of nml* making, (if ittcai)i-ua>'i^(tOLk, aod of all those 
tiling whiiOi wiiuld Ix- likely to raise the rhamctcr of Mungnrv in the eyes 
«f IIm nroi-ld in gvneral. 

Tlie NPTODil work ii calltd '• light." or infonnation relating to the work 
called " Credit," and was called forth by nu analynii or criticism upon it 
publifthei by Count Jowph Desewfy. These, 1 am tony- to say, are the 
only writinga of Coonfe Saechmyi which 1 hare rrad ; but 1 most owa 
1 nh tomo a rt oms h nwot, that coosid^ug the home truths which (m baa 
apeiiaD, and the free and uncomprnniisin; torms in which those truths an 
eaqmasad, the couiitrjinen of t]>n cixiiit .■'hinild nut only listen to luiii with 
tw^noc, but liliould ur<Mi praiir [uid a-xnlt the aiitlior tn thp nVic-a, thould 
ttog hia fuwtrnit in their apartment!, and " w^ar him in thoir heart's 
^ora^ as the first of patriots. Had not the prmf been before me I coold 
not have tbonght that any one iii Hunj^rv w<juld have rentnred to d«- 
nounco in sticb Etraog terms iha national dorocts and emn. I could have 
Cuicied i was reading; an oratinn of Dtraostbenct, or Usttning ta il patriot 
cf tbe Roman republic pourian; out a tnnvnt of indignant eloquence agiaiaat 
Aa tblliff and wea of his countryini'ii. Nntliinfr. ecrtunly, could gif« a 
hi^hi^r idea of the noble dispoxilion, AT)d grctit capability (if tmiirairement 
of the HuiigariaiUi than tbe enthusiastic approbation witfi which tbcy hxrit 
rccetred tbcHc writing us well aa those of Koiisut and otherf, in wlucfa 
iksT ar» thus roundly taken to task. 

These rentleuteu, as I have before hinted, howcvur they may agK« in 
ardent zcail for tlie progress of their conntiy, are by no mcani aj>Tced on 
many olht^r |uiiitt«. Notwo of them perhaps can bi> said to be precisely of the 
maa Ajnnton. Tho two Counts I>Mewfy, ar^, however patriotic, dendi-dly 
wiikiii'Htic la theic rivwi, and, coiuidenng the Uun^^au cciistitubvn as 





MM ni lii B y nidi, denn to see it dexfrlopei! strictly in aceoidAiicc with the 
iuleatioM of tlieir fim&lhm. Mr. Von KtiMut is a. pntrict of % diffinvnt 
■tamp, and of far more KbcnJ priadpifa. IIo nf^nt^ in (he maia with 
Count Ssechenji, and in llM wjaely-spread jounuil, acceraililR t^> nit, gi'rc* 
uttennce to nradj the nine riewi as tlias« ex|)t««i«d tn tli» uwrv rlaiborate 
worka of the ommtr addreased tu a tdctc select atuli«n«>. Thoro has bMn 
iDdeadeonoedijiJutelMtwcca them cofMsmiiig the mode in which TCD Kossut 
liat deeraed it tiUtii(f to utter his opinioiM; and this dispute, which maj be 
eoniiderod oHtwr as a tterarv or a poKtical controveny, formMl, at tlii^ time 
I vaf is P«ctb, a ^ncral sunject of eonversalion. Two tnUtions of Count 
Saccheo^'s Mimiililvt had been aold off*, immediately, and I rcnuuned loo^ 
enough for Uw publication of von Koasut'a aiisw«-. At all tlic pomcn of 
thcitrcctd I «aw flaming on redand^Dowpuwr, "/VWW, Crt-/ t>:^Acntfi 
Mtwatak &o$nU Layoata" (Ausner to Ci>unt Stephen Surhrn^H, by 
liodwig KoMut) ; and T ht-anl i^ointiiitially thv (jutmtionc, " Hare vod ae^t 
KosRut'i autww ? Wliat docs Komit sayf " 

Wc in Gormany liarc no idea of tlio lively interest in all jtolidcal <iaeB- 
tioiu tlint prevails at P<-:ith. It ti only at rhrii or BruMaJa that we ever 
see any thinfr lil(« it Ttiir piililic intarastcd in tfaeaa nwttm i* alao hy no 
BMQl u limited aa niijcbt be suppoMd. The Bubfcribcn to the Ilirtap 
■lone amount to four dtousand, and the editions of ihe above-meDliooed 
|Hai{ifaIet«, which wer» wld off alueaC aa aoou aa publiahed, eonrinad faefa 
of aavcral thousand copiaa. Thoae who from their pwilion ia aociety can 
tike no active part iu political affairi, still look ea^rly on aa aniioas and 
toiPtested ipeclators, and it«d with avidity all tliat ia written oo the 


Tn the n)!ddk> agn th« rity of Pestli waa always d«si?nat»d aa » ** Ttm- 
tonica urbt," aud creu twenty yean ago, it micnt still he considered u an 
•utirely Geniiiui town. In holi'l)* aud coffce-Iuiues, at halls and public 
en Certain men tn, or in private houw-c, iiuthiii;; but (>emiuu nasipoken, and 
even thoao Magyars who had Itardly any G^^rnian to opojilt, were obliged 
to uake the most of it. Xot only many lluni^rias Gprmaos, but many 
ma among the luopiatas knew nnthin;; of their mother tonf^e. In the 
y^u I83o, abooIiMUer of Peath published a Kunssnan l^iieon, which 
nad very Uttle sate. All at once uie toan of this iani^a^ be^o to be 
beard, and since then the tide Itas risen higher and hiE*ber in its favour, 
until it threntf-ni to ovenrhehn its Latin, O^man, and Slavouiui eoinpe- 
titoTE. The ^ctiirnan, of which, iu three )-eun, only a few copies had 
been sold, went olT all at once, and aQother etutioo was called Car, and dis' 
Boced of in a very short time. Not much more than fifty veani ago, 
there waa not even a piofeasor of the Hiiogariun tntijcfusfife aiiil tit«mttit« 
■t tlie Pcsth Univemty, and it waa not till the diet of 1790. tiiat a r«<{ucst 
waa maJe to the king " tU ia GyntMOsia Aeadeaais rt f ai'rersifa/e 
Htmgarica petmliarii ProfVsn>r Linijttir ft Stifi HKagariri comati' 
tttatyr," and now it i» required not oiily that every Gccnwu, Slavouan, 
or other profmor should gtvr \iu leclnrea in the Mn^-ar tongue, bufc tfaak 
wen the very peaeant di>i>uld take pahia to acnturv it. The Aemawla af 
I the Magyan, that the Gennans and SUrooiaDs wioold learn their language 



amy he wgJinlwi as nn imswrr, though rather it late one, to Uic proposal of 
JoMph II., tliol ibw MacYan should learn German ; the nnperor -wiu oC , 
opinion that not oulj theMMgyar \angatigo, but dvf Mngyar ouatonw an * 
piivUei;;^ were alt<>gvther ulMoletc, wiJ ougKt to bo tlirown asid«, an 
ilrvanit^l not tint bpticatii UifW oshM a «jinrlc «tjll glimmered, that t 
long wwli! Iitirst into a bright flame. ImuiwUateljf after the death 
Jo«epti, th» lliui^drian diet addrasaed hJs wiccewop oo ll>* proprietv i 
aboUihin^ the iiic 'if forri^n laiigtiagta hi ]>iil)li<- Imnncs!, and iiiiplonn 
" N^ OHtr-m Alifii'w Ltnffua tftingaricn tnnrjin propofftlnr ft expriliHvr* 
It is from thij proposal, doubtletf, that may t* dntMl the commeiicemeot 
of that enthii.iiasni for Ma^ariem, which would have tx-ttcht'd its prvnrai 
height loii|r Ix'fiirc, if the French Hevoliition, at ilie pciiod of Nnjioi(^»»'s 
power, hod not been interpdned. Tho iniTmUe fjiveii W Joseph wnn. linw- 
orcr> BO much the mot-o effectual, since the cam]*aigm of Boimparte had 
nwaliened a ponerful emotion of nationality in almost cv«n- buropran 
state. There arose at the naino time a similar feeling among the Germany 
and even amoiij;; the S!iivonian!i. 

The natirc tati^ia^-tif tho Hungarians had, in the meantime, [>ecn too 
little cultivated or developed to loako it aceeptitMe to I'tlier nations. 
No work of any imiiortjiDW lind bui-ii written in itj and it eomld not, lil:* 
tlje Bdhcnitaii aiiit other la>if*uaxe-!> of the Sliivmiiait family, point to soy 
past jierifid in which it had been more Hourishinfj. Nothhtg, therefore, 
It woa tliought, eould better advance the proposed ohjeet, tiian tint e«- 
tabli;>hiiieiit uf a Himgnrian litrrary Mneiely, which, while it should take 
care to foster every n'rimLrkablo jnanifestation "f native talent, shoidd co- 
courage the pubticatifin of grammars and di«ti»iiarie*, punue various 
bran(;heHor{;^niinrnati('al and philological impiirr, should puLhih a literary 
periodical, and offer prixM fur lliinfpirian wurlt*, and for essays on pro- 
posed qiiostionx relating Ui tho native language anil Hlerature. 

Aft*r the faihirc of mnny attempts, the society was at length ettnbhshed 
in 1825* Count Szcehcnyi contrihutmg fiiity tlioiisnnd florins towanb il4 
ftmdit, and indudng by this muiiilieQRi exampk many others to offer similar 
sacrijiees on the altar of their eon ii try. A prcxident was nppointed, and 
directing, corrc»i)ondirig, and lionorarj' members were cltoscu. The »- 
dftty hiu now U-wn fifu-en years in activity, and possesses, besides a con- 
ftidiTabli^ librarj', a capital of four hundred thousand florins. Many fhi- 
lologicn], hiBtorical, and p(»eticaWorks of ivnuideniblc merit, liavt ulnfady 
been iisliered into the world under its niispifct, nud their authore liberally 
remiinei-aleii, and the sociity is, ttierHore, with respect to Hungary, wliat 
the Froneh academy is for France. 

In the antechaailicr of the hall hangs the \k^ portrait I have sren of 
Couul SKechenyi. painted by Amrrliiig, of Vienna, and I wijih I coiild pro- 
dueo on my paper, as well tis he baa done on his canvass, tho fine strongly- 
marked fcat«n;». the eyes fiitl of fire, and the whole manly, noblf, ener- 
getic cipression, wliieh render it such an iutererting spetMrncii of Hungnrian 
oationEil physiognoinv. May this portnut long remain in the nnteclidinlxir 
— for it i( u rule of tile sodety that the picture of no living member eball 
be hunt; in the lialL 

Much alleiition has been paid by this society to the dmmatic hraneh of 
literature, and many traiisIiiti'Mw from Ucrman and French, and iotnc 
original pieces have beoii pirdiicfd, by the aid of which it has become 
pouibla to establish a national theatre at PestJi. Hitlierto there e&L>ted 



sot Gflmuti thvntnM througlioiit thn «ountn'. A sum af (bur hun- 
(livd tbouauid floritu wm graatcd bj- tbe divt for tliv nvclion of tliis 
thsAtre, 1)ut I rannot say it a])]>ears to mc likelji- tliat tlieae efTorta will, for 
th» BTtML'-iit, ut IcaAl, bt> crowned nith mueh vutrest. How-over grcoc itiAV 
lie tno ontliuBiasm for tb« oau»«, the obftnclcf, I fear, am Httll grcjitpr. 
There is an evident deficioticy botli of itutioiutl ilriimiiA, luiij «f actors and 
nctnssei, and the Mag^'an ha*e certainir no jjoculinr tiilvnt for t]i« art. I 
Tiu told they suo<!Ccd b«*t in tri^edy, which I ea.a t-tuiiy conceive ; hut I 
bad the ill luck to tev mie nS thv'n cumrdiiTS — a Inuislatioii nf Scrilnr'n jiiew, 
*' L'Art de Consijirer." It lasted, I dn not know by whM i-ontriranc?, 
from MTCn to cleveo o'clock, though in Paris it never take* more than 
two hoiin luid a liaJf. Of the tvrvnty-four hosei only ci^ht were occuiiicd, 
and th« remaiudcr entirely eiiinty, hut the pit and gallery were full. The 
more reBned |jftrt of the puhlic, it it »u(l, frequent the German thmtro 
by preTwcucf, but the young loen, students, and othvrs, prefer the Ilun- 

An Art Uiiinn luu alsci bvtm (utnMithed in Pesth, ufion the plan of ourt 
ia Germany, iind I paid a visit tA its <-xhibiunn. The ])icturv» weic motUr 
from Vienna ; huL partly from ^luuieh oinl iitlier Gerniun places. I found, 
linn«tcenfe«, in tli« specimens laaw, neithtr fiti'cllpiice'ii(>r the promise of 
it, althowgli t hare met in foreijfn (xvuntrici niitijfariftn painten of consi- 
deiable merit ; but ihey were of German and not of Magjar de-M-nt, A 
Toung- German woninii from Vleonn. whoso husband has an np]H>intinAnt 
Pen, informed me of ati inaUnee of a iiind of national fci^liiig n<*ntiist 
which, I trust, hia cQUutrtmea in j^iK^nil v-ill he on tbcir guard. It was 
of a IIunKHrian from tlie interior, wlio bad come to the eihihiiion espect- 
ing to Jind only genuine Magyar prod uotiotis, and who wad i|uite indij^Dimt 
ai fcnnjf bo many picture* Ironi Vtenn&. He objected, too, in iitrman, 
to M^ing the cattdo^ie prinU-d liulf in Hnu^arian and half in German, and 
begin to tear out all the Geniian leiivtvi, without jwrcniring that in his rage 
be waa destroying the alternate Tlung^nriuii i'fiK»'H also. The lady told me 
thu in A whisper, and wa« evidently afraid of being oi-crlit-nrd, as aW said 
tlie Ilungarimswen.' exc'crniiiigly tnucliy on pointi of this kind. 

Notwithstanding what I )inv(> naid, I by »■> means %rish to deiiT that 
Bungarioua ntay attaJn to eminence in the pictorial axU, I wouJa oidy 
Bog'gvst tlint they should not be too hiU4ty to fetir t/tt (itrman leavet 
from their eafaloffUf, leitt many a good Hungarian em* should be lost in 

iTiii remark may apply also to tlie great exertions now making to intro- 
duco the Hungnrliui Iniigunge. I'he advantage of eniploying a language 
fo hit moTo cultivated than the Hungarian, as tlie (tcrmun is, apMon on 
many occsstons so obviously, that the mtutdetenninud patriots find it hard 
(o avoid duiiig' m>, and to feel lialf-oshnmed of tbeir native tongue. Tbey 
tr* often oomptfllcd to intersperse, in their conversntion, (lennnn turns and 
exprMokms for ideas, which they canm>t othcmiau moke iuLcUi^pbEc. Tlie 
town police of Pettli is in general comptdlci) to speak Ocmtnii, lU it CAO- 
not ntlierwise be sure of being understood hy the i^nt mass of the public} 
and this is olio the case with another )>rancn of the Administration, that of 
the army, (that is the ordinary stuiuling anny, and not the militia or in- 
turrtttum, a> it is called,) in whieh Gi-niiaii in m thoroughly ostaUialwd, 
that it cannot be diepUced. I notii.-^ al90 tliAt of all farirtuog, btUTMla, 
gtord'houscs, buricn, and gates, tlie Iinpcrial Aostriau colour), Uack and 

316 00BX, OR KUDjL. 

yellaW} kppearvd in ttw place of ihe fsTOuriM red. gieen, mni wliitc, of 
Huogsry. The banuhmtnt of what tuu hitherto betn ^e political knd 
d^kjnutic ^)^;ua«;v nf IIuDgary, tltc Lfttin namely, will be tmaAcatatats 
tMk ; I nv wiJl U-, for die mIiuIs matter u still to be ipokcD oF as infu* 
tunim. The Magriir Iiuif^uag« has not, like the Gvimui, straelt deep root 
iuto tlw bearte of u» people, but n^er rwciuUv* thoae plants wluch flo«t 
IdohIj in the air. h nas been by low psciiulvtl front the le^idatire uhcih- 
blia^ from diplomacy, and in a great meuuro {rom the scieiicei aitd frtm 
ib» fcboob. £vvii u lat* aa Uw preceding Bun»n«r, th« untv«nsity locturM 
CootJDUMl to be givrn in L«tiii, but tlie begiuiiin;; of tliii year was to b»j 
the filial tenn at which the Latin laiimiage vin» to exjiirv. It waa thouglit J 
that sui&citmt time would th«n have MOn given (or the proffMorf tn maku 
tbi-ni.-'t'lri-s auiutiiiitvd with the Magyar tongue ; but I &acy this 
prove, in many caaea, to ban been a mistake. 

The Austrian covenimBnt has in geii«ntl not oppowd A(M atMtnptl afc 
national aiid proviticial sejKijatioii in llic ecvcral states uultcd ucdci \U d^ 
aiitiiou. It tbiiiLit perliapi, " Dieide et imprra," but in order to make sura 
oC iba imperu, it is iit haxt ueccwary to retain the luv of iU own ' 
intht aniw. If cvtry anoof the aatutnf cotnpMiiif^ ati Amtnan aimyi 
to be rominaoded each in its own Un^uOK^, the whole would becoma 
entiidy unmanageable. The question of the employment of the Hunga* 
tiaiL lattfuagt, ewn in the anny, is nei'UtbeleH to be diicuawd in the mtb 
dkti aod the present difiaTM Oca of opinion on tliis subject witli the govern^ 
ment luis occa^oned die handsome building, erected Tor a military Bcbooli 
in PMth, to stand tiithcrto empty. The HuDgnriaiig have built it at their 
own fficpansei and will not cotucnt to ^tc it up, cji»:pt on cunditiun that 
tlic youug officers sludl be iurtnictod in tbnr iiotiTC Mngue ; thegOTcni- 
meut, however, insijU upon (iejiiian bein^ At laBgusg^, and lietmcn tha 
two, tlio boildmg iwniaiD« totally u^eleat. 1 shall be vuiioos to see wlofe 
will be llie ermtual £ute of tlwse now empty tooids. 


The passion for cold baths which prevail* more, all o%er the Austti&it 
monarctiy, than uiywliert^ elw !u (Jie world, and to wluch GraviTtiiberg 
may peruaps Imvi* cunlributed, liiiiU nltundaiit o]>portunitifls of gratiHca^J 
tion m Pcnth, and certainly if (here ever exi»tetl a rasHouable mani^ 
which promised wholcHome consequences, it is this wanu tutacbiiient to 
cold water. Not only in tlie gn»t cities, but wen iu many of Uib most in- 
signiflennt towns of Uic empire, there an exoell'eat establishments of thig 
kind to be found. Not only are there baUis on Uto Ell>e, arid the Danube, 
and the Moldau, but on the 8avi',, and the Thciss; on thfMaros^ 
and an the Koras, and on the X<*u«iod!or Lake, so that the nver-^nd may 
be eoid to jraur his bcaltli-jpiio^; Soods over the hacks of tlte whole Austri&a 
monarchy. In all public institutiont, iu schools, in bos|iila]a, iu mad*, 
hoiues, and more espedally in the army, cvcMy measure is adopted to pro*' 
mote the abandant mc of cvld aiid snimniio^ batba. In Vienna tlicy ore 
on the moat magnificent icalo, and tlie mililary man and the civilian, the 
rich and the poor, ladiei and gentlemen, young and old, heoltliy and sick, 
find tbcir way into the Danube. Th« rirefbutlui of Pcsth atv of coamo. 
OB ft cmallcr scale, and more unpretending in their style, but there is : 


deScieaey of any rtal oonreiiieQco. TbETc ue b«ths of all kmib tod miil- 
ahie to M clwsM, ftnd aa tli« mtruicw, on the niA< oa wfaocfa dWT floa^ 
are io general ticltl^r deuorMed with flowen, with > bright Unannan flag 
waving Ctxxa tha tup, thmr may he vonwAend ornamMital as wdJai wwtfiil 

Tbe Vuleauic hot hatha on tlic Ufen side, which I hmrv already mca- 
ttODcdt ant frcquoatcd by W'aWiiifuin, Scn'ionit, and I'urk^ whilst the 
rivcr-hiUhs of P»th rqjrtatiiiit lh« Ganiiaa or Wart Eniopaan c-lFnienta cf 
the eouniry. Th^ fimnrr might bo called the Vulcaaians and tiio Inctar 
Um Neptiutiflt*, amoDi; whom may gi^oeraUy be oouoted, i*^d«3 tlic Gcr- 
maiM^ the higher claaaea of Ilutigariim!*. Thia diflbfenoe is the two citin 
mav be trsoed thnrngh many nUii^r |)utiviibii%. The people of OCen have 
hoik their oi^ oci VulcAnic j^rouud, on choJk hills, and hy th« white dart 
oa tlH»r clutncB, they may generally be recognised ; the inhaUtaiit* of 
Peitli hun enctfld their dwellinga on a landy depottt from tlut river. 
The vjdMeDce of the Lutfr u bawd on couoioiee, tor which tht^y arc in- 
dAfatol to the river ; thnt of the fonocr on thrar TincynnU which corer 
their hlJla, and vxtend for lemgiiea beyond die town. 

Hhu pouiik' of Pcsth are in nJl tliu^ the ^nat rivals and antagooirta 
of (ha people of Ofvu ; and tlii; people of Ofen, althoagh thev cannot nt 
BO nucn as a ^ood pia or a ball of padtlhreiul without miming over uie 
hndge for it to tlwir n^gfabaius, and depend on tluee nei^hboun for the 
MiifVBi|>tion of thtir wines, are never tired of disputing witli and depre- 
tmliog them. Ofeu a built aa thv rig-liL bank of llie nrer in Pannonii, 
which ha« alwayi Ikvu the part of Hungary mo^t indueikCMl by Grmiuir. 
Pcatli liei on the leH hank in lite 8tO|>i)pa of Dacia, and hai thrown itmlf 
with fat man ardour iuLo tlu.- recent M&j^yar movement than ita noter citT ; 
and has alto, as the AmvriuuM m\, " gone ahead" Gir more rajndly in trade, 
in the aoquirencnt of wo&lth, and in grtin-al matertal development. Purth 
haa nKu almost » iih the rapidity of an Amtricou aty ; nhjlit Ofen, oecn- 
pied chilly Mich tlie ncred aita of Triptolemus and Pomona, lies like ■ 
qoiet aoontfy town by the tide of its bustling neighboar, and celebratM 
ui» rajitenM «f Ceraa and Bacchos. As on mort ctber euljeoto, a dif- 
fawiTB of nfiJTwm also exists bctwn-n the two towns oonccniing their 
napectrre ongin, eacb rej^rding' hor<>elf its the orif^inal, and the mother 
of the other. Aj the oariy hiitory of both is very obscure, it is not easy to 
decide the point with certainty, but the nrobalnlOT in certainly in favour of 
the fertile hi Its and slit-ltered volleys nfOfiii, nvertna »aadf of Pe>t}>.«ji^UHd 
to all the winds of the deserts. The Peathiatu are the etronger par^, 
and DOW Hut ther are advuncing' mi their rivulet oror tlieir now bridge^ 
wiU proh^y BwaUow them up. Tlie Ofinrrs arc much opposed to vba 
p roJBc t ed anialgamation of the two cities under th» name of Duda-Pesth, 
■s they oonsideT tha-t they would in that ease beoome mere mbject* (tf the 
Path boreomiuiteni. I ilircrted itiy >tepa one mohiing (after a prepara- 
tory dip ui the Danube) thnn^ the eilcnt^ durty, sunburnt streeu of 
Ofen to &at quarter of die towa wluefa may be eonsdered a< uniting the 
eatTMieepds uher history; aboundingin Booian antiquities, Roinau butlis, 
Roman tomb«, Ronuut fortilications, and linving on the little island of <Md- 
Hnda wbieb h«s opposite to it in th« itver, the new do(?l<vards, whenro the 
new steamboats are laundied into (he Denabe. Thcw ducks werv built by » 
Paatli shipowoer, awl the whole island, which \» ovcrgmwii with laigv tnei, ii 
oeeupied Dv then. There an not lees tbiui fivo liandred paopki oomtaatJy 
omplojai an thuni, Erom couuttias czpcriencvd in sliip and boat buildiDf } 



wanmg Uwrn I finnd eight or iua« £iiglubiDeo, fifty or eixhr lUliMts, from 
tb« Italiui fOttt of Aiutru, vchicti fnniish bridgv luxl ^hi]i builders for tbo 
whols Dnnulxt, nn*) Bonic from iha Rhine mnd mini SvriUterlBnd, who have 
•9D» experi«n«« i» the st«funlioats uiedon iaiand IaIcm and nv<-». Thera 
were ahn Dutchowa antoo^ them. Eleven itMrabosts have bF<ni Inuiidinl 
from thia donkysnl, and thotv an not in tlifi whole more llian tweuty on tlie 
Dvtubo nnd \u tribiitancs. Itis ignnt dUoidvantAgA ta theso resceli, tJiat if 
ftny If pain for the machinety arc required, they aro obliged t^i be aeut to 
VieuDii. Oa the whole, aceordiog ta what I hmrd from onsof t)iv Dutch* 
men engaged here, it appean that the engines are made too Bniall, and the 
vcMcU ait) too heavily ladcD. Ko lesi thao two milliott iloriua' wi^rth of 
materials in iron, vroad, ropes, chuuc, )te., have htcn mMrxtcd on this 
iilaiid and t\vfie when made up into utoamboaU will, it may fairly he atiti- 
cipatMl, yi«)J to Iluiif^arv sii nnipiv inturcrt for the capital invo«tC4l. 

Among the vewcls ulill on tho stocks, was one iron one, the thiuoess of 
which HRiiLzcd i». Giitz Ton Berliehingen, mid Kum voii Kaufungen, 
woTp thi•^ll01' plalM on iheir hreuts. Some chains niiuip in Kiij^loud, and 
othcn made here, were nhowti to \u, uiitl ii wui a difference like that of 
<lay and ii)g;)it- I tnixt I ahall never have to lie at anchor Mith atiy hut 
an Rn^liKh eliaJn. 

The Itomau remains lie mostly ndowava from Old Buda, and are aaid 
to be partly sunk in a marsh, bul I did not rtsich them, having spent too 
much time in the Mftr^rLn^t'j Inland, searelun^ for tlie remains of an an* 
cieut bath wfaiuh arc oiJy visible when the water is low* Aa there is no 
reason, from tho iiaturvof the oiTound, to Bupnosc it can hare nunk, thU 
lui^ht afford a standard by which to e^itimace how much the level of the 
l>imuba has been rained sinoethc time of the Romans. 

Tlii5 Mai;^rct'a Island in about half a, niilo long, and wry narrow ; it 
bnlougi at prpwtit tn thi> Arciiduke Piilatioe, who has chimgcd tiw whole 
Burfaoa of it into a beaudful garden, formerly open to thd public at Urge, 
but now only to a few riaiter^, ou acuount of »oiiie injury done to thii |)laR- 
>»tiona. A convent, a church, and Aitiiie honxes wrru erected here hv the 
prinoeM Margaret, dau^ilor of King Bela IV., but these wcr» afterwards 
laiil in athas bv the Tatan. 

Extendiiit; from the town aJon;^ the whole shore of tlie Danube, lie re- 
getfthhi gaixlens, producing piinoipally cucuiiibept, melon*, and immense 
quantities of apples of Paradise, ai they are call<'il. Thoy reminded me 
of the Bashtau!*, tlie Tatar vc;^tnhle gardens of South Itiusin. Krery 
garden is [irovided with its own well, and at a certain time of die dajr 
hundreds of the^e wells are to he seon in full activity, as the soil is ex- 
ceedingly dry. In tlie suburhi of Fc»th arc also many vc^-table (gardens, 
but thc«e are almost enUrely ot'i-uiiicil with cabbages, for which the people 
of Hungary have uu •xtn&ordinarA- partiality. There fin< parts of UW 
country whore the peaMnts aro in the habit of bvilini; a htis>? pot of it at 
the bef^iiiiing of Um week, and waniiingv it up every tiny. I'hey maintain, 
that the oftener it is warmed up, tin; better it is, consequently iievttr ao de- 
lioous aji on tho itcventli day. 

W«paMed to tlic Caatlu Ilill throiig-h Ncn-difl, rind the VFa*er Town ( the 
two RUMt villanous parts of tho city, inhabited by a population made up 
of odds and cnd», from ail Uie natiunu r>f Evirope, Italians, Geniian^:, 
Spaniards, Poi-tugucse, &e., fragments of tho Austtian army which be- 
dogcd Ofeu under Charles of Lonnine, and recovered it from thu Turks. 

OPEN, OR Bin>A. 


^fter the conqoot of the place, tbej- rcc^fed grants lA land luid settled 
here, and hav» loo? since become so completeK' Germaiiii^J, llut th«y 
caa he disiinesishea by little else (liati their luiiiiea. 

Tbese Euoily name*, utd tin; iuihilii of tlie diQVrvtit lulls are ucaily all 
tliat remain to ipeak nf the days of drully strife hy wliich tbe«o fertile 
Undi h*v« besa m oftra laid waste. The Swaliiaii liUl when tlw G«r> 
mans wen cneos^ed ; the Eag-W hill wh^ro the <i<>iul bcndii*! of thousands 
oCTuilts ven deTOored by great fli^Iita uf taglm, &c. Of all die build- 
ings that covered the Castle bill— tlie auAiif ni the Hutigariim ViiAyr^, tlie 
ChrUciafi eliurehes, and ttie JMnfiomodan t«mpW — seiu-crly nuo uttsnp ii \t(t 
Ufoa aDOtliar. Tho trrriblc devaatstioas to wKich Iliin^niv iim been ex- 
posed,— fiom the Tatars on the cast, m the thirtwmh cenlury, from the 
Turks on the sontb in the siitc^nlh and sevi-ntoenUi, and tlieir tierce wars 
with the Germans aiid otlicr liiompvan tiationa for tt« po»cHioii,' — have 
rwFpt away the traces of former grratopsg more completely ilinii in any 
OlJier capital of Kurope. Moscow, Cracow, Warsaw, iJotTCi(liitnn<lin>r the 
leniblc atoniis Oi«y lure pajiwd tlirougli, liQYe tlill moru antique remains 
to nbnw than tbo pcincipal ntictt of HungFLr}-. 

There is aa annoury oii tliis CsstU> Iiil1 said to contain armt for eigh^ 
Ibotuand men; and among tlio ebjcctj nf interc^ preiervpd in it ix come 
■muKtr said to hare beau worn by Attila {jiruijablv not geaulne, but in- 
tcrestioK &am the long-continiicif bt^li<?f in iti aimiKntJcity), luid tlic nr- 
Bunr of Ziska, llio renowned Hii«sito lioro, the iron of which is so thick 
tbat it s««ms (cucely potsiblo that a human bein^ could have worn it. 
fiereral of the pieces had to bo screwed together on his body. Thure is 
aba ft relk of Uie French Revolution in the ihape of a red cnii of liberty 
meanted «b a long pole, ami a thick silk hnnner, once earned by t)i« 
Austrian crusadcn to Palestine — which, if it really mndi' niii'li a 3'^^"'*^^> 
is in EUipnsin^y good presenadon. There are beeidi'i. baituprt of tnc 
French Republic, of the Renpubltca Cisolpina, and of the Carbonari of 
Naples, tin; latter reprcscutiiig a cap vf liberty bctwceu two dogj^n, with 
LJi* words, " Efftuilianze o morte.' Siihordinttziont nlU Irt/t/e mtlitari ;' 
m curiotu collection of trophies! but tliey may serve tn ]ioiiit out tho 
interest wliivL Hungary hw tuktrn iu these vaiiuiu occurrences. 

There are in Ofen great magazines of saltpetre, an article produced in 
tlwM«ppes of Hungary io as great abundiuive, luiil of » gmiil n (jnnlily as 
h) the (sJtpetro diUricts of Tndift. The llungannns, Slnvoninne, and Rus- 
aians call this article HtJniter, nr in Magyar Saletrom, both whitrh words 
grs prolmbly comiptinni of tlie L.itia vioruatal nUruni. Out Mhenco coines 
pur word iialtp<'.trc ? Dom it, porhnpx, originnte in a coufounding of the 
two words nilrum and pelrum f The <|uantity of this ar^clc exported Io 
Austria is usually ei tiina.ted at ten thousand hundred weight, and smaller 

rntides are exported to Poland and other uounlries, the latter chiefly 
the «e of drugfpst^ but at Presburg a great part is mode up into 

Tne Castle of Ofen, the lesidEnco of the arehdnke Palatine, stands on 
the lite of that of the ancient kingn dcmoliihed during tlie Turkish time, 
it ia a spacious and liundsomu builduig, and its |>a!<ilion U coiuuiamling, 
Init llian is notliing very renifirksble in tlie interior. Tlie princij^Hl 

rtments are adorned with pktures, battl»-piacas from tba evciils uf 
thirty years' war, Maria Tlunaa in her corooation lobce, &e. By a 
courtesy, whieh in Hungary is seldom denied to .<iirang('n>, we easily 
ohtaiaed psnaisNOn to riut Ike whola caAle, including the apaitDienti 



of the BTcliducliefis. On tlu> ubU b bar dmibj^room. Ut a portrut of 
Zuikcndorf, a biUe, and a petitioii to be pTtsenUd to 1\m on h^r rvtiira. 
Ill her iiaual ntting-room stood t afnuninj^'whccl— und & littlo hariequin, 
and some plitvUii»g« for her diiliucn ver« Hiog about. On the walla 
of tliia room hung the portrait* of tho Arvhuuke Stcphfii, and hu twiti- 
BistCT. He is au active, intelligent, smiaMc vouDf^ man, aiid is a great 
favourite in tluagxry, where he is rc^itnlrd as (lie fiiture palatine. tJioce 
th* last iininilstidu ctpecialljrt in which he made great and IteneToUut 
•Mrtioaa, lie lias bean aoMtliogly popular, and liia portraits liave becD 
much iimltiplied throuyrhout tin rmpirv. The early death nf tJio boau- 
tiftil mid ainiuble l*nncesa Ilelinine, his iLitvr, has Wu a subject of ge- 
neral and siDcoro lamantation. 

Tlie proqwet &oin the wiiulov-s of the ca>t]«s tli« najoctic breadth 
the Danube — the mij^ilieeiiC qu:i^ njntiiiig along tlte opponte sliore — the 
eity of I'osth with iu far stretching suburbs enoircli!d by u» distant forej^ 
M tndy mognificenL 

In ono wiR^ of the castle n«id«i no Itn a ;>mnRa^ than the" Coromt 
enm Clrnodih tuts." Wiene\-er one heart; a Iluitj^arinii ^[icaliiiig of tfais 
baubl«, one eau hardly help lancyiug it mnst bo (oni« beloved princeiu aud 
httr eliildri'ii. It Km an a|tu1inent of its own wlucJi do one is allowed bo 
oiitrr, niUi an niit^chatnbor where two Khihsra keep wateh day and night. 
It has a guard of its own of sixty-four man, who have no other duly Utaa 
tlie very enCvrtaiiiing one of relieving guard in this chamber. Thnr 
Wnnrk nr guard -hiiiMc is situated oppoKite to that wing of (ho oa«tlo ia 
■which the crown tvfi'ift. Ill* windown of its room arc u-ailcd up, loavinf 
only two air-h»le«i, and the door is of iron with three mii^hty locJis, the 
It^y* of whidi at* kept by three great officers nf die empire, II lies i 
ail iron ehcst with a costly lininj*, loeki-d and Healed with the 6ve ssel 
of the king, the pniuate, thv palatine, and the two other koepon of Uw 

At coronations it is tnken out in the nR>sence of all these oflieeH^ 
escorted by il« "wd ^uard to Presburg, »na received by the authorities at 
tlie bouiidiuy of eaeh c<imiiat. After llie ceremony it Is returned with 
the «ain« |>niiip to the ftately seclusion of its own apartment^ before whicfa 
two greiiadiciv ngniii keep watch anr) ward. 

In spite of all the care with which it in kept, there is, perliapfl, no crowo 
in Europe that has seen to many vici«<Itudea. It wtu once in pawn with 
the FlniiH^ror of Gennanj, onee for a '""g timn at the> raatle of a nobto- 
man in TraafvlTania, once it fell into tlie banda of rohbera, and Jo*enli II., 
to tile great aissatUfartJon of hi* tlungariaii mibjecln, nirncil It tJ> Vienna, 
Its return, under Lenpoid If., wfw like n triiTTn|ih»iit pniroiwion. What 
ocpeaied to me roost curioiw nbouc ibis crown wa^ tliat it contcf half from 
the East — from Cniistantinople, and half irom the We*t (the Germanic 
RoiMii emure), from Rome. 

The golden ring or fijecheaii band wna presented to the nungarian king 
Geytai m t076y by the tipiptror Docas ; the two pieces arched over the 
tO]i are fragments from ttie crown letit by Pope Sylvester, in tlie yooj lODO^ 
to St. Stephen, Ait and workmanship, language and charactcm, are also 
strikingly contrasted on tbo two (idv«, the one being Bynutiue, the other 
Roman, and thai the whole seeniB symbolically to reprencnt no less the 
0DOgm|iliienl position of Hungary between the east and the west, between 
the Italian and Greek peninsulas, than its religious and political reUtioai 
coiinocting Byuiilium and Itomc. 

'"Iff 1 






Tho collection* tlut bave u jPt hvmi made at Pmh an uot of much 
in)|)ortauce. Tltia a ov'iag p&itl)' to Uic Tuikisb tptrit uf dainidMNi from 
the eaft, u\A tbo spirit of ooBsenation of die Vimni ixxniu frnm the west. 
(It u ».mn^ tlia.1 al every Ehadi topic that aruM m Hnnouy, we can 
■aldom »)iajM^ our T*fl«£tioa pr^r^y, till wo Iwve caat oiie ^auci: towaiU 
the liaiDg. and another towajd the Mtting sun.) Thi- Tmki luiit.- tliv Af 
stmctioQ of innumerable conreut libfariM to answer for, as wall aa that oi 
tho cftlcbntcd librai^ of Corsinaa, whioh had b«en fonnod at Bitdai and of 
wImIi a fxkrt vju burut, unJ thv rcmoindiT dispersed otct all Bumpe. 
Tlie seal of the coUeclunt of Vii.'niiti has, ou the other hand, deprived llun- 
nty of inuch of late yevs, fur as soon aa any ihin^ interesting; hta bcOQ 
dmoTcnxl aaywhvru iu the country-, \'ivuiiB lias ffviii;nil}- hud rloiiu to it^ 
better pricea for tb!nga of real vawe hnag obtained there. KevenheleM, 
there is no lack at P«rth of cunoutioi of one sort or pn"tliT that will well 
repay a straoKcr for the trouble ha tskee in lisitiiig thfiio. 

My lint «uit of this kind vas to the Hunganan National Miucuni, 
whien was founded duel!/ at the 8ugfi;ciilion of Count Sscechniyi, who ad- 
Tascad a coowdcraUe sum to start tho undertaking^. I was not able to 
see all the fine tluDfifs preserved there, for in consequenoc of a new ic^inple 
for l!ie Mines being in tlic couno of con^truL-tion, the whole coUectJon had 
b<>eti removed to another house, and many arttdes liad been packed awi^. 
The cnlkction, couiidered a* a natiomat inueeum, U ttlU rerv iiwompUrto, 
though it contains excellent speotmens of the miiiermlogy of tne kiu^om. 

Among the xooloncal tpeouaent I raw tlio fj^iuine Iluiigvrian sheep, 
the rai>« that the ancient Magyars brouglit with them ov«r the CuqMtliians> 
ftod which is now becoiniDg every day umm acnrce. It lua larg^ horns, 
more tliaa two feet in length, standing wide apart. The people of the 
country know tlie auimol und«r the iHUQie of the Magyar liott, or MtgjV 

All llie Hungarian lubes of the Danuhe, tlw Tlitan*, and th<^ Baltklon, 
of wlkicb to luaay, well seasoned with /Mprika, had, at rimoiu tioie^ 
fi|rtir»d beibro me on the taUt, were to be bc«u at this muaeuni, either pre- 
served in spirit, or coiefblly staffed and nailed up against the woU. 

The vojioufl descriptions of herons also were not wanting, tho birds whose 
CDatlkem are particularly aoui^t for, oi decovatiwis for the kalpahs of the 
eotisof the UnngviaB mwnates. The pvrple heron tuu only two or three 
black fntfiers oa Us beaoTand ttx-se, the most expeaiiTe of Uieir kind, ore 
deitiBed only for die boimets of the highest and mt-M wealthy. 

Among ue specimens of the line wtt*, I stopped to admiic, witii some 
intercat. a piece <tf embroidery, rvjinnuuting the partisit of tlur: King of 
Hungary. Tho artist, it seems, was poaseased of a uLera of white sUk as a 
groujidvtotk, but htong too poor to purchate voiwurvd silk, resolved to com- 
plete her work with ber own atilfum lialr. 

In «ue room theto had becui oolleeted a multitude of ihinge wliich could 
hardly fail to be of great historic*] value to the nungarians ; such as s 
nl^er shirt of mail that had once bduoged t« Stephen Bathocy, and various 
otlier pieces of armour eutiobled by those who in their respediire day* bod 
worn them. Among the uins, tno most remukable ftn the sword, the 




bow, Mul the vTowi of AttUt, whom tlw Hurttwiuu delight to dengnat* 
u the Hungwi&n Napoleon. A battner ii IUmwin iboira of tli* ool»- 
l>»t«i] iiiMirgetit RkluM^, vith the mottn^ Den* non derelingtiet Jiulam 

Id a few years, wben tlw buililiiie I have epokca of 15 (tnUlxK], tint ia* 
tenatii^ collectiou will male a very ilHTncnl aiipranincc (rom what H 
doM now. It wilt, At the mate time, be much enlar^ ; for smerkl private 
eoUeetioM b^n bMui purchu«<l, with a view to their beinc t<ddw], and the 
Utisenm of Pcttb wiD iImii bo rntitlcd to take n brcnnuiif ptw^v aiuooff 
tbe museums of Europp, anil will present to th« Imntnl world mmDr a 
tnasurc, the exiEtcnee of which pe^ha.plisatpI«wntspBI»elyltDOwn. "niB 
I9«w buildiii); wliicli is rapidly lulvanciu); tjwaids com^tioai will b* ft 
sjil^'iiiliil pil<! of Krchit<.-<'tiin', mid ilo DxtHTrmu nn-nti to be siured upoa it. 

Tbv omy objeRlion 1 liavo to it is, that it ii pke«d too fu- sway from Uie 
ctntral part «f the town, and ia a quarter «ccup«d chiefly by imiall aad 
mean-lookiag boiuea. The prewnoe of the museum, hnwever, may hare 
thi> elfect of gradually improvmg tlw ^llft^t(^r. 

The tint hall, on mt^^nti^, is to be a tort of pAnthMtn, in which the ata- 
tues of HuDg'iuian her»ra and diatin^tshpd men arc to be erected. Uad 
the iirchil«et ei)ii«ulted me. an unprejudiced layman, respecting the propOT^ 
tionn of thi* hall, 1 ohoulfl hare told him I coniideied it a great deal too 
lofty, in proportion to its Irngtli and breadth. IIk liall 15 only i'urty fo«t ui 
diameter, aiid Keemed to me to be ten or twelve fathoms hiijh. It haa, in 
eon(e<|iieneo, thn air nf a tower rather tliaii a hall, and two rows of laag 
thin coliunos. one row orer th* Mhcr Iiht* to support the whole. On 
leaving the Pantheon, you cnt^r, right nnd Irft, upon long- ru'ttet of rooms, 
running rounil a tjuadrangle ; and lu thero am two floont. lie«ic)«i a hue- 
mt-nt »U>n-, Uktc will be abundance of spAce to afford tlie IlungariaiUl 
rooni^ for mniiy years to come, for the exerci-ie of their antiquarian acal. 

Of tlw libraries of Posth, tltat uf the IjuiviTnIty ii the niiut (mmidenhle. 
It contains OO^tlOO volumes, and, like ino«t of tlie praisewortJiy iimtitutioni 
of Atutria, uwM its existtnco to Joseph 11. In the anteroom nf tbe 
library is a nUc of another great Hungarian colleetor of books. King 
Miitthias Corvinus. namely his coat of arms, wrought in th« red murhle of 
Neszmely, which is still in such general uie at Peith for architectonic do- 
coratiuiis. This coat <if unnn, 1 was tntd, was the only particle of tbe 
royal iinraw of Buila tliat wbh not destroyeil during tne period of the 
Tiifkisn occupation. The crr.-st of Cnrvinus was a raven with a ring in 
lus beak. It «eenu that in his youth, n giildi-ii rin;^ wai stolen from htm 
by a raiTti, which was AHid by lits sooihxnyrm to denot« much and gr»t 
good fortuiwi. Wbtn, at a i)ibMX|uriit period, he had reiuon to faelteve 
IM prophet^ bad been home out, h« took the raven &ud tbe ring under hia 
eepecial patronage. 

Thece wa* much analogy between the chnrortpr* of Josepli and Mat* 
tfuai; and it might well reward th<i trouble, nere same one to institute 
a Eompanson bi-twcen tliun. Josqih, according to a well-known anec- 
dote, once drew several furrows with a plough, in Moraviit, that h« uiight 
be able to judge from his own experience what the nature of the laboor 
wad. An aiiccuotc of a similar cliarsctvr u told of Corvinus. When be 
was once holding lits court in the (liiniiir comitAt, he proposed, one dav, 
aft«r dintier, to liis iioble gueets, to go and labour iti a vineyard. The 
Idog himself, a vigorous ciad lirelj y^uag man, wi-nt about hii work with 

THE JEWg or PBflTH. 243 

rigbt good will; but liu nnUe usUuinU vfcre toon tired, and beg«n to 
eomplnin of the exniions ramurad of tlMnii. Thereupon the kiof^ difiuiucd 
tliwn, hut urg^ed tbeni, at tan tuae time, never to fiMg«t wlia.t InUiur it 
cost the peMaiit ti^ produce wliat they often expeooed witti so much 
leritv. JoMph tnd luuhiu botli ditnl in the prime of life, uid the tlcsth 
nf each was ■ mffiml for iVJcMciii;; to lh>> prolnUt and tho oligarclu; of 
•oiTow and Uineotation to tfa« dtitvai and ucofaati^'. At Jo>«ph'ii denth, 
the pt&sants cried out one aiid nil, " we Dave lott » father ;" aiul when 
Con-tDtis wan tnlu^i from tlieiu, tlidr in}in{^ was, " with hint jostieo ia now 
dead ill Hunn^ry." 

In the large nail of the libraiy, I found two old globes, executed at 
Venice at the time of tlie l)og« Morasitii, nad two new onet of niodoni 
BunffaTian manubcttm. From these 1 w&j ablo to jucEfi^ of tho proj^rcGS 
llu! MiigTKr lBt)^a|*(i has oiadc, tlio e<|iuUor, itiu ecliptic, and most of the 
oniiKiellatJons haviuf^ already received tWr M>n>rsl ITutifpirian appellations. 
Amon^ the books I toolc up, wtu a sper«h by Count Balh^any, debvered 
on the inai^umtioii of a HKinunieiit of Joaepli II. I esiKxicd to find aa 

t tioffe of tha dtoeuad «mpcror, but found to my tntiituv one of the then 

Lknnff tovuMgn, Ftmneia. 

With picture-galleriea Pe«th ia rety pooriy sn{>plie<I, tho«e of tl>e Huii- 
gBTian maptates wltn interest tlieioselves for tiie fine arts, ba.»ing llieir 
eolloetionii (^)erally at Vienna. The only line pietureM I nw at Ftwlli w<>ra 
thoM of a merchaiil, of the name of Uutr, who u an enthuiiait for tbo 
BTts, and a member of no Icm tJian six furci^ ocudctoics. 



The -whole kingdom of Hungary contained in tit» year 

1785 . 73,(XK) Jevr* J .. . e. _, 

18M . . . 246.000 „ 1 

1»37 .... 25-1,000 „ ) 
Aecordiof^y in tlw yvar 1842, if we take an 4verag« anuual iucrMW of 
.8000 K>ub, tiicir number must liavr reached 270,000. In tifw yoan, 
themfore, the Jeir» have more thau trebled In Hungary, wliiUt the wbda 
poptdation of the couatr; wat in 

17H5 7,000,000 

1839 IJ,9"3,00O 

1K42 I2,U0«),000 

The whole population, therefore, has Dot neariy dottbled) whilv the 
number nf the Jcwm haj trebled. Tliit ii a remancable tad. 'Sext to 
tialicia, Hungnrv >( tlmt |NUt of tlic Au:itniui empire wlitcli contains the 
VKwt Jews. Gaiicia. indeed coutoim oa mauy Jews tt Hungary, vhUe it« 
mtire population in only oncchird as great. 

Although there are parU of Hungary where thoy ore by law frftiidden 
to settle, tuch m CroMio. Slavonia, and the Military frontier, yet the Jews 
have nln-nj-s playrd an im)iartant put la tlua conntiy, and there were tune* 
when all the money nud Erode of the couotry WM in their hands. In Inter 
times, Joeepb II. in vain laboured for their social im]irovvmont, and the 
ditft >« now occupied, ill imitMum of Utc other gaiitruuienU of Europe, in 


Tin JEWS or rwTB. 

extefuUng tlinr rij^U, ImprorinK their character, wid ameEomtiDg^ Ihor 
condition, by grwliuillv blending them nith the reit of tlw popuiatkia. 

Siue)i i« done bj tne J«w« th«mwlvea taward* the furtaMsce of tliia 
object. >ad the refimi of the Jewah churcbcs md ticboalfl it Berlin, 
Vienna. Ptigoe. ud otlwr ptaoMi hn gma rd impulse to sim]»r refonna 
ia Hmguy, The Jewuh c*<ni^r(^tion of Perth, amntuitinj* at prefl»at 
to 1400 £uiulic», arc tulluwiug ibc i-.\uni['li> >ct tltctn by th»i of Vicuna. Tbs 
J«in hen an diridtrd into two pnrtic*, I'dte thoM at Pragve and Vienna; 
tlion who anpport the new and thoae who support tbs old tyKem of things. 
Hy leamed Rabbinic*! &i«ad, M. Schwab, plays the part of a mediator 
l>etve«D the two parties, seekiap to conciliate tlieni by evcrjr meaos in ttis 

The J«wii hen ar« limilar to those of Bohemin and Poland, from -which 
countrin they han rMcared the most fre«]tient rdnCorcements. The 
SpanitK and Orienta] Jmi/f, of whom tliere ia a nnaU tytlniij botli here and 
at Vienna, are luid to hn ()rcr«a«tnfj in nttmban. Th<wo Spantsh Jew* 
came origtnalljr op the Danube ^m Constnntinoplc. The immigratioa 
&Oiit an opponte clirMtion. from Poland and Bohemia, eontinues even to tho 
prvM-tit day; and Bhonld the liljeral intentions of ihe la*t diet, which would 
enable them vvea to doimm landed pn.>pi-rt}', be earned into cSect, Um 
iimnigmtion wiD continue to inciran-, and the Jrtvs will Veep flocking 
towarda Hungury as lowardJ another land of promL<». 

Four timca even jt»r a large number of Jem os-temble in Peatfa from 
Moravim Sdeda, Cncaw, and Lcinber^, mAny of wlioui tivm laotingooa- 
nexiviit in tht> aty, and remain here, The motit industrious and en- 
lightened ar« those who eome from MomTia and Bohemia ; indeed, tliu in- 
fluence of Bnbeiuia uu Hnn^^y is alwars lieneficiiil hihI improving. I 
have Npakeii al>ove nf tlic intlueixv of tlic^ IV)lieniiaii mmmfacturcn who 
come to HungAT}'. Of Hw kIx t^m-hen at tlio new Jewish school of Ptstli, 
four arc BoliL'mian«, and only two [Iiin<;ariana. The influx of w<^l-in< 
formed and intelligent fioiieminii Jnr« will probably be somewhat leeaeocd 
by tliv circuinstant-e. Uiat for the future all teaehera in theae (choola are to 
speak and toa^-h the Hungarian language. The native 3cvt of Pesth have 
taken wp the caujc of Mugynriiiiii with grent rmiI, and there arc many, 
among whom mn- *everal Jeniili Iiuli4% who $peak nothing but Iluogarian, 
take ID only Hutigariiui joiiniuU, n»d affect to detpiu^ evoiy thing German. 

1 viiit^d tho hc*t Jewish bov^'-w-'hunl in Pcjth dunng tho writing, 
drawin", and history lessons. It (iinlfiincd tlircc hundred scholars, among 
whom I law litde beggar-boy* in ragged jaclaHs, rented *i(le by side with 
the ehildren of the riclieat meroliant^ in the city. The children who are 
taken in their cirhtli, ninth, and t<>i)th jtrttn, apeak only German, and 
■ddom nndeatana the Hungarian tonguo; they learn it grammatically ia 
the lower, and Bpeali and write it in thp upper classed. It is said to be yeiy 
difficult to find competent tcachcra ; for the Jews Imre nevi-r l)eeii ac- 
customed to write tlic Hitrigarinn languagi". Tlif Jwwa of IKuignry and 
Poland linve a German and a llebrGW litcruturo, but no other. 

TIte method of teaching hiat<>T}' uicd among the Jews of Petth 
ftpjienu'd to me very good. The tvachcr fir*t dictated to tho chiU 
ilrvn A xhtyrt skeleton of the suhieet in hand, eontatning the principal 
filets, with named and dates, which they wrote down and Icomt by rote 
ftt home, after wliich ho |>roceedcd lo relate the wholo in d«Uul. This is 



tmUj t))« only proper ineUiod of tcacliioK liiitory ia tcboole, and H >• ■ 
gTMt pity it is not more gvncrallr itili<;iu-J. 

I notjcnd Cimt nonio of tlx! tulioliut luul irriUcn down a Itiir Hiin^^arimi 
words OH tlipir tlati«. It contAincd a. petition for wwim fclli>w puyii, but 
it wm some tinio before the tnasler could dn-ipttcr and Hodrrstaiid it. 

The lUbbU of Pestli lead a very rciirM Ufi!, alnioit aJuravi at hi>nrut, 
never goinff to any tli«&trv, and v«ry wUlom to any other place of public 
Mill— iBnt. My acquaintaucc. M. ScKwnb, t«ld lao tlmt many Icanicd 
J«wiib boola ara now pnntod at Zolkicr in Galicia ; but the Talmuil 
nUBt alvayi be pHnt(^d eilber nt Vieniiu or Prague. Salibach mid Dur- 
rciifort am alto places wbvrc many Jvvtish bitolti were forun-Tly published. 
Tlii^ ndc about the Talmud. pn>bab!y owe* ita crigin not to iiny dittincC 
law, but to certun difiiculties m the orthodox manner uf printing it, whioh 
«Ari only bc> owrvomc at tliv great printing eitabllsbment^ of Praftu« and 
ViHiuia. I saw for instance, in my friend's librar)-, a Wgn I'aliniul in 
^tii«lv9 volumes, printed at Vienna; it was n Ba'bylotuan Talmud, fur 
B^M of Jenitalcm is bcUI in I««s c«t«ent here, as (liroiiji^hi>iit l)i« Jewish 
irtrld. The .VwAmn and Gemara wen ininted in lar^ letters in the 
|]itd<lti-, and round it ran, in snail kitt«tn, a lm^:ul Ixuxler of ni>tej, reRiarks, 
and explanstioiu, by the celebrated Frmich Rabbi Sulimntn Junchi, wboM 
vpiiions aitd ofamrratiooa are Iicid in great voncratioa by his natJOB. 
Ifouiid Oii.i a^iii. in still sniallrr Icltvn. tliiws onotliGr bonier of learned 
snu»tatii>nti, by different othtn- u-li^bratMl Rabbit. Is not this svtulxilical 
in aoiDS tneasure of the *>hi>le J«wiiili ty*teia of religion — a littlii test cuf 
troth aad wiadom toat ainid a fluod of learned wordy jargon ? 


]t in ft womewhat melancholy fikct, that tlw trun^ftHf, xealofls m 
they are for iJie attainment und nrwcrration of politsca! ftocdom, have 
forgotten to take pn>eaulions for tlie bodily h«-alth (ind vorufort of ihntr 
. Boorar eountnmeii, and, whilst sdmirtng the promfulitudt! with whieli 
IvMV ftmuilMa funds for the building of the national theatre, the Ilun- 
gunan mnaeiim, and tliv^ magnifioMit bridgn owr tli<^ ItiuloW at Pesth. 
vre in vain intfniro afW th« provinon made for th« eomfort of their poor 
and (heir aick. 

Ill all tTungaiy there is not one hospital, pooi4ioun>. alnuhouae, or luna* 
lio Barium, mippnrtwl or instituti-d 1iy govennnoiit. Tln' care of The poor 
•nd vtt tici dcvoIvM entirely (with the viceplioa of a few liospit&ls ouiJt 
fay benevolent private indiviJuala, or by tlie mn^traleA of towns) upon Iho 
monks and duus ; the state docs nntliing for them. This is not bo moch 
tho fitulc of Austria, u of the Hungarian aristocracy. It is almost in- 
credibly and yet it is a vreU-luiown fact, that in the year 1793, attentioQ 
«aa firrt called to this state of things by Dr. HafTnei-, in a " nropocal to 
the public of Pesth for the ereetion of aa homital." By tlie influence of 
this benewlent physician, the Hoapilal of St. noctiR wni at last fiiundiHl. 
It u DOW nnder the superiutendeiioe of the universally respected and ea- 
tMrnad HetT von Windiich, the tuecessor of Dr. UuFher. The pnwnt 
Ripcrint<-ndent lias ver^- much rnlargcd tlic building. It is now capable 
of containing three huudnnl patients, and is tlie hirgMt in Ilungary. In 


ft. FcteivWri VieniK, and Paris, then arc hoapttnla capable of contaio* 
tag M mtny uomsndi. 

It it not mv puipose here to |>;ivc a fiiU account of tbii honiit»l, which 
I am indcrd not capable of doiii^, but mervly to collect » fw facts of 
general tuterwt re$pMtin^ it. It contains aoiii<> momt for luiiatio, a nry 
neeeuMy provition, for io nil Uuiigary tbrre ts no Iniiatic asyluin, and 
Innatica an gweiallv c(>ii6iM>d in tlw cominnn criniiiial jails. Tbu ia 
iDUnded pcfupt to nHnp«-iiEat» (or t)iv practice jiuciiued in G«nnaiiy and 
Bnmt nthcr eouotriiM, wh^ra criminals arc ofi«n mercifully considrM^l U in- 
aaoe, and seat to luoatio asvluniii. The Uuiij^iaiu am said to be funotu 
and miscfaiDrona vhen mad; n fact wlii*^ tbeir choleric a»d ntL-lanchoty 
Umnenunent rend«n vary pnibabla. 

Swh crimioala m also oHen wnt to tb« I]o«|iital of St. Roche. This i* 
not ri^lit, for alt tbe cominaa vulgar prerjudices affainst hmiiitols nrc liable 
to be coiitinned in the minds of the people, when they see them used, 
tbouoh only partially, «• plaoos of eoa6iMineDt for crintinali. All prisons 
and nouses uf ccnroclion ou^ht to havo tbcir own infinnanca. Tlir pr«- 
mdC sysum is, besidM, a great encroachmeriC anon the benerolence of the 
foundon and Bitnport«ra of the institution, and a cerious hardship to th« 
excellent medical olFictm attached to it. 

The Ilirlap, a Journal nf which I hare already sereral times made men- 
tioi>, rocordu tlio astoiindiii^ fact that no fpyrer than 2-SO corpses tm aa- 
auolly found in the streets, of whom no oae knows where th»y conio from, 
or how they died ! I wiut ti^lil nt tlie linspiinl that this number was gmoaly 
«xagg««tttou, and that »ii aci-uraU) ci^mputatioii would reduce the averaga 
mmiber to littl« mor« thftn t«t'enty-fi\-c. Even this iiunitier, however, ap- 
peared to me osionishitigly large. 

The country about lliv lower Danube, tlie Banat. the Balshks, &&, if 
Icnown to be eoostantly liAblo to inl^nnittent ffivers. Teraeivor ii con- 
lidured (Iw centre of Llw fever district, but in proportion as wc ascend tin 
river wo come to regions leas and IftM Dubjeut to fever. The summer of 1841 
liiid been one of tlie most healthy ev(tr Icnown at PeaLh. Tlie weather hail 
been very b-jt. but free fri)ni any sucldcn varlatiou. This must have beeo 
benefici^ ui general health, for tlic hospiul thnmi^hdut the summer con- 
tained leu piitiunts \jy one-third tlian the uauiil average. So sntall a 
number hnd never been known to be in the hospital- alncc its fonnilation. 
On the 18tli of July, (lie dAy on which J lu-nnl iiiin, tlie tlivnnoineter 
stood at 42^ of Reaumur in the shade. 

During- the t^iirihle inundatioii of March, 1838, the Iloipital of St 
Bocbe, which wiu the largest and strongvA buildiDg for some distanco 
round. c»nt^ncd no fewer lluiii 400CI inliabiUnts. All tlicrRe who lied to 
the hospital as to an ark in thn waters, wero supported there for three . 
days fnun the funds of tlie Iiospiial. The rations were dealt out to then 
iu Btnall and prudent portitini, under tho snperiTiLeiidtnice of ou eicellcnt, 
benevolent, and energetic ladv. with whom 1 hod the honour to become 
pCMonallv acquainted during my stay in I'estli. The fliwid ri>*<' ropidly, 
but tlic directors liud had ttie timely caution to remove all the patients fron 
the ground-floor. The situatian of the lioipital, with the mournin<( and 
despairing thousotidi of hungering, oiling, and dying human ereaturee 
whom it contnued, inwit liuro been at tlio timo indcocribably drewlfuL 
jVfter the intindation was over, no kss than 450 drowned bodies, mostJy 


ibose of chQdran, vasbed up by tlie waters of Ihe riv«r, or fotutd in dia 
Miv<ts> nerv Iftid out iti tliu couit}'Unt of tliU liofpital itlnuc, tliat they 
aaifht be owned Ity their friends. I have of^cii itpokpn vrith tlie in- 
liaailanbi of pMth nf this calnmilr. and fniind t}i«y all ivmembered il only 
with *Iiiidd«irin^ and horror. Tliey told me that no inis^nation could 
conjure u|] a picture at nil i:h|ua1 to tlir t.erriblti tnilli. I rcinvnibcr bcnrin^ 
an old a|>oilienu~r >■>( Biiila cxclnitii, " Ni> jifx't, or norvlist, or dramatirti 
could jMitsibly imii^nc or dvscribo the actuiil liorrorB of that drradfhl titne^ 
i£ a (pwtator had QOt«d down the fiicU as thor occurred, thoee wlw liaJ 
not witnessed the inuDdatioii would iicter have believed him." 

Th« water began tu Hm on t)i» 1 2tii of Mnreli, but it mifi^ht h&vt nund 
off aa hnrmlAialy a« uniiaj, had it not been that « little wAy below Perth, 
the ice instcnd of tnelUn^ began to accumulate, so a« to check the proKTvu 
of the riling water. T\xe ritcr now began to rise alarHiiiigly, and the 
jwoplff prepared thein«clv«« for an inmidation (uch as the dly h&d often 
vituesaed EtcTorct but they little thouj^ht they 'wcrc about to witncM one, 
■ucfa U pMth in never luppoied to bav-e teen linoe it ha« been a city. A 
Xiiiinber of workmen were let to worlc to construct dams, Just below the 
town, fur, coulnrv to the course of niiture, ihi; nutcr rose fi\>m bvluw. 

TlioiiriantU of citiu-ni, urged partly hr Oincwity, anil partly l)y nnxirty, 
went ont to eoo llie building of the dams. It was n loiip ('itnben waJj, to 
which numbers of workmen were bu»ily adding, and against which ibd 
■wild »nd ntpiilly riniug water* beat iiirt^-iantly. .\lreftdy things began to 
look verj" alarming, Tim wtittT row aij<] rose, the military were onlered 
out to ajui«t in mi«ng the daniA. In mtin ! The angr)' flood dcuniAed tha 
wc»k obatHcIca which human hande nuKd to oppose it. AVbiirt the work* 
men were busy piling up th« dants, they suddenly remarked to their 
amax^ment and terror, that th« Danube waa already roaring behind them. 
The dam« were undcrminod — they broke, and only a Hpc«dy retreat could 
save the terrified multitnde. All fled to their houses, fullowtd by the do- 
ftroyinfwalers, which rapidly gained upon tliem. The atieets were com- 
pletoly emptied. The lower port* of llie town were immediately taken 
' pow c a a ion of by the river. Ewry uiiv began to fortify lils own houae, and 
[ t0 lunouiid it with dams of earth, boan1«, and »tnnei>. The inhabitniiu of 
^tba Vaimer Straate erseted dams of parrintlar strength. Xoinimdatinnhsd 
war been known to naofa thia rtm-t, and tlie inhabitantA felt |H>rfectly sa- 
cure in thi* circtimstance. and in tlic xtn-riglh of tlieir cUnts. 

Th«irdAm8. it is tnie, held together ami were not broken by the water ; 
but OS in great poUtii*] ramruuione, the tlormy clementa ofuai fcora to 
attack the bulwark rwr^ agninst them, when dv passing round it tliej 
can aceompliih tbelr aim erjiially well, and baffie the short-iighted wisdom 
of politictanit, mo the Danube now began to ihow its strength, in a totally 
itDexpccted manner, namely within the hotu«s tticmitolvoi. Allof anjdd«ii 
the boards of the ground-floora began to shake, and littJe bubble* bi appear 
■n over them. A ruling, iplaining sound was heard bcnentli, and all 
the little cncki and rat-btdca became so maUy fovotaiiu of water. Vorr 
■ooa the Danube was daslung througb all the bmuliful ahopa, grouDO-' 
floor*), cellara, and worchouies of the gtvat Vni:mer Straise. 

The inhabitanta did not lose thrir tir«ence of mind. They daslied into 
the wabrr, and brouglit up their i^iet valuable* into tlic upper stories. It 
Wat nnhoard cf for the water to oocae k> high ) it could not possibly liia 



Uglber, uiil must eoon ank. But tho DttnuU now atood nz ttt/t InRVi 
tlM houM». To make aannnc* drably Airs, llifl inbihitaou letnorvd to 
thnr ncood floora; for the tteiube had now ruvn teu r««t witlun the 
houita. Hftnj pcopla bad bmn stuiding up to their mwks in water, in 
Older to gft »,t thmr dakigvd property ; but tlie wstor wu fnxTiiii^ly 
«oid, liko imwly-m«it4id ke, and m«y could bear it na Imgvr. foot 
and ricli alike gvte up the »tti.-n)pt to an llieir property, aud tbougfat 
otilf ot'life. 

^ Tha ground dpon wliich Perth rtsod>, b of soft allnvinl fomialioa, eoa- 
nstiii^ only of loould and day. The Danube was now only claiminf; ita 
okl righu ; nnd it be|^n to fonn fiubtemnviin «|UHlucta and canals. In 
onp )ioiu« which hud di-^p toundaCionf, thn bcuLnbi suddenly me, and the 
flood threw up a liu-^ tliick jar, thi- pn>{>rrty of one of th« DCi^boon. It 
Iiad been torn alonr tlm>ufrh on** of tli* ■ubteTranc&ii canak, iLod thus euri- 
ooily rwtorad to light The apothecary of Btula titkl me, that, to his 
grMt siirpruv, a hii^ piece ol fumiture, whicii had b«yn left in the 
grouiid-tloor when ibe inundation began, was aTicm-ards found atandiug 
luffirht in his fiist door, irhitlior tho torrent, dashing; upwards, liad car« 
ned U. 

The tlitclcnctts and »)ttdity of the houws wu no protection. Man^ of 
tlioM.- m<wt itrangly built. w«re entirely broken up by tlie (ont> of die nnr, 
and fdl in. On thu leeund lUy the Hood was at ita bin»ht P(y>]ile began 
to doubt wfavthrr any of tlie houtn would irmain tilandioe. The stiAnfreM 
buiMiaga, such aa tho churches and hospitals, and tlie highest qwts, radi 
•■ the Nemnarkt of Pcoh, and the SchloMberg of Ituda, were lUled with 
fitgittrea. Great nmnbcn of pcoi^e |hut op tent« in the NcunioHct, and 
iled there in spite of the intense cold of the weather ; among these were 
many nobles ukd magnates. Whoerer bad not much to lose at Peatl^ fled 
to BudL The eittzc^ii* of Jlnda sent orer small boat*, oommandod by the 
Archduke Uu-|dien, the Count SiMx:hcoyi. aud other noblcio«n, who row«d 
about throu^ tlie streets, and picked up etviy one, who was wiUia^ to 
laaio lui hovH). 

Tlio ininidatioQ had ddw lasted two daya, and showed no ngni of nV 
adiu);. Many begun to iinagirv (hot the eul of Pesth was come — that 
the I>auube was forming itself a new brd, and intended to swallow up the 
«ity in ita wavte. It was ^nerally bolieTM) that the whole surroundii^ 
distrk-t wu chaased into a great lalie, whkh would nerer dry up u^n. 

At length on Uie tliird day the watera began to retire, llw icy barrier 
fivmed at the island of Cxepel had jmibahlv nieltod. the ri*er gndnuUj 
flowed off in a louthcrly direetbn, and h^ft ll'tiih to recover from it* ooM 
bath aa beet it miglit. Many streets were so choked with tooli, iraU% 
Tubbiab, boArdt, and tlie boilii<s of men and animals, that it was not tilt 
afktr aemal days of hard work, that they were rendered pmiaMei N«trly 
ttree thauHndlioaau were deatnyed; some had bUou in, aud others had 
«ntiraly melted away into the river. The alent mdual inflnance nf watw 
had m three days wrought Boni miiehief than a Eundred daya at bonfaat^ 
fltMrt would have dcxta. The appearance of the city after the inuodatioil, 
ma desolate, nunoas, and miserable in (lie cxtirme. 

I do not know what appearance tlie othm- thorn may have prvwnted, 
hut those of the bookveUerv, I was told, were filled with an extraordinary 
stock of papier machi such as I iierer heard of before or since. Goethe, 


BtUlbr, SluWipaiv, Vohaira, Jean Fkvl, — Freudi, Enjjlish, G«nn«i], 
md Hu^^sn boake, — all le^n Mftaned Dod mclhxl tof^UtLT ioto oam 
■trwiK« undiitiaguishftlile mi« 

The crj' for belp of tfat pocr rtniMd ritixm» of PesUi, recmniiled thini^l) 
■11 Gennanv, and gtaenat Mnstene* Mrewned in fietn pvvrv side, lliilf 
Surop* united in tlw nbuiJdiaf^ of Festb, aai though liniliTing^ nuiterida 
irvrc of coone vrnr Aeiu, yet tho city rose agnln fnira it* nitnti, iu vroitnds 
gradually bailed, and it bccanui fiu nxwe bMUttiiul and Fxtonsivie tban 


On the Inst day of Auf^ust we «&t«nd tbe alMmboat vbkb wu to coa* 
TCY u« down tbu Danube into Tnrkcy, and the anchor was weighed at ftro 
o'clock dw niut mombijB^. It was still night, and (he moon seemed un- 
willing to yield dominion to tlie raininr day. Seated upan x bench upon 
the deck, I viewrd the river u it luy bcdore me. 1^ Dimtibc is only ^50 
fiiUwMiM bnwd botweeu Pcstli and <>fe(i. but immedtstety bolow. it widens to 
itiina (UBM dut fanadth, and enten tbe iMond Hungarian nl&in, which 
i itntcbM from ibe DDuntaiBa of Centx^ Hungan to tboae vl SerrU oad 
SlanNu^ Between the Bloekibaig: of Duda and the liillii behind Pntlu 
the two citicB Mnm to tic within a Xuttrti gab^ mid the xtivit !« brautiliil. 
The 8c)iloMberg with it« itat«]v buililiiigt ia tocn in th<^ dittAnce (luou}(h 
i this gate, mid ia the oeotal pout in the prospeci. As the mo rase, ereiy 
' tiling became more diatinot, and at length it stood «>niptetely abmt ifaie 
iMuixon, gilding the distant tumniitd of the bilb, and illumiiuiing the whole 
laud«c4pe, OS if to ditplay it onoe mora in all its beauty, to tlw gno of th* 
depajtlog tnTsUer. 

These ore the last bills seen, and we now entnvd tiie broad plains of tbs 
open country, and. paascd tl»e Urge iolond of Czepel, witb ita fertile fieldi 
•ltd meadows, iDtvnfnened with naniig (brents and uniliop^ Ttllngai. 
Leavii^ tins itdand beoind us, tre eiitered the moat vuntei^sting district o£ 
all thoM watet«d by the Duube. Ho great towns enliven its banks — no 
pbturesque hills or niountaina my its acetiery ,- vide undivmified lercls 
strptch awny on evrry side, covered witli inxnihy gnnand dirubs, intemipted 
only Wiw ani! there by banvii d^Mrts, with low monotonous banks. The 
tigat side of the nver la higher than the left, and the villaf^ which lie along 
the Danube, are all on the right aide. The other aids i« almost entirely 
bvmi or niardiy. 

We did not, however, find our voyogo at all tedious. We bad more than 

1 400 paawDgeis on board, and such numbers of eauitisgea and bales oFgoods, 

were |)iled up on deck, that we were intlier crowded for rootn. Our fellow- 

puMtigcra Montted chiefly of market people, merchsnta, tntdennen, Uun- 

lyuian nobles, Servians, and JUyrians, who wero returning home from tlio 

tgicat fair of Pestb. We dipped tlti>m at difTerent stations on the baoks^ 

I fihioh they proceeded inland to their res^xM-tife hotni>s. Besides tbese^ 

We had on board Waloehion boyord?, who wrrc irtitmiti^ from a tosr, Somi- 

nish Jews bound for TliiMnliiiiiii ii. French and Germans bent upon seelong 

Uteat fortunoa in the tnoviiioet of Tiu-key; in a word, specimens of the po- 

; pulMion of nwst of toe conntnes Imnlenag on the Danube. In default of 

' iot«riat in the pasnug oouutty, I turned uj attaattoo (o the little eonuno- 

luly around nut. 


TIb anitrterdmk nu wliicli w« were seated, near the entnnoe of tlie 
firat abui, WM Uw little capiUl, the court, and the eitade) of our flMting' 
colony. Near u» rat lonie Hnnu^an mainintcs, uiil Rinnng them tlie 
caUbroted orator, B— , wlio su diftinguulied liimself &t Uie lut dieL 
H« VM » littW niun of a r«.tl]«r itieijpiiftcanl &ppearanc«. H« snoko 
little, but WRS «>nu.ti]n«)( occtipivd in rauliiig n newHiwiwr, an<l aomet^nies 
nink ii) deep thonglit. Hv waa wry ninply (1n-<»vt1 aiid nii}i4T tliiu, and 
Mt u littJe as he tpoke. He traa l«avhi^ Peath to cpoiid tiir KUinnuv in 
ilia anjciymviit of rural tranquillity on hti catatea. " 1 lave ^ou scca B— ? 
IX) ^nu knuw tlmt D — ti oil bi>ard?" were questiona oontiiiimlljr put to 
me, whicli provod tJie jioitulArily ho enjoyed io Hniif^rjr. 

The Walitcliiikn Iw^vif'^S "l><^^ mund faces nnd ravmt Mack hiur ithflWAd 
them to lie such, spoke onlv jiut German eonugh to get on with in on 
liott'l nr coSee-hooae, and by way of comj^Iiment to ibeae ttrBngeTi a 
little drclc waa formed An the qtuutatdMk, in wltioh French waa spoken. 
To this circle a rt>uD[; Fr«nchinaii attaobcd himKlf. He was travelling- 
to Jasay for a rarisian house of hwinw. on whose accouot lie was to 
form Borne commereial establlsbmeot in the Mnldavi&n capital. 

Tli«n.- «vn plenty of gtiod citinnu aod cibtcuwiK* of Pe«tli, goiuj^ to 
visit their frii-riut and relotioiu iti tlie country. One f^mp juartinuarlv 
AtUacAed my attention; it was composed o( a Genruui luly of raiik, witk 
ber fihanniug cliildrvn playtuc about heri mid diacoverio^ every moment 
ft thooMnd now Miuroes of uelight aud amiuement witJiia tlte namnr 
llHlti of the uiuLrt<<nl«A. 

The epace octwoen the ^{aarterdeck and the chimnpy wim <*owdcd with 
wcdtJiy mercbaats, Germans, Serrians, and Turkish Jews, Among them 
was a jirvtty youn^ Serviitn ladv, who niijrlit have nerved a painter for a 
model of ft Pcwiatj priuccM. Slie wnro a Tiirkt^h nfifli^f ; her cloto rilk 
uiiJcrclothn, and upp«r palinnr edged with fur, bcciuno her cstrcniely. 
Her bWk hur was laad routul her head in two laxge plaits, like a turban, 
and was omametited with pold mn* fattened to larj^ pinn. She wore a 
red cap, or /rz, *mbri>idere<l with ffold, from which n biuhy ta»el of gold 
threadu huit^ down ujion her neck, around w}iich she wore a long^ gold 
diaitu A gird!*' vmbniidered with tilver confined her slender waiec,^ 
90 tlendor tndcitMi, Unit I thought she could scarocly hav« more of ft 
backbone than might have falVit to Llic nhnre of & nnake. 1 expressed 
•ome surprise at the splcmhitir ofhvr undrem to r Servian gentleman Etand- 
iof naar her " Oh, ynu tlinuld see her dressed for a gala, eovered with 
iraU and jcwdi !" replied he. " That would surprLte you much more.** 
Bhc was piist tlic bloom of youth, for !thi> vsm 22, niii] at that age Serviao 
hidies lue no longor young. Sho hod, howevn-, bwn married 34 ▼«■>*• 
*■ lit Servia," continned my informant, "girls are often married wliiie yet 
mere infanta." 

Among the passengers were also two Franciwin friars from Turkey, 
or rather from Botnio. They wore broad-briuunod hate and mustache*, 
ftud spoke not a word of German, but wen? able to make lliemsclves mi- 
dent«>od in Latin. Tliey hod tinished tbnir studiei at F.rku in Ilungary, 
and wore returning thenoe to Cxek in Boania. Th«y told me that then 
were indeed Kchools in Bosaia, but that they ould only leom there 
" ffrantmaticaiH, rhetoricfm, poesiam: ted jihUompftiam ft lhitift>tfian 
ahwlwrt in nastris srkolu impoanhih ett. el eanim gratia in Ilttnga- 
riam tnumtu.*" I heard from these men that there an; three couventa of' 


•iVwwiwin nouk in Bonu, waA trnder them « little floek of ibeat 1000 
CatUSm. In l^nkuk Cnwti* tbe munber of ClixiftuDS i« odd to 
be greater, tlie p rin cipel |«it of the popilBtioa cf Beams belonnd-. 
fbnurly, uid Kill Mknp to the Gnvk dnirah, bat fsost of tbe bi^ar j 
«Immi mo DOW J f a h o n wd M w. Boania waa oac« a Huagaiiaa. dapnd-j 
oocT't the Hvajesiona an ae eager lo recliam thii oU yaweeaioa as A»\ 
French &» to be maiteR of the left bank of the Rbtnei The FranciacaBS > 
told me chat titctr eoaveiita rec ei Tcd an aninal nrtient of 300 thAleNa 
from the Pnpc^ aod 400 th&lrros " a refft," that » from the Emperor of 
Anitna, which uraaents wvnt tar to alleriat^ tbe extreme porertA- in wlucb 
they lived. H m aiB^uUr thM of all the DumenMu Cutholie oraen which 
Umtteriy Bournhed to Boaoia, tbe poor, ignorant, and mendtcaut Fraoda- 
cani have been tbe ooty mooks who have kefX their pontion. aiid been 
pcnnittod by the Turks to remain. This ia owing to tlie nature and cha- 
racter of tbe order ; for iu porerty did not e«ute the avarice of the 
Tuilcat ae waa the caae with tbe naoj wealthier otdera, and the striJusg 
naemblanoa of tbe FnmciBean moan to tba Haboonadan derrabc^ 
may have eontribotod tA gito then a aort of *aactitj in Turic)«h ^refcj 
Be the reaaons what tbey ouy, it is the Franciacaa monki who aloiM' 
nounah tbe faeUe flame of CatbiJie Chriitianitir throogfaoat tbe Turkiib 

Eovineea^ and in Jemaalem tbe Fianetaeaaa are tbe only gaatdiand of the 
oly Sepulchre. 

The Walachians were ipealdne French, the fair Servian and bcr cotciis 
Serbian, the orieotal Jews Spanish, the Boanian Fraikriieana Latin, the 
captain Italian, and different other paaaengen were converan^ in tbe 
Greek, Hnognrian, Widachian, aod JUyriao toogiiea ; bui aniidat Ibii 
Babylonian confusion, German appeared to be tbe cammoa neutral graaoi! 
on wtiieh all m^ and tbe tie which bound all together. German wai 
fpokcn br ouraebea, br the whole party on the quarterdeck, and by Ura 
crew itself. "Aa Italian captain mixed up German imTol terms continually 
with his Italian conversation ; tbe Serriani apoke eerjr good (iermAo occa> 
siouaJly with other passengers ; and wcu ttw Walacbian boyardi liad • 
Moall sniattenng of the commcn language. 

The (team navigation of tbe Danabe baa, I am aware, been lookeii 
upon with anxiety hy the Gemuiu, and with delight by HuDgariaB , 
patriots, as likely to excite yet ntom the feeling* of iiatiofs^ity and patriot- 
lam among the . Mui^-are, bat it appears to me far more likely to Gcr* 
inanire than to >lsg\ariBe the interior of Uungary. It will undoubtedly 
«arry the seeds of commercial and literary enteqirue into the remoter 
parts of the country-, but it will likewise (wur into Hungary a atnmg ■>• 
fuuon of German manners and mako the German language eren mon 
general than it is. The ftrougbolda of Magvansm are in the bairen 
plains and 5te|if)es of Cuiitral Hungary; and tlie more those plains and 
atenpca ore tamod into fortile oomfielda and paatnrea, and tbnr stragglin? 
Tiifages into proaperoua town*, — tiia men the net of steamboats atxl rail- 
roads is apraaa orer Hungary, die more it will aasimilate wiUi Gennany, 
to which It owea theae benema. 

Towards ei^niag we landed at our fourth atatioo at Baya, whidi lia 
Ob tlte Uifi side of tbe river, at the distance of half a 'German miW 
from tliv wanli e a of tbe Danube. The buiMings of the Yillage peeped 
biigbtly through the bushes in their while coverings ; for llaya had 
tba otttAwtuue to be burnt down last year, and has been entirely rebtult. 


The destnuticxi of Baj» by fire, wu oontemporaneouR with that of nuuty 
othsr HuBgwtaQ towm. IndMd, ct diy Mouon* of thr yror, » regular 
fira epidemic someUcnas dMUqn half th« tomu in Uungaij. 

Ffom Baya wa proeeeded to Mahm (prononnced MohaUh). The 
nettm twfora our eye* TtmtaueA always the lonie. Ore«u plainx vitH 
Bme-treaa and poplan bo Un left* iugh barroa >borca to the right, and 
belbte ui the broad and beautiiul Datmbc Ai we aat upon the quarter* 
deck, an old soldier come limping on crutoh« towards w, and baring made 
SB nniiiil Co our cliarity, h« T«lat«d the story of hu misfortuDM, vrhicli may 
nrre aa an illustmiiM of the suH'eriog* ana daiigvr* to which the •oldi'cn 
who guaid the military frontier are azpased. On tba 3 1 at of January^ 
1836, he had been sent to carry a mMsoge from oiki of tlio posts on this 
famtier to auother. Ni^tt tnerUxik liini before his return, ai^compiuiittd 
fay » Tiolent eao*r-etonu. \N1iile he was itruegling a^iut tlic itlorni, he 
beigan to hear the howlinf; of w-olves around him. Hi; at Knit went on as 
&et M he could witliout miudiitg tlicm, but tbty camo ii«a.c«r and nearer, 
and al Itit he was obliged to climb into a Crere. He was indtwd loie bt 
the time, but. lie n-as a doco pmo'oer, for the wild beasts aun« muiid the 
tree in gr«at niimb^nu Thev k«pt walking round with wild and in««e- 
■ant bowling, looking up at the tree, and sometimes cnniching as if to make 
a aprinf^ upon him. lie (itmI, but without effect. As h^ was afmd of 
their etimbing up, he endeavoured to make n fire to fright«n them away. 
IIo scmpcd together a fvw dry stick) and eotne mow upon the boiu|;fasp 
aad with Iiii Hint and tiiider he managed t') kindle a small flame miidi 
warmed him a little ; but the wild bnuts did not leave him. TheeoUt 
grow more and Qior« intense, aud be felt a numbnces stealing over Liim. 
He therefrirc txnmd himself rouod thei waiit Graity to a Htn'jug branch, 
aad clung rotitid it witli iiil hie *(>«ngth, iti urdor not to fall into the jaws 
of the ferocious creaturos. In tbin poiition ho wiu fntind ibc novt tnoming 
qmte insensibliG, aiid to all appearance dead, bv aomc oammdes who came 
to look for biiii, lie recovered, but remained a nipple for life, for Ijoth 
bis legs wMc frowm and liad to hi> ani]iutiLled. Ho was now returning 
from Vicimit, wliitlier bv bod gone to p<;tititin tlic vin|>cror for a email 
pittaiicii which he liiul received. Wc collected for bim a small pecunuuy 
addition, and gave him two " pistolee" of " Turk's blood" to drink. It 
may be necessary by «ay of espt&nation, to add, that in Hungary a small 
measure in coinnion use u called a pistole, and a rertuiii kind of rod wna 
is designntod by tbc tempting name of Turk's blood. 

Wp had a piuntcr on bou^ who had often compkinod to me tliut he 
could find no picturesque subject for hie canvass in any tiling about the 
rteamboat. I advisijd him to paint the soldier in tliiMnf at t)io moment 
whan hi! wiLJi rowfrring over bin ftn^blo little bliuu-, w)iil« thmrigh the dark- 
aeM gleamed the fiery eyes of the bungry woivca. whose dark outlliiea ua 
ird! BJ those of the forest trees corered with snow, would lie partially seen 
by tbe ligiit of the scanty tire. Thin ap[>eared to ma n vcfy good «abjee4 
Mr k nignt ^neca. He was, however, of opinion tbiit a common story Irora 
«o obscure and vulgar soldier eoukl hardly txt n fit subject for his ptuicii. 1 
answered, that, with such notions be would neTer become gront ; for the 
most beaatifiil subjectt and lituatioas were often assoeiatMl with tiw most 
common event? of Ufo. Dianumds are not found ready cut and poiislicd 
io tlie mine!. 

Wc reached Mobacs by aightfsJk It was hen; tbat poor King Louis of 


f Uunginy vas betn.y«d bjr ZtpdrsL, and defmed by iht Tterk*, aaJ 

: ID a d(»ol>4e msnb, to irtucli be had fled (or vletT. Hie Wtk of 

I (winch took pkn in tli« jtsu- lo26. on tlw 2901 of AiwHt)d» 

I aided tbe bmIukIioIt fat* of Hungan-, ftv its oon^oaM bjr the "ntHa wm 

1 tile couMqtttneeoC that battle. Tin j i imj^ lTiii|^ 1 iiaii, ■fliii hiililii^ ■ Jjit^ 

' irhow siUiDfi much resembled Utc uiinianaiu merniaenl of a Bacehanaliaa 

.fitMival, liud ttiardirt] u lliv head oi 20,000 lacn agMiwt Saltan SoBmaii, 

'«ho«cB>myiuanunteJto200,000aoldi«r9. Loou' g«CMrib &MawIr«g» tnr 

the foUv 01 their mtdertakinc, and said in jest thai whoever mrrtred tbe 

battle uiould go to Roine and get all the real ooonixed, for vrciv one of 

ibcni would ecstainlj fall a martifT to the Chmtian r^jgioo. Bnl, u if 

'MTgti fonraid by an tnrsivtible fate, thry went choprlut^ to meet their 

. Jeetmction ; indeed. % nimgarian author eiclalnu, that luraly no inn^om 

cwr faced itd downfall witli meh careless lerity and raeirinMnt ta Hm- 

■ gaiy. In thJH battle fvll no lew Uian nx bubopa md areblMbnps. It u 

is rairions tutancc of rMribiition, that SCO yean aftcnrarda the TuHu were 

|4efMtod on tlua very field by the Prince of Snroy. 

T The ronniT battle ia celebrated here crery 29lh of Au^vrt. He popo- 
tlation of Motincs and its naghlmuHiood uacinhlo oa tbo battle-fido end 
speeches in tlie Hiiiifariiui, lllyrianf aad Gemum langoagw to oa* 
ler, I ]>on (he spot nii^re King Louis died, it t* pmtowd to erect a 
1 Jtatpd. The palace of the Hiabop of Hcivta contaniH many plans 
I pieto re i of lh« battle, and Eve cannonj left behtnd by tbe Ttirki are 
nrred a« ralica in the town. Ai our *teainba«t atoppeo to take in coalj 
>Iohaea, m imi aaoflo time to empty a ^am of wino in hoootir of ibuM 
[Sntercatin^ renmiiiW mtiiHnty: jet of all minneati thn preeent ii in 
iatn the most hMam^^ aod looiantie ; for it ii the flower and erawn of 
all pntmlior BWiBCaAa. the youiig«*t bom cpf time, round wbotn ig col- 
lected all the gkej af A» past, and before whom the future lies a dark 
unexplored ahyw. 

To the old Ronaw whose doll taalc it wu to make a b«ginninv 
to its hinoiy, how iuluealing must have a|)ficarcd ttits Danubn, wliivli 
ira> tonsiarulvd witball thediamu of a long erentful histor)! And 
liow full of an intentt n irpn aa i ng all tliat we can now feel mimt ili«ti 
hi>lor\- be (oa traveller 2000 yettn lic-iice, to wbom it comM bitlim witll 
the ncli fruits of tlte iicit twt-nty cvtitun(«! I alwayi lament that 1 
was bom so early; nf all tilings, I dionld Kks to have- been bnni in tlw 
last ag^ of tbe wm-ld, to hav« beou the heir of all the agoa in thii (iinttnoib 
; film rif Tinw t 

TnwanU midnight we preceded on our way. The poinngwfa bagia 
I to retire to r««t The l&dJes' cabin a^d the state cnbini wen eranmtd 
fiitl of ladies, and tiw deck was strewed with the peaaants and ntlmnh who 
laid tfaenifelTea down enive]np«d in tboir Hheep^os. Soma of tbe gmtle- 
nen lay down on the (juartordndc ; othen, amonjD^ whom wu I, iirefwrad 
Tctning to tlic i^itlmK'ii's cabin ; but no mounr vrere nil mritled lu tltaJr 
a, and ailcuct- bet;an to prevail in the cabin, than cerlaia miachJevoiU 
tid dtminutivi! littW beingi begnu iKinping about (rom line to aoothn in b 
loet toTtncnting maoncr. I could iii>t conceiv* hiiw tlip poMcnger* coukl 
'lie so still and creu go to *!«]> when tuffcnnr from their attadu ; for my- 
eelf, I thought I should be eaten mi alivo if I TSroahied mui-h lou^-vr. I 
acooniUngly went on d«k, pn-femng to spend Che remainder of ihe night 
in walking to and (n, aiul rouiuiapuitiiag now the daik river and shiutng 



■tan, ud now the Ttkri«a4 «ipres8ire oountoawioe* d thQ aUtfimg |iai- 
Beo^^on. Thfl liumui countciuuKv i« to me a souras<^ codleat luterwt soil 
delij^ht ; and in the coaWmplatimi of Uie natiofud Atid uMlividtuJ peculi- 
anties of pfa%-nagnofny tfoand me, 1 found aniplo tntcftAiDiucat for the 
mD&indrr of tlie nighU 

mE batshka and its oeeuah colomsts. 

The moming toon dAwncd. It ia alwajri An uit«ToMu)g thought to me 
to muefnW, wfaeii tii« tun tika, that the day bcforo mc u the youiigtet 
day lliat lias ever beea. Yesterday (I speak oCcommoa jrcstcrds)r«t UO' 
dUti!if^i«h«4l by auy remajkable occurrenoe), yesterday ts like ao «x- 
tiaj^Mlicd liffUt, ail old iiuwfpupcr, ,1 pitxit of (lolv kniad. It haa bMQ 
KBthrrpd anay into tliu ttorca of thv jmat, niid ynr think of it no laoro. 
But the young day nses before us, fresh, bt-autifut, porteiitoiu. To> 
morrow ia hidden in the dark w«i»b of the futiirv ; the ittibom ctuld of 
Time ; but to-djiy a ripes n»iy, and near at Itaad. The worm rar> of 
tbu fuii xliini' uvcir liw anaii Danuba, and wake the ^leepvTn with its kmdly 
greeting, which announces tlto cumiiig day ; yet, near ai it is, who kiiowa 
what it may bring forth, what mighty events, wli&t strange occunxuccn? 
How many future geiierationi may labour to 6nd out wliat this diy was, 
und lu>w it lirud and divd I how happy then ought we to deem ourselves^ 
who arc to toon to know ilt hittoiy ! 

Below Mobocs wc entered a nioro tnteTtstJng part of the Dauubb It 
divid«d fretjueDtly into broad nrms, which, after windijig round large 
i«land«, again met and Qowcd together; so tliat we seemed to be passing 
thniuRh a pgnntio park, with large rircre for littb bnlok^ high graosy 
plains for snuooth lawns, and va«t forvsts for ptclurrsipje wmidt. At tJia 
union of t)i(> Drave with the Danube, however, tlii« muliiplic-ity of amu and 
iBhuids entirely ceases. At this juncture au entirely new kind of couutiy 
and populnuon begins, boiEi in thc^ nortlm-ni a[id soiiiht m sides of tlie river. 
On the northom side lies that iiileir>tiiig (liiLriel uitled in t^ogn^hy 
books tho Uatsh comitat, but nbich tint Hungarians never catl by any 
otliL-r iiankv tliau that of the Butsiiku, which noun: 1 shall here adopt. The 
situntioit of ih«? country U as follows: 

The pamlkdogram Tying between the Uanubo and the Theis*, s d(«ert 
level district fretjucutcti only by liuntcni aud lierda of lionefi, rises towards 
tli« «outh, into a low, biim-u plateau, which extends southward (or Rome 
distnnee, of whivli a curie line drawn fiom Zombar to the tnouth of the 
Tbeiis, would form the southern boundary. BftwL-vntlilt and tliuDauubok 
lleit a small alluvial plain, extremely fruitful, and watered by small riven. 
Tliit IN the (celebrated Datihka. 

Mopt of the land in the Battlilcs is laid out in coniii«)d!>, and is in tli« 
po3i-es;iDn of German colonists. Of its 1^0 little tnhitijitcd spoui, uidy 2& 
are inhabited by Ituugarians, anil these ji'laci-it lif t^ntirply in the nortli?m 
and li'ii fertile part. The StTviaiw occupy 25 of its 1^0 di>Uiuiis, and 
the Germans 41. An intelligent and amialilu Ilnopiriau itohlrinuu, who 
liTed in the Batshka, related to me many interesting jiarttculnrn of the 
Geroiati colonisti there. He laid that the (iermans ofton bought a pieoo 
of lander lOO Uorins, oad by their good mnua^cmcut and culiivaiioii, 
wore able to unprorc it so much, that afler a timo tliey could sell it again 


iet wvfnil hundrcij florio*. Th« Gennsn TilUge», bv wUcd, w«n all rich, 
not only iii land, cattle. Htid ttnrat of varioiu k!iiilii, but ako in Ttndy 
DBonn-. A Gemuui village in tlut Batuhka wim uiiop contietimed ta i fine 
of 40,000 Borioa. ET«ry ono wa« curious lo ««« what thu pt-iuwiM 
ivould <Io iu tliiii COM ; but the Tory (Uv afier tli«v were appnMd of it, ^« 
cliJefd of tliif TOiDtnuni^ cuoe fend laia tJie exail uua bdord the iiii^< 
trntc. On «n« occasion s nobkman of tJtn Bnt^likn. Ini<l & wAger witli 
lUifftbcT aoblamau, whv buii doubted the vuuiitrd wealth of iliw BatsUu 
pMMBta, that At onu dsy's warning he could obtaia a Inaii of l(JO,000 
lloriiu (roai his German colonists. Before et'oniii^ he liiul Irvird the t<f 
^ti«t (uni &i>m five peadanLs &ioue. The n«xt luomin^ he ti>lil them of 
his wsffer, and would havo retunn-)! tlir iiioiicj-, but they n-plied that tbty 
did not want it ; thfy had bnjgiutied fur thv loau, aud tnould incUt on the 
F»>euttoQ of thff contract. 

Botli tile ancient RoinaDS and the Hungariatu, obtorrlng tlio Gin^Ur 
fertility of the DaUilika, cultivated and cnloiiined it with gruat cam. Tliu 
Turks, whofe <Wnstatinf* hnhiU made no di^ri notion Wtn^en a fvrtilc nod 
a tanvn connCry, allowed this valuable and beautiful tract to run to 
waste and berau)>e a mere marsh. Under the hands of the Gwniiui co- 
louiils, however, it has reached nioro than iU former state of cultivation 
And beauty. 


On the nsht aide of the river, opposite to the Batiilika, between tho 
Damibe and the Save, lies the land of Syniiio, n little paraditH-. about 
eightreii (German) miles long^, and three or fimr limad. Thrcrogh the 
middle of S\-m]ia nioH n line of bilk called t)i« t'nielikn Gora, which aie 
covered with jiiiriunwiuv foreata, and beautiful viuevardi. The g^rapn 
prmluccd in tliew vincyanls aro much erteemed th'n^ugtiout Huiijrarj. 
Another nriiicinal production of Symda arc it« hog«, frijin wliieh aiv nip- 
plied all tlie pnDci|>al h(^-niarketa of Iltinf^ry. They aie mostly of tfie 
AIon;^litx& Facet UMTl-legged, with woully curly hair. They eat lem, and 
can hear mora fittigus thaa ootnnon pig*. No leu than 70,000 of thew 
iBter«nio^ gjuntora are mppotii>d to emigrate yearly from the land of 
Synnim to the several markets of Hungary. 

The first thin^ in Symiia which w« law were the ruins of tlie ErdMy 
cattle, belou|{ing to a &ir-runicd noble family of Hungary. It is alraost 
the only Hung»rian epot Ui Syrmia. Wc next rami- (o Dailyu. Her«, 
BR at alt <nir Iaodoig>plaee« ia Syrmia, many Illyriau women itjili-i-tcd 
00 thft shore to atare at vs. It is now becoming nioiT< and nion> iImi Ciis* 
totn, to call all the Slavonic nation* of thv Soutbeni L>iutiibc, tiic Croe- 
tiaiM, Slavonianrt, ,S«-n*ian5, and Bulgariinu, by the common name of Illy- 
riai)9. lliis name pleases their national pride, for tliey believe, contiary 
to the opinion of the learned of other nations, that thi^'y are immediately 
descended fitrm the okl Iltyriauii mention^ by tJic Itonvini. 'I1iu IlU-rions 
of (.'rofitia and Slavnnia, an* »»l without l)i4-ir |>rnytiK^nl patriotism, and 
while tl»cy look down with contempt on the Mn|^>'ar tialionality of Hun- 
gnn-. they oocourage an Ulyriaiiiiiii, to tlie full aa hot in itj patriotuin u 
the former. 

Be^-ond the Dallya wo cam« to V'ukovar, or tlte town of the ** Vuka," a 
amall mar luisg m tlte Fiwlika Gon^ and raunin^ iulo the Dauubc. 




At Vukorar we took up tno new paasBngen ; two Sjmuan ladiot, jimtg 
and pn>ttjr. Th«ir nMtiun«, much reMmUinp the riding^lnbitt of 0«r- 
mtin \aAim, w of a. li^rht g^rron m^lniir, &nd »t with rows of bright but- 
tons. Tbry »id thai tliLs coetumc nas vcr^- prvtklcut in S^nnia. They 
■pt^ goocf Atistruut-GL^nan, and told lu the langua^ waa geneiaUy 
ipoksn by nil vrlia Wlong«d ta the opper classes. 

Purin^ the wliok of tlw tiiue tfiot we coutinued to cout a]an|i; the 
Sjiwioa district, I waa surroondnl hy Scnriaiii, nrlio wtTC ftdl of coiircn»> 
tioD ibout their nMiro Luid. They were deeply i-dresd iti tlie nnaient h»- 
fcory of th« c«unCty, &i>d had an ttbimdance ot aoeodotM to tell di« tboot 
ninrc miid«m nccufrt-nci^ Of the i>ew Scrtiui liero Ongotj Petnmtdi 
T*lu>min, thin- K^inod to knnw quite m much m our own Gcinitn new*' 
pnpers. I »8K«d th^m whether it waa tni» that the Scrviaiu felt eaen 
eympaUiy for Russia than for nuag&ij. Their reply was, that th« cotii- 
nuMi people among them had a sayings" Never quamrl wttli him wlio 
diinlca with tlM* ont of tho tramo <•«!> at the tumV* Siqijier." Wo wan 
enftiiffed in eudi dncour>o na our rcsicl ruthtrd post Oputovacz, part the 
niiiia of Sboringrad taatle^ the lUoek convent, and tlic cnsUe mid 
of Kamenb. Moat of then eoatlea and vtlla^s in ^yrniia. belonj^ lo thai' 
Duke of OdtMolclu, Count Elti, M. Vonkontch. and the Lords of Marn- 

EHni. The Odi-sL-olchia are not the only itolinri family poiscascd 
trgo estates in Ilun^ry, but there are many of the great families, 
thou^ their namca have an ItaJian look, are of g«Duine Macyar deaoentij 
Tlie rUS and Sappari, for insiauce, are old aoduufiuoilionable Hung 
ftnulisi, and the Mainponi, a familv of which vn-nnus branclies enst in 
the country of the SloToks, are genuine Slavoutawi. 

The lew ^^at men 1 bare naaied |>o»)eia nearly the whale of 8yiiiu% . 
exeept wha^t hetoujr* to the eoiivent«, and ilio |X-iu>atits are all more or )cw| 
Berti. Tliii circuiiittiinco t*ndt to deprive tlto people of all intereft in : 
eyM. I ckn fympathUo with the poorert khouror that maiotains hit 
and chiidrm with the work of his hnnd^ but cannot Ikclp fooling 
lliiiig like eontempt for the being who toils only for a master. The 1 
tiitii has often oeeurred ta ma when I have seen (iernuui, Italian, aal 
Frc'Qch peasauta appeoniii; u heroes on the »tn^; but aa U> the ratal po- 
pulation of B.-Mt*Tn Kunnii'. they w* one nnd all unuMibIc to the ■'"'"irtitt. 1 
In the Sluvoiiiaii provinres subject b) Turkey, BiMiiia, Senria, Bulnrii,,J 
ttfi., it is a rmnarhnblo faul that the principal nobility have all aUow«4 j 
themselves gradually to he converted to tite MiUunnedaii religion. 'Hui 
will at least have one giM^l cnnMM]tienee, — luiinely, that wbon tlicw pra~ 
vinren are retnipd from the Turkiiih domination, they will at the same 
time be freed from their nohlce. Somothio™ of this kind acems already 
to be taking place in Scrvia. 

It was wnnc time befope we reaehed Peterwnrdein, the mo«t cniuid(>raU» 
town in Syrmin. Peterwardein and Neusati arc miniature evimterpaits 
to Pcath and Buda. Peterwardein. like Buda. lies round a fortress on tha 
right nde of the river ; Neusati. like Pestb, is n trading eitv situated in ik 
|4ni» on the left tide. A^in PL'terwardein i( as tattdi older than Neu- 
■atSi as Biirltt »nirpa!ui-5 Perth in onti(|iiity. Surh pain i>f citiw an? rtry 
oonmton on the Danube ; Belgrade and ScniliTi, Old and Kew Oniova, are 
other instances of the eoine land. Of Xeiuntx we saw very little, for tli» 
riiip lay iK> low, and the oily no flat in its level plain, tlmt tlie frotitd of tlie 
n«tn>t hoiues liid all bvj-ond. Every river »tcamliaat ouglit to bare & 



omndent aeki »t the masthead, for tbo beocfit of tnvcUen who wish to 
se« Uw eotiBliT. 

P«tffrward*u) v* mw pretty inili, for the tortnm iwm ("xn a hill of tho 
Fmhk* Goes, rmind wiiicfa the I>aDube mnJiw b bcni A vmin^ Gvt- 
tOAn giri who was on boanJ tlie ■tcamboat with her mntber. fihowcd sitch 
(•Qthunuutlc dtJij^it at tlie toght of PetcnraHcirt, her naUve dty, that it 
tent t« Uk: phict,' a peculiar iotnvtt in our c}'«> " Oh, fc«, dear mother, 
Uten u our rinc jaia I Jkml there is the aummer-house roiuid wlikh I |>lunti-d 
■0 many Bowen last ^ear t Ah. good Ucaveni ! Then- is our dancing- 
tDMter »tandiii|^ ou th« bridge. How he will woikdvr when h« eee« ua 
back again ! Come now, Taahe baatv, don't let us squMio our baaneu in 
the orowd.' They bad boc^bt two biluoiisbla Vienna bonnetg, u nre- 
MBte for the sisterB at hom«. Tlio tiav«ll«T it ofl«n too mudi iiicIiiKHl to 
MM by with indiSereiice tfas little home traiUi which animate and £11 with 
vtereat gtrange and foreign places. The idea of a danang-mastcr at 
Keunu bod never oceurmi to nie, and Foti-rwordeiu gardcnt and tiiDim^r" 
>a— i, t«Ddc<l vrith OS fond * caic as that fcU at home, aMBWd tonKtbiii^ 
onrioiu and uDcxpcct«d to ne. 

naimd Petenrordeiti grow the best wine* of Southern Uungnrj. Pass- 
iDg PcUrwardcia wo aaon reached Kariovilx. The«e three cidei! are the 
three aipitols of tltc Militni^ FrontJcr; Nciuatx in the tntdiitg. Peter- 
wnrdcin tlie tnilitary, and Karlovitz tJic religioiu capital, for it U tlio rvn- 
denco of dio bead of the Greek church in Austria. The Ardilii^hop of 
£aHovitc, the Greek Synod, tliu Uishop of Moutvuegro, th« Patriaivh of 
■Con)itanLiii«|iIi>, and the Kni^wror of Russia, arc tlic live independcut heads 
of the Greek clmrvh in EunijN*. 

A ttcomhoAt down t)i« Danube t«arg along with iiich ineiorabln tpeed, 

that acareely lua an interestJDg object appeared above the horiion, when it 

already fies fu' behind, and Karcely any ri^lance U lufficient to prevent 

i^flu tnvdkr from toung many objeeta of the h^eet interest. '^ e were , 

"etmrernDg mtli aome aDtcrtauung young Austnant, who wen dwc r ilAig 

to ua the proceeding of a Ilungarian Diet, at which they had been prcecnt, 

and while thua pteasantly occupied, the inexorable eteamboat swiftly sped 

past the mouth of the l'heis», and when I turned to my map and to the 

liver, I saw it lying far behiud nic, on tbeedgeof thehorison. I hailliet-n 

|>&rliL-uliu'ly anxiuu* to tt» this rirar, b«cauM I hod boned to dixcrtver llie 

raaton why tho juncture of two such great rivers a» the Danube and tb« 

VThebi, is not marked by any town nr city. The confluence of the Danube 

with the Drnre, otid with tlie ThriM, are t1ic oidy tnn exceptions t know 

of, in this part of the world, to the ru]» thnt nil the tnnuths of great riven 

an na^ca by cotuidorable towns. Tbdc two mouths have not so moA 

m a vilhge or angle house in their nngb bourhood. Tbc immctise ninnhea 

.vVtcb onver theee two plaeei may [lernaps be the cause of this singidar 

* cU Tho oature of the country mode it, in consequence, impowiUe that 

I town* ehould ariseexactly at tbc moutbs of thcto two river*. Never- 

ihor traffic required lIld existence of staple plac«; wbara ll>e trade 

Pof Ike rivers might eonoeotratc, and such flare, are Esseok (the Hnroa of 

file Romans) fur tlie Dntve, aiid NcusaU far the Theias. 

The oomer of manhy bind fanned by tlio confluence of the Theiss with 
the Danube, is peopled ny the Tihaikists, who fonn tlie cs«w« of the Aut* 
Iriaa ffimboats on the Danube. Tlieir territory bdonn to tha ISiSlatf 
Franlwr, and, like all the pcasaati of lliat pation of me empore, they arc 

8 2 



linble to inilitnrv dntin, with tliit iliffWrence. llmt it is not on hud bntOII 
water t)int the 'r^hnilcists an pnipjoyed. Thotr capitAl is called Titel, Uld 
there i* the cliitf statioii of their fluUIlm of w liicli, l>i)we»vr, dctnchtnfnts 
are coustantlv to he fniiiid nt .Svinliii. and at other points of the Danube. 

The Tdiailcists form a battalion of about 1000 raen. They ore bound 
to patrol about upon tfa« L)anub«, and their trrn«es are sometjtaef talmn 
into reciiiisitioii fi>r biuldiRg- faridgeai psann^ tn:ii)p* acmiti (he nvrr, and ia 
CAM at inundation to ktmt up a oommiiiiicatirtii helnMiii the diflV-nmt tu- 
tvlatod pmnt*. Tbf portion of the riwr on -n-hich tho poopio aro chiefly 
•niployecl, ii that whkh iatfrrcnes between Belgrade and Onovs. 


FasaiDg between the mar^hv country' of tlin Banat on the Uh hand, and 
the iry S^-nnia on tlie right, we Amv«d at night nt Seriilin, at tlie iiioulli 
of the Save, opposite to which lici tho far fam4>d ritj of liflgn^tf. Semli||-| 
M the lojt town >Q Uuu^rj, and BclgTodc the fint in Scrvia- At this 
point wc passed through one of the principal opening* into lltmgar}' ; ona 
of those ffiLtca broken in ita inouiUoin wall, by the rivers that water itfl 
eentml plairm. Hungary- u a largv and iioilow bufiii of land, viiclo»cd oa 
the rioitli aud north-co^ by the Carpathians oii the south and TOuth-tnst 
kv- the Walarhiati atid lU^'nan nioiuitains, Find on tliE> west b^ tite Alps. 
Tlie principal rivera which wnter it, ai'e the Oanube, the Theisa, the Drave^ 
and the Save. TJie two fbnnoriif th(-4c, whicJi art; by far the miHt eoiisi- 
deimblo, have bnnki'i] three ^ntc* or a[>«uiiigB in the mountain wnll which 
encloMS the countrv. ThM« liiree 8k>, 

IsUy, that of Pretbur)^'. where thti Daimlie etitera Hungary', cutting 
through tJ»e northern <'ilreini[y of ilm Alp*, ;uid the .loutheni estieraity 
of tUt! Oiirjiathinns j 2iil!y, tlial of BiTlj^rniU?, wht-rv the »arne liver leave< 
Hungnrv, piercing tlic Isrvinn inountoiiiB -, &i><\ 3dlv, tbnt of the «oureC9 
of l}ic "fhciss. where the ralley of the Tlieiaa winds througb the mountain 
maaaesof Transvlvania. i 

The first opcn'inff, that of Preiburg, conneets Uimmiry with the Wert of) 
Europe. Through tliia poMcd t)io tnrrcntof Huiu, tliat, heailcd by Attihi, 
ptnirpil forth to deva'tutu Kurope : throupH tliis pass swarmed the wild 
Majors to tormoiit Gennatiy, and the lieroe Tuiliii to be^ie^ Vivima. 
This WS9 the gatQ by wliicli tbv Germaiu UuuL^ary to turn her 
wild noina.(Iii' n)hlH-r hurrtrs into jwaccnhlc nixl indii^trioiin eitizi'ii.i i through 
whieh l)i(' [liiiux crusRiVire, the penitent priiH'e* of Geniiuny, anil tlie devout 
•overoigw" of the \Ve*t, journeyed towardn Palestine ; through which 
marcliEM the Au&tria»a to (■liiiin their hereditary- rights and nnally the 
French under their irTi>ac eni])«ror, to crush in Ilun^u-y the last remnant 
of Auitrinn ind^pendenci'. 

Through the lecond ^rcat ^tcat Bcl^jadc, pa.tsed tlie Roman cnij)crore, 
and the generali of the Byrantiiie Empire, Into the vatley of the ^IoTK^'a. 
Throuj,'h thi* npeninpf the soldiers and jaui^tarie^ of tlw Kadishaw poured 
fortb coiitiDually, to lay waste the lltuij^arian plains ; here ulw llie Huu- 
j^aiian and Austrian armies passccl alon;; to do battle a;;ainst the Turlui. 
It waa through this opening, moreorer, llat the plague Urst entered Hua- 
gtxy from tin; Eu»t. 

The thin! fraU- first admitted tlio Hun* and Tiu-tars, and afterward* 
the orifpnal llung^uian tribes thoinielvtw, into tliv valleyti of the Theits 


ind tlie Dknube; uid tliron^li this gate it is tbe Hangaiians almuly 

Iwf^n to dreotl tluit tlivy will one i»y bi^iuld tht aniuo of liuwi* cut«r 

tile country. 

Tlie tint of thse opetunin leads into G«nnany. and may thefrfore bo 
■ called Uio Gctriaii gtM. The »ccnnd i» t^a.nked on cither side by S«rvia, 
jtind may he uUcd tlic Scnrtui cMv ; aikI tlie tliin], wlitiv the Uuuiiui>i 
> or lituKmettj may h» nid to hold guard, niiut be callnl Uw Risnan gftta. 
I Every thing now began to W]c wry UnentaL Semlin resemblof mora 
I ft Turkuli tliiLti • Hungarinii town. The ste&inbo&t sto|)iie<l here tb« 

vliole ereniii^, and tre vinutl lauiy itiofM, which weii: full nf Turkinh 

vnamL Mon in Turkiiih mtumM tat c-rnci.lo^^d oii t)ii^ s)inr«, diiiokin^. 

Tlio French consul of Belgrade coma on lioani, and we k'arQt from hint 
, that maiiy Gennniia emigi-nle to 8ervi» fi\im Sctnlin and XeuaaU, aa ecr- 
iTants, iitakocpei't, and SkTici[itncii, uiii) time tliey are iiiui-^h nought for, and 
I well paid for ihrir n»vviee«. Th* Mag>nnt, on the contrary, never ero*i llic 
rbordim of their nativL^ land. A Frcncli courier also came on Ixmrd hirre. 
[Be was a hard, cold, fhorfi. clever man. whojte brown, Bpare, and weather- 
jbpaten countenance, borA niark* of Iniif^ exposure in travelling. He broaght 

nth hiu tuniD cxrcllciit Turkish tobacco, of which lie oSvred lonte to 9»- 

Ireral amun^ ui. lie hod travelled in Africa, Enroi^ic. and Asia, tianietyin 

FAIgi»T8, France, and .rWia Minor, and had joi]iiiev<.>d ei^ht times from Con- 

£tatitUio]}l« to Bel^Ttuiv, and tmcv fruiu Bt-ljjjadi.- u> Theualonica. lie told 

me that u{ion the Uuli^arian ma<l», };i{iKim aru the uatial |iostJltoiu. and 
tint then), u w«U aa the honec, ar*< ol^ii beaten t'> death by Iravelleni ; in 
which cn«e thoy lay by the roadside, and no one talics tlto l(a«t notice cf 
the occurrence. Tic knew a Tartar who bad m this way beaten to death 
threo giimei during: tiia life. Tlie wliip, he Raid, and tlio Turkish costume, 
vere Inuu^wusablc appenHafr^'s on that tniir. Merchants, courien, and now 
and tlivn an Bng'luhinaii, he added, wcro the only trarcUcrs aloa^ tbe rood. 
Knrly tlic next morning the tall while nilnai'eti of BeljETrada lay Jar 
b^ind on the boriuw. It vcxmI us that llie wind, or the noise of the 
flteamboat, hindered our hcariiift thu cries of the Muczzitii fn'm the towers. 
Thin ij( the most nortlierlv jwint, from which tliu Fateh of the Frojihct is 
ever uruclutmed, but it is surrounded by foes, and will probably not long 
rematii a Turkiah po^ioosion. 

We now |>rocec«le<l vnth tbe Turkish sliores oil one atde, aivd the Aus- 
trian MilitKrv Frontier on the either. On the Austrian side all U level 
manh ; the liiJIs i>f Servia give a far more agi^eablo anpearanu' to the 
Other tide. Out of the Austrian ninrthrs ri.'<v at regular intenaU the soli- 
tary Ts/mrtfakeit, or military posts, surrotiDded witn hushes. Tlieyareall 
bimt of wood, and mined on piles, on account of tlie freqaeat iiiund&tioiM. 
The |MMt« are placed near enough to one anotlier for the soldiert to see 
from one to another in the daytime, and to hear each other at nights 
The situattou of ihece posts iluring a gcocral inundatian, surroutided on 
all sides by water, must be tedious and monotonous enough. When 
emugghng or llie plague ddnaods it, the poati sx« Uuck^icd and tlie 
soldten iiicrvated in number. 


The Moratn is the principal river in Sorvia, and winds through tha 
whole of that province. At its mouth it dividu into two anus, oo« of 


wU^ U c*1Iei] Y«Baba. Oq thif ftim licd Scmsndria, a fortrcsa of a very 
pmiliiir appeamnoe hnd constmction. Belgrade, Onovi, and other 
TurkUli fortmsscfl on ihe DsDube, belonged fonni^ly t» AiKtrtn, luid nrnro 
alt«r«d and arrangt^ Kccordinj^ to tike modem ruku of fnrtifir*ti'm, nnd 
oooseqnt-ntty do not dtfiV-r much ia nppcanncc ^m those of Otmnanjt 
SamandriB. od the couCnuj, hu remaiiivd tuichnn(f«d bhA onmaii&eA, (nm 
Aft time* when eannon* ud gmpowilcr wpro unknown. The walls fana 
a lu^ triasKlv of fpreal lioght, and ara sonuouDtcil hy n>wa of littb 
turrets with loopholm. At tli* comcn of th« triangle are higli wxagoaatJ 
or ootagonal tow«r>, also nmiionntad with turret^ and between tb^ at 
tcgahr iuicnaL) al-Mg the mSi, other smaller tovtvn of a Minilar fcmt. 
Im waHs and tiiwen aeemed to me to stand witliin one amtfaer is a 
double triangle. I counted twentjr'Are lowers, but there a[ip«iir«d to W 
many more. Tlie vrbolo fortrcfs wai in good prviervation, and woe & 
beautiful object, yrith the mflmiuK burHm ahinin^ full tq>ou iL 

Tho Aiutriait shoTes rcinainea Ti>rv militnry in appoarance. and oF 
ttern, barren, warHlce lup^Tt. The Stnvian affordnd more matter for 
descriplioR niid for observation. There were cattle ;E^racDfc <i> ^he mcudowf^ J 
aod oxea dnnliing at the itreanu ; there vene villnges, and women washing 
cloth«3 in the riT<!r near thoni } there were TurkUh And ScTrian boatmen, 
nmia;; boat*, in whidi »ilor« in |>icturcM]uc ooetume were vtietcbed under 
tho ihadc of bales of ^oda. All waa pcacefiil, qinet. idjUic ; and jrct t 
harmless aspect omcealed war, and i>estilen(?e. and tyraany, and RoenA] 
onarclty, while the rouj^h briatlioff cotut ^ppovitc, protected a land 
peace, eomitiiTcet indimry, undciviltsalion. 

At Dreiikova, a new settlviiient rveuutly formed by iIlk Kteam navi;^ 
tion eompanv, our number of paaeengvn, ori^ally 350, had dwindled 
away to thirty. The ateamboat proceeds no &rtlier than I>rcnka 
wbeTi- avmrdiiigly w* were all turned out into a timall convenient " _ 
vcwid : but bofern tjiiitting tho agrouaSle and expeditious afeambnat, the' 
belt Vehicle certainly ever inreittod for river trarellti^, I cannot fovbear 
rccallio;; a few of its pleasant sceoee and remiaiseeDces. 

The more the small community dwindled away, the more familiar ani] 
intimate with one another became thoK who reioained. In the steam- 
boatei along the Ithine iriik! of this amat^mation takn place, bccutufo 
each station, tlie Imnt tiikes up a« many new passeniren as it deposit! ollJ 
ones. Not so on the Danube, whcro the intermediate stations 
as yet of very little importaauc. Aa uur jounu^y was tliroaghout 
panied by the most beautiful weather, we were almnst always, 
and n^t, upon deok. The German lady, mentioned abnve. nlwnys sib 
in her coach, which serred her tu au arbour, aud pnitertcd her from the 
lieat of iho sun. The coai^h-door* were nlwayi left f'pen, and ber 
children were iocesuinlly clinihinf^ and %'iiig i<i aud out, liun pigeons in 
n dove eot. This little group formed the genetal centre of our coni 
tion, and nercr failing topics arose from the conntleM objects of interest^ 
which HTB passed in our courw. The wslvniLiDs of the Danube, which 
occur in great numbei'a, aff'orded us fn^^^ut^nc amusement. The millen 
appear to live in a pcrjivtual state of hostjlity with tho sailors, l^oy 
watched iii as wc passed their mills to maLe grimace-t at us, and when tliejrj 
were sittitig nt dinner, they would hold out tlieir plates and spoons at Ull 
with an air of grinuing dcoance. aa much as to say, ■* Wouldn't you wish 
to have aone ? But you shan't !" Somotimes they would luar out m if 



ID gnat tenor, " tht l>o«{'» lo«t !" " gOMg down f nod when tbp nw- 
nngcrs tumcd round with surUod decs, the DiiUen wnrald laugh at them 
for their pains. 

While puling the Batslika our diwoutM tuned n good deal on the ImuI 
ksxvtst of 1838| which wiu uiuvixvaUy vompUiu«d of. The mntniBT bftd 
been m drv that all the rorn had withered; and the Banat tirovince^ 
vhieh usually beUs 6,000,OUO mirizrH of grain, had this year sold Enmsely 

One lUy ta we weie aitling tn^tlwr mgagcd in cheerful oOBverwtioo, 

the little jMiiiiter of PmiIi took out his nnparatux and hogan to take our 

■ ^rtnita, 1 told him that 1 would rather nave s<*n him eti^g»d on «Mn« 

of the more pictuieaijue li^r» nliit-h aiKiuii<lcil among the lower dus nf 

BaawDgm. One day I led him niiide and pointed out to him a poor ad 

Jew in INitldih eotttunc, wlio wua lyin|; ttrctched ok maU and iheepukin^ 

Iwt I could not prarail upou him to po-iit Uiiaman,aiid jcthisappeanuico 

and T&gged cosiume were in the htgliest de-);rc« picturesque and iDlorcstinx'- 

He woro a tattctcd turban and a faded old silk girdle, and hia heonl and 

hair WCTe lOfCf^cd and dtiordvrvd. Hii t.-ounttuiani't- wore an vxitrvjoion of 

the deepest miseiy : his cumnlcnon was pole, curpsi-Ukc, ana white aa 

marble ; his efos were dull and destitute of tire : the lines s»<l features of 

Ins lace were tharuly eul hut rcjjiilar ; his forrhead and iu>a<.I wvro of a 

I beautiful fonn, und tlie whole exiiri».Hion of hia couiitcoauce was so uoble, 

^ llwt when vuung uiid in health lie niuMt liava been remarkably houdsonie. 

I addrMaed the uofortuoabt wiiom, becauM he wm eovered with vermin, 

•vory one sliaaned, but I reccsved do answer. I qaectioncd eomo Jewi*h 

L'Sierebanta about him. and was informed that bo was a poor, sick, and dif 

[iraaed rabbi of Constontiuoiile, who had been tent for to Vienna by vomo 

IvDtlter rabtiii in tfa* vata oope of hii rcounn^ relief from the tkill of 

w Qcnnao rhjiiipiHiML 


Hie TrtDsj-lvatuan and Walachian mountains, which branch off into 
^'Gtrvia in a south -wrsterlj direction, divide the grcat plains of Central 
Imigaiy from those of WaUehio. These plains probably once foniicd 
inat hues, wlti<.'h f^roduoUy wora a pas« thnjuj^h the mowilain*, and the 
i oo foTDii^l beaunc the channel of the present Danube. This pass, 
rli nhicii the Danube winds in iu scrpentino eounc for eighteoa 
(Oarman) mitce, is cstled the Ctissum. 

At Moldova the mountMn* on each side lint begin to be of importanM. 
They rise to a gigantic hnght, and if tlw river were narrow, these steep, 
ban, nanow mountain walU woulil be Iprrific in anptannee, but tlM> broad, 
cafan itraaai wUdi flows in traniiuillity between them, softcM tbi>ir ragged 
graodenr. A little below Moklovo, however, a rery startlini^ phcnmncaioD 
makes its appearance, for to the lieight of twenty fathoms there arises, frooi 
the very midst of thu rirer, a huge rock witli frowning chasms, jagged 
and pointed, tecih. Tlaj jvck if callod by the iababitaot* tba 
li. or "tricked woman." Immediatdjr below it is the coinincnca- 
aiMl cf a aeries of periknu wbirlpoob nud rapMs. 

I aai anable to tjicak with any certainty of the height of the mouiitain 
" I at tilts place, but I was tokl by tltoav whom I questioned, tbat tiwir 



Jkeigbt coulil Dot be uivdcf 300 ftthotn*. Ilocki and mouTiuinatben of tlie 
game he!xlit aa tliew waIIb, siinilftr id nil rv^pccts, jfefTS^ ^"^ mugh, and 
cut hy dwp rHviiies and vaIli!\-£, are sovni in the bm oC ill* Hter lUnif^ and 
to«e>r out of tlte water on all si4M. Tha highoit of tliesa is the 7>ti/»- 
wicxer Spitirf Move wliicli tlw ratiumota nf the Oambe begin. Scarcely 
hud wv }kik)hkI tliin nx'k tlinn wr htmri a dull hdlnw roaring m the n-aier, 
and snir thp dari< lipndt of tlio <Ian^miu TC<'f>i which )m-iv run rirbt 
aerosa the riwr. The rowers exerted all ihdr fUrnplh and ri^dMibwd 
their caenKittM, for il !a nnt enoiigb dint ihc excited vraten drive nn tho 
boat Ull it l)Ii'!t bcfriTi' tht>iii with tlu- m|iidity of an nrimv. the rowers 
mutt Inliour witli all lh<-tr nii|;ht. fin<! innin to incrpaiw thJii mpidity. If 
Unj were lop^ocft-d olowlv and cauiiftudly, Ly way of nvoidiofr th« rocks 
and rwfi, they would ineiitahly be eaui;ht and Ewnlhwed lip by otiv nf the 
nuincroud whirlpni>l9. Tho boat niuit rut thMn npidiv mid depisively, liko 
a kiiil'v. and tlic ii1nic«t jtrtMrieion, boldness, and local kiiowledf^ ar« 
rw{uiml in the 8t«preinaii. As in human lifp, whenever whtrljiiMilH anil 
ra|>id3 li^i in our mtarae, tli? tiniid aud fearFul are «ure to sink, whiU> tlio 
cour&i^oiu st«er«niau, who n.-doubl«4 ius i^uer^-, and exerU all his 
experience aiul jttdgnicnt, p«UM'» victoriously through crt'Ty [wril. 

The tmiiKiiioii from a tjuietly-flowiiij^ rivpr to a wild eddyin;^ and wliirl- 
in^ torrent, is, of coune, ^[nuJual. At first the water only niiiB with 
greater rapidity. By degrees, siDall vartinea and titeii rreaCer oqm lie^^ 
to appear. Ak m> advan^y, tlir [lootii inrrvaie in <le{ith and circum- 
fnvtusm, and thHr edgvs kp over more and more upon one another till 
the whole beconiM one vast, roarinjj-. foaming, eddying-, whirling vorfox. 

We all ttoful il) the fitrejnrt nf tlie boat, near where tho rowcn nt, 
many of us «trf tchiiig our hi^iuL) "vnr l-lii; wdc, t<i witnM* the wild and awe- 
ini|>iring tuuiull of the elements. The ehildrco alone atill contitiuM to 
play ■with careleM unconcern, regardless of llic danijers around them. The 
BtMTsninii stood aft, ffaziiig Mmdiiy upon the Htrenm. Vyion his enoigy 
and ekill oar safety dependod. The nieasuiwd, steady motion of the oara, 
as they cut the convex swrelling bubbles in the whirlpiiol, formed a fina 
contmit to tho wild, stomiv coiifosion nf the watern. lejinnot say eiaetly 
how long tlin tumult lailed. It began three times anew, fonniaff thcM 
Kparate whirhiooJa. 

Tlic breadth of the nitnuhc. In itii- narrowest part of thiJ paw, i* only • 
hundred fathomx. Bcltuv Prcrh it Im 600 fathonm hniad, and faitlow Bet- 
grade it ia a perfect <en- This vast mass of wat&ra, enriched by innu- 
merable tributaties, is here forced through a cliamiel so extremely narrow, 
and tut TOnt is to be oblniiidd either bv iniindiitiitn, or liy any other meana. 
It ia tbia which gives ibi- whirl|>oaU, and ibo cntantctc which Follow them, 
such ttemcndoujf force and tmjietus. It is wouderful to see tho whole 
united Tolume of water pouriRg itself down one steep and narrow defile 
witli tb« rapidity of lightning, aud more than thonoixe of tliuuder. 

Toeatimato the exact i^uajtlity of water which in poured do«u tlie Clia* 
eora is imnoasihle, R>r the depth of ihe river has never K'fti retceriained 
with any aegree of oertainty ; indood it is sn very various at diffrrt-nt ;tarli^ 
that to find a jurt average « Msreely posnble. At one pUwe the bnatmea 
Htiil, "Here the ri>'er ia forty fathonu ieey" and at another, *' Ucm 
tin rocliB are only two feet latlow the tmttrjiu <>f the boat." H'lnietlinea ifc. 
happens that the boat, dancing wildiv upon the wnvei, scrape* upon a 
rock, yet it ia very seldom that aa accident occurs. Out of iOO vctwls. 


99 f^ iHrmijrli ilio pass in Miety. One may afford to mk life with nidi 
odds ID onp's favDor. 

Our Ttituffi; tlie nftni« given to the description of UrRe row-boat in 
whidi we were embarked, bmug^hL lu auMy Llimu)f;fa. We passed the 
Jtlax, and the !«« fiirniiibLilo Tarhlalia luid Ik/:,* successfully, and 
naebad again a poaooful >n<) quiet ptrt of the nvi<r. At Svinitza, n-hcra 
staiidt a fTivAt rocky outlttt callt^d ilic Grcbcn, the Daaubc flows qtiicUy 
out into ea*y gitmno, and pumue* a Iranquil coune. Siiuiia i* the south- 
eFTUnost point of the kinffJom of Ilunjifar)'- ll wat now evening between 
our reeky wallf. The plains of ccntrij Iliat);ury ttill baikenl iu (he rays 
of the scttinfT sun. but ffivy twilifflit wiu s|HTad o\cr tlir ^lixMtiy niouti- 
tain-pim. SVe liad been told tlint we should reach Or«iva thftt night, 
uid wet? vety mueh disappointed to tee that the sun had set 1)«fore ne 
emaged from die Clidsura. 

It was a Imantirul cieninjr. The rir^r was now tlin>n lime;} lu wide tiM 
hofbre, and the mountains Uegiin n^in to be covered with ^I'eii herbage. 
ilvrc and there wild glena and deiUes aflorded a g^linipte into the interior 
of the cxmntry. All was ai .lilent as if we were ti-avellin^ through tlie 
primeral forasta, alone some ini^rhty Arncrieint riv«r. On the Au«triiui 
fide the solitary fire oi a military p<i«t lit up the hcipfliti here and tliere; 
and on the Servian side, the mounlolns were more freqoentJy aitd brightJy 
illllininated by lires kindled to frighten away the bears. We liad all 
' &sted the whole d&v, with the exception of our breakfast on b')ard tho 
ftmnboftt, and all bewail to feet uxtrvinely well tiidiiicd for soinctliing 
to ««t and drink. Tiiv ehildnni antiplainetl n little, llioiigh tn a very 
Biodcst maMncr^ of beiug vtn-y hiiHE^y »iid lliiraly, piuticularly as they were 
ivrappod up in their cWks, and forbidden to niu nbout any more. Una 
of our passengers, therefore, who had liberally |ini>ided for his own wanta 
upon the journey, look pity upon us, and prodneed a Utile tea-sen-ice, 
with Bome surar, btscuibt, and glaatsn. One of the Jews on board struck 
a li^kt. and lit a fire, another fctclicd water, and very soon a r^ry com- 
fortable kettle of hot water was bailing for ten, orer a pleasant little fire, 

TIiv little ones were fed and sniiilied : and we grown Up children en- 
joyed our oops of wortn tea tltat diniii>cd more comfert, aitd gowl liuiuour 
among us at that moment than the best cliampagne or tokay eould have 
dniio under diflTorenl rircuniftaneea. Here was again a picture I would 
.liua have painted, but for want of a pencil, I eoutcnted myself with iin- 
[amuDg the scene i^tou the canvass of my meiiuuy. 


As it f{7«w darker, our boatmen took eon to keep tcy the Austrian nido. 
This was very necessary, for if we were not to keep within ught of tba 
Austrian sentinels, we iliould be considered to liare incurred iufectioo, and 
■houtd be subjected to (juanintiiie on arriving at Oraova. 

We oould not get our boatmeu to declare positively whether the; 
thought we should reach Orsora that night or not. Our unecrtninty waSi 
Bowavar, soon terminated. " /-ay ti hrayi !" ihouted a sentinel from llw 
Austnan sida I did not uodenland the cry, but tho towers did, and im- 

* These are the Wslochkn narats lor the throe friciciiMl whiripooli. 

9M A inonr on tiis uilitabt proxtieb. 

irt****' r >ow»d tawKfds l&nd. Wbcii w« rpached th« peat, «• nn at 
£nl forbiddcii to pioct-«d, hut on our uning iiinn^ {KrivuBBTe remonstnuieM 

and arfrrniMiits, l£c soldirra comulted togctbrr, and agreed tliat Uktc ynts 
adH lifjfht eixnii^h for us to r«ach Uw next i c n tty post, and that tlie srati- 
dcJn tlicre mjfibt dedile tipon oar fitrther proocMU^ ' A««Mdinglv Utey 
Mtnt a noklicr lato our boat, by n»y of escort or fj, and m wen allvirad 
to go oo. W« proriwdMi wilh our tea-driiiking in all powbla good- 
Intmoor, tmtil ihe unvttrhvrme sound, " La^ n Amt/i," a^in rt^oundc^ 
from tlu! It«i^hu. Here w« wcra coinpcUod t<i diKinbark, and we did §o 
in tlx: cotifidtnit hope of h&ag allowed U) proceed utiiex a ^^uard of another 
■okbvr ; 1ml iki — tnc «orponu dedared toat it wux ittn Ut», and we must 
tpend tlw ui^^ht when we wete. Is vain w« poiulcd to Utc LuUm and 
cnildren, and remoartnted on ibo strtsnty of conipcUind; them to pot ap 
with the scantY accammcKLitioti! of x militiin- post In vaiD we llUHWillllwl 
that th«v mij^ht send as many eoldicrs 03 they pleoJ^d with HI, M a« to 
hiiidt-r till! nlig'liUt^t i-Iuiiii*« of any intareouiMwit}! 'I'tirkty. Thescutinab 
wen ivaf to all arguinetiu and appeals, replying that t)i«y could not tales 
upon tfaomsslvca th^ iw^Mnsibility of allowing us to go on, antl that we 
mtut stay wli«ra w« were. We werv iberefore obliged to submit, aud to 
•lUTt-niler ouraelvM prisonen to the noldien of lli« 13tK military ]K»t of 
liuf niyricO'Wabiehuui fronUer-rvf^inutnt. 

The pott wai called P1avi«h«ntsa, aRer a n^hbounttf; Walaclaan 
lilla^ of that name, into which wc now faaateued. to padcavour to find 
fome cjuarters more suitable t9 the sex and ngft of a port of cmr feUdw- 
jiiMiiiijj,!!!, thno iha littJe mntry -house, (iil«l u-ith tho rad« tnUlitry aS 
tlw frontioT. We Mnrclicd through tlic nhulc villagv, but fuuiid nothing 
cxce|)t thrmost miserable huts, which were nil Dbstinatclrcloaedagunitia. 

At lentil we i]c!terni!n«d tu look after the priest of the villige. lUl 
aeenwd to us a wipital idea. AVhere criuld wo be more YiMy to in»et wHlk 
civility and hn^pitidii.y, anil nlwre iie were ininv likely to find fit lodi^D^ 
for the ladies and childrtn ? We knocked. A fji^rantic man, with a 
g;lootny enuntenanN, nnd lon^ rag^rij bfnrd nnd hair, made hid appear- 
ance', clothc<l in a coiuvc linen ehirt and trouscn of the same niateriiu, over 
which \iaa throM-n a. loose cnftart. Wo spoke to him in tiemuui, but tlw 
TiUacv priest, for such he wius, appeared to know but two Gtrman words, 
whieh ho repeated iiiceManttvi wuking hit head all the time : " A'tA'« 
WirtAtkam f A'ik'* IVirtiuJiaut f" (No inn '. No inn !) We Iwgan to 
Bjwok in RuMiiuii, luid rntreatod liis hospitality, representing^ to bun tha 
holpleamcM of our «itiiation. Our arguiuenti, now ppifvctiy midcntood, 
softened hif heart, and be agreed for a reoAotuthlo rcmunumtion to allow 
tlie ladien and children to occupy hit two bcdstctsdi. and the only room in 
iut home, a miserable place enough ; and moreover, be midertook to pro- 
enre tiiem a httlv miik and bread iar Eupper. 

The ladies who lind rciniuncd on board the boat, w«rt> now fet«hetl up^ 
tov»tJier with the ehildreu, of whom wc vaeh l/wk one in our arms. Tna 
lames ond ehitdrcc took poasesaion of tl>c two bods ; tlie pRMt with his wife 
ftnd childivu ttrrtclml iheituclvcs in tlio aebea by the lire : onr RaguMui 
lay down upon his cloak before th« door, and 1, nij friend, and the Kreuch- 
Bian, returned to take up our qtmrten on the shore. Here wc found two 
litlle carta, wlucb the Walocbiui hoyan had obtained, and in which they 
were detemuiied todrirethoreni&iaiii^soniniiulestoOrsoTa. TheTurkisa 



Jrvs and Senmu wen alttbAtA m the Msds bv the rire^side, wrapped 
in th^r fitif, KMiie tmojcinff, torn* talking, Kod oUien ■lo^nng'. Som* wera 
l^iii;* nn th« bcndiM And trunks in iho bo&L 

The scatrybotuc or Ttfiardai, Mtootl on tbe height imincdiatcljr orer- 
looking Um taodt. It had two divuioos, on« for tlie watohfirc, aiid tba 
other for the midicn tn K\ttp in. Hvforo thii little chfid, onder tbe pm- 
jecting roof, the men hu] piled their arnin. Thrro went ux or ttrcn »!• 
dien at the Tshardak, and their dresa like their political conttitiitioii, wat 
half military and half pciMnt-liko. Orer tho oiual peasant's frock they 
wotv knapMck*, fnatcncd to a Iratbern strap. Tbetr )«^ were wtappM 
in Knai or wooUcn cloth, and their feot covered with those saniUla, last- 
«ned with red Undingi, oooudod ta mnst ecutem Slarooian nations. Thejr 
woire peasants' cape, and in«a( of them had t% kniA< sticking is the girdle. 
Ilioae who were oa watch, nrnrrhnl up »ii(l down hefore the Tshanlak 
with ■ reiy unai)li£«^ gait, and with tliv lin^ nimk>it thrown clunuily 
OTcr tlw ehooldor. Fnr the eorlon aan-ifo oti whidi lh«i> inmi urn am- 
plovcd thev are admirably fitted ; ob parade they woukl certainly not sbov 
to adranta^. They ore truly a nu&orHM maicula milirvm proln*. 

All the aoldiera of tlin mnlier regimanta an now tnnght the (icrman 
laniiruaf^. Moat of tht-m forget it as faf t aa thev leani it, except the few 
military phrases they are in tJte daily habit of using, but tbe non-cotninis- 
sioned onicers generally spenk German toleraUy well. 

W* were verj' hungry and thtrxty, and asked the sol^en whether w» 
could hare some bmul (tbe Frenchman hod actnally the conscience to ask 
for white bread) or »onie dried fish, or a piec* rS haoon, or a glaoa of milk, 
or Baki, the DomnMin liquor of the eoimtry. Hhvj rfi ni gyeo thnr aheol- 
ders. anil sa»d they bad no sudi duiuties, bnt Ihey would get as pWty of 
water from the river, and would mix us KMne flour and water and boil it 
into a namaHga. A fire was accordingly kindled, nrae floor and water 
p«t into a kolUe, and a thick gruel bopq prepared. Ooe of tbe eoldiera 
HOugfat na » BUla aalt in a wooden spoon, and another tome powdered 
cheeae. Tint nipper waa certainly no finut, bnt we were obliged to piit up 
widi it. At for the Frenchman, he protected tliat the first nwuthfiil abnost 
«bohcd him. 

As wv were Mitiiig round the fire, the cry of the •entinel, " Hold ! Who 
goo f was heard. It was a mevcugvr with a letter. The coiponU im- 
racdialdv despatched one of the a<daicn with it to the next post In ■ 
little wlule tiie sentinel hailed again. " A friend " was the rvply. It was a 
patrol sent out by the chiefs of the cordon, to mo that all was tight at th« 
ailFerent potts. Sometimee tbeae ehieft themselvea make the orctut from 
post to post, without any pnTtoHl wsraiog. 

Once more the unwearied mnitiiiel reptutted Ms challrngTi and leoetred 
a friendly answer. It wm the n«w guard, come to relieTe the otfaara. No 
inUicn rcnuin more than ecven days together at a sentry |>ost ; tiicv are 
tiien relieved by ax or seven ntliera, wholikewisc rwtinin a week, breiy 
soldier spcoda uneCy days of the year en ffusrd at tlie«r pkeea. Encli of 
the new conctt bod in hm knapeack a bug, eontaining seven 0*a of 
flour, their sole proriaion for the tewn day*. Sume of them had also » 
little powdered sheep's cheese, and tome of tlicai, though not many, were 
tvron without salt — at leait lo they assured ns. Salt is verv dear npan th« 
MUJtary Frontier, tlsough extremely sbundaat on the Toifeiah ^ide. Th« 
•okBen look with longing eyes upon tbe shiploads of fino green saltt wfatcb 


poM k)on^ Ute Turkiih tide of tbo riror, and there u probably a ltttl« 
tmujiilj^lin^ auried on m io tcniptinf^ on nrticlc 

TIip »f>idiera had come rery far that dajr, having set off *arlv in th« 
morikinjif. Th«:y were very tirtd, and aft«r throwing th«ir tliicL bronm 
cloolu mcT tlicir weapons, the; stretched tltentfdvM on the g;nnind before 
the Tshardak, and imtnedistvly fi-11 aalN-p. I nortr ui* txt little Kconinio- 
datinn for a iT«ek*i lodging. Their arms atone nKeivLv) aiiy i-arv or at- 
tvutkiD. ^Ve lulced them ythy tlu-r d!<] not slwp uilhin the Tihanlak, 
but they rvplted that it «wan»<*J with mice and vermin, aiid that ibey 
almvs proferrad deepiDg in On ojwn nir. 

Toe liardthip* And [mvatlom to uhich the daHv Uro of th^M hardy and 
couragei)ii3 men is exposed, eren undur the nioet laTourablc circnniftanccs, 
it nlnuMt incredible. What miut it bo wh^u bud wt^alber renJera the 
country ciitirvlv iinpiuni>)r, and thvtsi them tip in tb« miaenble Tshnrdak, 
and w-licii IIh- mere kocpinp of Ihi-Jr weapons in f^ood coaditi<>ii, rvquircs 
inceisant labour and care. But when the alarm-bell beat* from the chief 
watrv'-houBes, when aij^nl fires are lighted from the heights, when perhaps 
ft rohberv i» pracloitncd, and lltv soldivry ha^-c to rvaiti tlie VQuutry wr 
daya togetiier, in search of banditti, to m'ovcr jMrliajH imnie miserable 
cloalci and giiiia, theii the frontier soldier is quite in his rlernvnt ! Then 
he sing* the warlike utngt of his eauutry, and 9liout« tlio pnusM of ^e 
Anatnaa emix-nir, for priration and hardahip are not felt hy llie liarJy 
bordertir, and war and tumult ore his delight. 

We seated ourselves ou the edg» of the height OTerhanging tho undf, 
to enjoy our foost of mamatiga and water, and the corporal tat down be- 
side UH, w itli hix knotted eorpond'i stick in big hand. The Coryjoi-al of the 
Military Frntittpr ia a king whoce tceptrw is tierer out of bi« hand. There 
is DO more certain way by which to win bis roral fkrour. than to oHV-r him 
• pipe of tobacco, ns wc now did. Uc iitmiodiately began to cnmtrsc. 

*' We have had pence for wriim time with the Servians." said the cor- 
poraL " lender Prince Milfwh tlic)- wc« kept in very good order, but 
since the new gxjvimiorV occcieion wc have bc«ii nblipcd to redouble our 
watchful II CM, and we know not how it will Iw in future, Tlio country is 
not od seeuru a« ours just n<Hr, for even their officers of govertunent must 
tlwayt go about armed." 

Now and then from the Servian xiilu we could h<-Jir the barking of dovs, 
the only sound which broke the silence aromid. Wp did not liear the 
howling of the woIvc« in tho forest, althou^fh we listeuod for it attentivcJrt 
for the borkinff of the dogs